Huns and Türks

Illustration Index

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Illustration 1: Huns 1000 !.....................................................5 Illustration 2: Huns 210 !.......................................................5 Illustration 3: "omponius #ela $ca. %0 A&'...............................( Illustration %: "tolem)*s Huns+E.Europian tri,es scheme..........( Illustration 5: HunsAt the ,e-innin- o. /e0 Era.......................1 Illustration (: 2)an,i 3a-anate 155+325 A&.............................1 Illustration 1: E.T4rks* ana,asis 2(5 5 %(5 A&.........................1

Illustration 6: 7est Huns 5th c. A&...........................................6 Illustration 9: 8u9ans+3ushans+Hephtalitesca A& 500................6 Illustration 10: 3ushan (th c. A&..............................................6 Illustration 11: :okt4rk :umile; ethnical lines (th c. A&........6 Illustration 12: 7. :okt4rk 3a-anate 1th c. A&.........................9 Illustration 13: 3ha<aria &omain 10th c. A&.............................9

=ne o. the ada-es heard .rom some> not necessaril) limited to less educated> proponents o. the Hun*s non+T4rkic ori-in> is that the T4rks did not e?ist ,e.ore the (th c. A&> 0hen the) assem,led their o0n state that 0as lar-el) con-ruous 0ith> and o;erlapped the state o. the Huns. That ar-ument is re.uted ,) the kno0n .act that names e;ol;e and chan-e> and the same people in di..erent periods are kno0n under di..erent names: a -ood e?ample are the )<antines> aka @omans> aka :reeks> aka Ionians> aka #acedonians> 0ho could not ha;e ,een possi,l) called )<antines ,e.ore the )<antine came a,out almost t0o millennia a.ter the Ionian :reeks reached alkans and esta,lished there :reek colonies> and could not ha;e ,een possi,l) called @omans ,e.ore the :reece 0as anne?ed ,) the @oman Empire. ut under e;er) name> their lan-ua-e is indisputa,l) :reek> and their ethnolo-ical distinctions are indisputa,l) :reek> e;en so at the time 0hen the) 0ere called #acedonians. I. in the toda)*s nomenclature the lin-uistic .amil) and the ethnos are called T4rkic> in other periods the) 0ere called Hunnic> 2c)thian> Tatar> etc. #ore than that> the main ,od) o. the T4rkic people consisted o. Tele tri,es> and the main ,od) o. the Hun people consisted o. Ai-ur tri,es> and it is a Buirk o. the .ate that the modern descendents o. the Tele people are called T4rks> and not somethin- like Telen-uts> Tele-u<es> Teleuts> and that the modern name o. the Huns is not Ai-urs. Another o,ser;ation a,out the Huns> T4rks> and 2c)thians is the ama<in- s)mmetr) o. their -eo-raphical and political de;elopment. At the da0n o. the historical period> 0hen literac) 0as limited to the #iddle Eastern area o. the inha,ited 0orld> 0e learn that the same people> called 3an-> le.t their .ootprint in the space spannin- .rom the #iddle Asia to the #iddle East. A millennium later> in the histo+ rical period> 0e ha;e 2c)thians> 0ho .rom their states in 2outh 2i,eria and Tu;a ;entured to esta,lish their states in the #iddle East and /."ontic> soon a.ter the 0a;e o. the literac) reached the Car East. In the later historical period> 0e ha;e Huns 0ho esta,lished their state co;erin- 2outh 2i,eria and Tu;a> reachin- .rom the #iddle Asia to the Car East> and e;entuall) esta,lishin- a state in the Eastern and !entral Europe. A .e0 centuries later> in the same place 0e see the T4rks> 0ho stretched their state .rom the !entral Asia to the Eastern Europe. All these e?pansions> in addition to the temporal s)mmetr)> ha;e a common denominator: these people 0ere horse+mounted 0arriors> the) produced ;ast herds o. horses> the) ;alued trade opportunities> the) e?panded .rom a steppe pasture area to a steppe pasture area> and the) settled in suita,le areas. Histor) le.t us traces o. these e;ents. I. the ethnon)m T4rk came a.ter a leader under that name> it happened man) centuries ,e.ore the name T4rk ,ecame an ethnon)m> and still more centuries ,e.ore the name T4rk ,ecame a politon)m. The .irst kno0n records o. the T4rks are millenniums older then the modern notions o. the lin-uistic .amil) and the ethnos termed T4rkic. DIn the mid+.irst centur) A& $i.e.> ,e.ore 50 A&'> Turkae DTurksD are mentioned there $li;in- in the .orests north o. the 2ea o. A<o;' ,) "omponius #ela.D E!. eck0ith $2009'> DEmpires o. the 2ilk @oadD> p.115> 3.!<e-led) $1963> DCrom east to 7estD'> ".:olden $1992> DIntroduction to the histor) o. the Turkic peopleD'F. In the mid+.irst centur) A& the /."ontic steppes 0ere occupied ,) 2armatians> the con-lomerate o. the European tri,es 0ere headed ,) 2armatians> 0ho ruled man) tri,es> and amon- these man) tri,es alread) 0ere the tri,es o. Turkae DTurksD. The Turkae DTurksD Dare also mentioned in the /atural Histor) o. "lin) the Elder $i.e> ,e.ore 11 A&'> spelled T)rkae DT4rksD. E!. eck0ith $2009> I,id'> p.115> &.2inor $1990> D!am,rid-e Histor) o. Earl) Inner AsiaD'> p. 265FD. These Gatin classical re.erences to the T4rks are direct and o;ert> and should ,e .amiliar to an) proponent o. an) Eurasian ethnolin-uistic theor)> the) should ,e comple+ mented ,) the topon)mic terms that are still mistreated as unkno0n pro;enance. In the #iddle Asia> at the same !lassical AntiBue time are minted coins that use the 0ord DT4rkD as an ad9ecti;al s)non)m o. the 0ord DstateD EA. #ukhamadie; $1995> DGin-uoethnohistor) o. the Tatar peopleH'F. Cor the same time>

"tolem) does not mention the /."ontic T4rks per se> ,ut instead places Huns and Ases in or around the present #oldo;a> places the Hunno+ ul-arian patentl) T4rkic tri,e 2a;ars ri-ht in the /."ontic se;en ri;ers area in the head0aters o. &on and 2e;er $2a;ar' &onets> and places A-ath)rs around the !arpat+ hian mountains conti-uous 0ith 2a;ars. These .acts re.ute the ar-ument that the T4rks did not e?ist ,e.ore the (th c. A&> e;en i. the non+e?istence ar-ument 0as not other0ise patentl) .ault). These .acts not onl) do not contradict the other .acts o. the Huns> 2a,irs> Ases li;in- north o. the literate Indians or north o. the literate !hinese> the) demonstrate once a-ain that pastoral tri,es can split and o;ercome -reat distances to -ro0 their herds 0ith a reasona,le pro?imit) to the tradin- markets. The) also lead us to ,etter understandin- 0h)> in dire times> the ,ulk o. population mo;ed across ;ast distances to re+ 9oin their kin.olk> an e..ect o,ser;ed o;er and o;er a-ain .or an) historicall) documented catacl)sm in the li.e o. the pastoral T4rks. Anlike the sedentar) T4rks> the pastoral T4rks melt a0a) in unkno0n direction> onl) to reappear a-ain in a ne0 location a0a) .rom .rom the dan-er. E?amples are plethora: Tochars+Ases mo;in- a0a) .rom the Huns> Huns mo;in- a0a) .rom the #on-ols and !hinese> T4rks mo;in- a0a) .rom the Ai-urs and !hinese> Ai-urs mo;in- a0a) .rom the 3ir-i<es and !hinese> and so on> all that in addition to the all instances that escaped a record o. histor). 2ima Iian stated> on the e;idence o. the precedin- !hinese records $ am,oo Annals'> that the Jion-nu*s rulin- clan 0ere descendants o. !hun0ei $D!hun tri,esH> another .orm o. codin- the 0ord Hun'> possi,l) a son o. 8ie> the .inal ruler o. the le-endar) Jia &)nast) $ca. 2010+1(00 !'. E5F ut the arri;al o. the pastoral nomads en-a-ed in horse hus,andr) in the East Asian steppes is dated to no earlier that the 12th c. !. The oldest phoneti<ation o. the name DHunD had di..erent !hinese .orms: in the earlier pre+historic period the Huns 0ere called Hu and 8un $8un-'> in the late pre+historic period the Huns 0ere called Hun+)ui> in the literate period startin- 0ith Kin &)nast) $1(00+10%( !' the) 0ere called :ui.an> in Lhou period $10%5M25( !' the) 0ere called H)an+)un> startin- .rom the Iin period $ 221+20( !' the !hinese annalists called them 0ith a derisi;e Hunnu $!h. Jion-nu> Dmalicious sla;eD'> as 0as stated ,) 2ima Iian. E(FE1F That the D+)ui/+)un/+9unD portion 0as a tri,al name compo+nent is a .reBuent re.erence in the !hinese annals> a most kno0n and direct e?ample 0as illustrated ,) 7an#an-*s chan-e in the 15 !E o. the Hun*s state seal le-end D.rom Dnon+semanticall) meanin-.ulD hiero-l)ph DshanD 單 0ith identicall) soundin- hiero-l)ph DshanD 單 meanin- Dkind> -oodD. A.ter the chan-e o. the hiero-l)ph> the title $ 2han)u' assumed a meanin- D3ind KuiD or D:ood KuiD .D E6F $.rom Jion-nu !han)u Ji/Hunnu !han)u 2eal to Jin Hun-nu !han)u Lhan-//e0 Hunnu :ood Ku ad-eN another chan-e 0as .rom O.erociousO to Orespect.ulO N an) rendition that does not displa) these chan-es is non+authentic translation .rom !lassic?al !hinese to modern !hinese' D7an- :uo0ei... came to a conclusion that the tri,al names .ound in the sources> :ui.an> Hun+i> 24n+)ui $H4n+)ui'> 2)an+)un $H)an+ )un'> 8un $8un-'> &i> and Hu desi-nated one and the same people> 0hich later entered histor) under a name 24nnu $Hunnu'D E9F e.ore the ad;ent o. the Imperial period in the !hinese histor)> the relations ,et0een nomadic pastoralists and settled a-riculturists 0ere Buite amica,le. 2ima Iian recorded that in (3( !E> D#u+ -)un> a "rince o. the 8in principalit)> enticed Kuiui tri,e> and ei-ht possessions o. the 7estern 8uns to su,mit ;oluntar) to the House o. 8in: .or this reason .rom the Gun 0est0ard 0ere located -enerations :un+ch9u $Hun tri,es'> :uan+8un- $:uan Huns'> &i+0an $&i tri,es> apparentl) a reduced 2ini.ied .orm o. Tele'> .rom the Ii and G)an mountains> .rom the ri;ers :in+shui and Ii+shui to the north 0ere located 8un-s o. the -enerations Ikui $T0o Ais'> &ali $:reat Gi'> Ach+9) $Three tri,es> apparentl) 3arluks'> and 2ui+ )an $2ui tri,e'N .rom the 8in principalit) to the north 0ere located 8un-s o. the -enerations Ginhu and Geu.anN .rom the Kan principalit) to the north 0ere located -enerations &un+Hu $#on-ols' and 2han+8un $#ountain Huns'. All these -enerations li;ed dispersed in the mountain ;alle)s> had their o0n so;erei-ns and elders> .reBuentl) -athered in a lar-e num,er o. clans> ,ut could not unite.D E10FE11F The alliances 0ere rein.orced ,) mutual matrimonial unions that produced hal.+,reed o..sprin-s> and 0ere ,ene.icial to the principalities> as the) -ained instantaneous rein.orcement ,) the ca;alr) troops. The record o. (3( ! si-ni.ied a milestone in the T4rkic+!hinese relationsN the pre;ious s)m,iotic relations are alluded to in the annals> ,ut are not speci.ic. Crom the (3( ! on> the process o. mutual lin-uistic enrichment lasted until 0ell into the #odern A-e. A num,er o. philolo-ical 0orks addressed the su,9ect> a most prominent o. 0hich 0as the cardinal 0ork o. #.8.Hashimoto DAltaici<ation o. /orthern !hineseD> 0hich ,rou-ht a solid .oundation under man) prior o,ser;ations.

Ander the name &i> the Tele tri,es appeared on the pa-es o. histor) in the 6th c. ! in the territor) o. the a state> and .rom that time on the) are acti;e participants in the !hinese histor)> numerous times culminatin- in their o0n ri-ht as creators o. their o0n states in the territor) o. the modern !hina: !hen- Han $303+3%1'> Cormer Iin $351+39%'> Gater Gian- $36(+%03'> 3i,ir $(05+(10'> 2e)anto $(31+(%(' 3a-anatesN and 3imak $1%3+1050' 3a-anate in the #iddle Asia outside o. !hinese d)nastic pur;ie0N as decisi;e .orce in the .ates o. man) !hinese and Hunnish/T4rkic/Ai-ur T4rkic states> and a main participant in the #iddle A-e Eastern European 3ipchak state $10(0+1230' and #on-ol Empire. In the !hinese annalistic records> the Tele tri,es appear as a po0er.ul .orce used as mercenaries or allies .or centuries> in;aria,l) re+appearin- a.ter an) calamit) under a sle0 o. di..erent names ,e.ore and a.ter codi.ication o. the !hinese annalistic script> and in;a+ria,l) 0ith their distinct nomadic culture. The a and 2hu de;eloped their o0n 0ritin- s)stems> one picto-raphic and t0o possi,l) phonetic scripts> still undeciphered. The ancient histor) o. the Tele ended 0ith their inclusion in Hun state> 0hen direct re.erences to them appeared onl) in the descriptions o. the con.licts ,et0een the Tele and Huns. !hinese chronicles carr) numerous statements on the lin-uistic and ethnolo-ical closeness or identit) o. the man) Hunnic tri,es. Amon- them are direct statements: + 7eishu $102: 22(6' and eishi $91: 3219+3220' sa) that the customs and lan-ua-e o. DKue,an Jion-nuH 0ere the same 0ith the :aoche $P !hile> Tiele Q Tele Turkic con.ederationN Kue,an Q D0eak HunsH> i.e. a lesser splinter o. Hun massi;e'. + eishi $96: 3210+3211' -i;es the ancestr) le-end o. the the :aoche 0hich link them 0ith the Jion-nu . ++ Lhoushu $50: 901' and eishi $99: 3265' state that the Tu9ue $T4rks> :Rk T4rks' 0ere a separate ,ranch o. the Jion-nu $Huns'. + 2uishu $6%: 1619' states that the ancestors o. Tiele $P !hile> Tiele> Tele' 0ere descendents o. Jion-nu $Huns'. + Jin Tan-shu $211: (111' sa)s that the ancestors o. Huihe $AiSurs' are the Jion-nu $Huns'. All Turkic scholars kno0 the ,asics> are acBuainted 0ith A,u+l :a<i and the like -enealo-ical sources> and kno0 the Huns as their ancestors. The list o. the past non+Turkic eminent scholars 0ho ackno0led-e that the Huns 0ere Turkic co;ers the 0hole alpha,et: Altheim> a<in> ernshtam> !ha;annes> !lauson> de :ui-nes> E,erhard> Cranke> :rousset> :umile;> Haussi-> Hirth> Ho0orth> 3laproth> 3rouse> Gin :an> Gou.er> #arBuart> #a Lhanshan> #c:o;ern> /emeth> "arker> "elliot> "ricak $"ritsak'> @adlo..> @emusat> @ou?> 2amolin> 2<as<> and 7an- :uo0ei. The onl) complete sur;i;in- Hunnic phrase lea;es no dou,ts that the Huns> Ai-urs> Tele> and their man) kins spoke T4rkicN that phrase 0as uttered in 311 A&> centuries ,e.ore the tri,e called T4rk -ained u,iBuitous .ame> ,e.ore the Huns -ained omnipresent .ame in Europe> and millennia ,e.ore the ;er) concept o. the T4rkic lan-ua-es had .ormed. =ne must tr) hard to ,e an o;erl) Buali.ied philolo-ist 0ith ma-ical sli-ht o. hands to su,ter.u-e the o,;ious:
!hinese En-lish Transcription 24Z) tili-an> "u-u*B4i tudan/tudar !)rillic Transcription [\]^_ `_a_bcd> Tebe*fg\h `eYcd/`eYcV #odern T4rkic 24Z) dile-an> "u-u*)u tutar T4rkic in !)rillic [\]^_ Y_aUbcd> Tebe*\ `e`cV Translation Arm) head*d take o..> 7ould capture "u-u TUVUWXY iVjUUf kXhYU`> lcmWc`_` Tebe

/ot onl) all the 0ords ha;e T4rkic roots> ,ut the a--lutinati;e -rammar is the same too> +Z)> +-)u/)u> +-an> +dan are all listed in the #.3ash-ari dictionar) 0ith the same .unction. The last consonant in the phrase could ,e ,oth +n> and +r transcri,ed in !hinese as +nN the modern =-u< conditional a..i? +)u 0as supposed to sound +-)u in =-ur. The !hinese chroniclers should ,e -i;en ample credit .or accurac) o. the phonetical rendition> the T4rkic lan-ua-e must ,e -i;en credit .or sta,ilit) o. the a--lutinati;e lan-ua-e> so in.initel) contrastin- 0ith the .le?i;e En-lish or "ersian. The pro,a,ilit) that a random 2%+ phoneme phrase in one lan-ua-e 0ould match e?actl)> phoneticall) and semanticall)> a 2%+phoneme phrase in unrelated lan-ua-e can ,e calculated ,) an) hi-h school -raduate> and it 0ould reBuire printed 9*s to .ill e;er) scrap o. paper on this Earth. The Eastern and 7estern Huns ,elon-ed to the =-ur lin-uistic .amil)> toda) it is modestl) called 3arluk -roup. In the AntiBue "eriod> the =-ur .amil) 0as much more ;isi,le then the =-u< .amil)> due to their pro?imit) to the literate southern populations. Crom the ethnon)ms and recorded relicts o. the lan-ua-e> the =-ur -roup included> in addition to the Huns> the Tochars> 3an-ars> Ai-urs> 3arluks> ul-ars> 3ha<ars> 2a,irs> A-ath)rs> A;ars> and tentati;el) e;er) other ethnicall) distinct population that ends its name on +ar/+er/+ir/+ur. !on;ersel)> the =-u< .amil) should include the tri,es 0ith the ethnon)m endin- on +a</+e</+i</+u<> ,ut that does not happen. The historicall) attested =-u< tri,es> 0ith historicall) attested =-u< lan-ua-es> carr) all kinds o. ethnon)ms e?cept those endin- on +a</+e</+i</+u< $and +ash in !hi;ash> and +i< in Edi<'. That indicates that the tri,al ethnon)ms are older then the +r/+s split> and the tri,es on +ar/+er/+ir/+ur do not necessaril) ,elon- to the =-ur -roup. The su,9ect o. the A</As tri,e is a separate topic> historicall) the) 0ere a..iliated 0ith almost e;er),od) in the #iddle Asia area> e?tendinas .ar as as the #iddle East> as A<+kishi o. the Ass)rians> and !entral Europe and the Car East. The .act that the Ases 0ere T4rkic does not raise an) dou,ts> their predominant a..iliation 0ith the T4rkic or T4rkic+in.ected #on-olic lan-ua-es is a pre;ailin- e;idence o. their lin-uistic pre.erences. Crom the -limpses o. the historical records> it appears that the +r/+s split happened 0ithin the 3an-ar tri,es> producin- the t0o pra+ethnoses> the 3an-ars and the Ases. The Ases 0ere located north o. 3an-ars> or at least occup)in- hi-her altitude> mountainous areas> 0ith a pro?imit) to the mountain tai-a> 0hile the =-ur 3an-ars pre.erred the open steppes o. the 3a<akhstan and Takla #akan + Tarim asin. !orrespon+ din-l)> the =-urs predominatel) remained purel) steppe d0ellers> tied to the ri;ers and the oases o. the deserts> 0hile the =-u<es ad9usted to the .orest+steppe econom)> and had to co+e?ist 0ith the .oot hunters o. the tai-a .orests. In the ne?t chapter o. histor)> 0e encounter the =-ur Huns alread) in a matrimonial union 0ith the =-ur Ai-urs $perhaps centuries o. coe?istence ,et0een Huns and Ai-urs as permanent marria-e partners o. the d)nastic tri,es led to a le;elin- o. the Ai-ur lan-ua-e> ,rin-in- it closer to the =-ur dialect o. the Huns'> carr)in- titles and ethnon)ms e?pressed in the =-ur ;ernacular> Huch9i and !h9uki> and Ich9its)> and 8ich9o> and !h9ilur> and Cuch9ulei> and Kuech9ies> and Kun+!h9un> and in the name o. the 0i.e Kanch9)> Da,tiD> that re.lects the T4rkic/Ai-ur term .or a 0i.e> DattiD. Ai-urs> 0ho ,elon-ed to the Tele tri,es> 0ere o. the =-ur -roup> .or us that at .irst si-ni.) that the Tele tri,es 0ere not necessaril) all =-u<es> and secondl) that o. all the Tele tri,es the =-ur Huns sin-led out the Tele =-ur tri,e o. Ai-urs .or a matrimonial union. The T4rks> and other =-u< tri,es> in the 2nd c. ! remain outside o. the =-ur po0er structure> to the detriment o. the =-ur tri,es. 7hen the !hinese polic) o. corruptin- and di;idintheir most po0er.ul ad;ersar) ,ore .ruit> the =-u< Tele tri,es rose in re;olt> and completed the demise o. the Huns* dominance. 7ith the po0er structure o. the Hun*s state se;erel) in9ured> the Hun tri,es and the tri,es closel) associated 0ith Huns ,ecame .luidi<ed> and .lo0ed to sa.et). A small part o. the Huns 9oined their ,rethren 0ho kept occup)in- the parts o. the Huns historical domains anne?ed ,) !hina> these Hun tri,es continued their autonomous e?istence under dominion o. !hina> and the) remained a po0er.ul ma-net .or ;arious Hunnic tri,es durin- discord times in the .ollo0in- millennia. A ;er) si-ni.i+ cant part> num,erin- hal. a million population> 9oined their 2)an,i #on-olic ad;ersaries> chan-in- their alle-iance> ,ut -enerall) remainin- intact in their pre;ious areas. Another si-ni.icant part leap.ro--ed their northern Tele .oes> and esta,lished a ne0 domain in the 0estern #iddle Asia> e?tendin- .rom the /.!aucasus to alkhash. The initial Gate AntiBue Huns* domains included the tri,es o. ul-ars> 2u;ars $2a;ars'> E<-ils> and 3an-ars. 7ith time the no0 7estern Hun con.ederation included Alans> A-ath)rs> 2c)thians> 2armatians> /."ontic T4rks> European Huns> Ases> a part o. the :ermanic tri,es> and A-rian #a-)ars. i part o. the altic tri,es 0as destined to ,ecome 2la;ic tri,es> .rom the Turkic Os4ln4O + OspeakO. 7hen applied to the name o. the 2la;ic peoples> the term sho0s that in the ,e-innin- it 0as

e?oethnon)m .or those alts $and pro,a,l) not onl) alts' 0ho 0ere alto+Turkic ,ilin-ual> and su,se+ Buentl) it ,ecame their o0n non+di..erentiated ethnon)m> 0hich coe?isted 0ith the prior ethnon)ms> and 0hich su,seBuentl) di;ided a-ain into separate historical and ne0 ethnon)ms $s4ln4 o Dslo;oD Q D0ord> speakD o 2la;> 2lo;ak> 2lo;ene> etc.'. The Asian T4rks> 0ho 0ere a separate ,ranch o. the Eastern Huns> ,ecame prominent mem,ers o. the 2)an,i con.ederation> 155+235 A&. The T4rks* kin.olks> Ta,-aches $!h. To,a'> ,ecame a rulintri,e in the 2)an,i con.ederation. In 2(5 the T4rks e;acuated .rom =tuken and =rdos to Hesi> and in %(5 the) e;acuated .rom the Hesi to the Altai mountains. &urin- the dominance o. the 8u9an Eastern Hun 3a-anate> %(0+5%5> the Asian T4rks and other =-u< tri,es 0ere in;oluntar) mem,ers o. the 8u9an 3a-a+ nate. In 552> the Asian T4rks replaced 8u9an Huns .rom the dominatin- position> and took o;er the leader+ ship o. the 3a-anate> no0 kno0n as the T4rkic 3a-anate> and Buickl) e?panded its control o;er the 0hole o. the !entral and #iddle Asia> a,sor,in- the !aucasian Huns and /."ontic ul-ars. Thus the T4rk*s Dseparate ,ranchD o. the Huns restored the Hun*s state o. #ode> and e;en e?tended its ,ounda+ ries. Gin-uisticall)> the tri,es o. the T4rks ,elon-ed to the =-u< .amil) o. the T4rkic lin-uistic tree> 0hich 0as directl) documented in the epitaphs 0ritten in the 2o-dian and T4rkic runi.orm scripts.

Illustration 1: Huns 1000 !

Illustration 2: Huns 210 !

Illustration 3: "omponius #ela $ca. %0 A&'

Illustration %: "tolem)*s Huns+E.Europian tri,es scheme

Illustration 5: HunsAt the ,e-innin- o. /e0 Era

Illustration (: 2)an,i 3a-anate 155+325 A&

Illustration 1: E.T4rks* ana,asis 2(5 5 %(5 A&

Illustration 6: 7est Huns 5th c. A&

Illustration 9: 8u9ans+3ushans+Hephtalitesca A& 500

Illustration 10: 3ushan (th c. A&

Illustration 11: :okt4rk :umile; ethnical lines (th c. A&

Illustration 12: 7. :okt4rk 3a-anate 1th c. A&

Illustration 13: 3ha<aria &omain 10th c. A&

=ther re.erences /. ichurin Hunnu> =ihors> etc p.Taskin Eastern Huns 3 c. ! + 2 c. A& p.Taskin Eastern Huns 3 c. A& + 5 c. A& p.Taskin 3i)an Huns 3 c. A& + 5 c. A& Ku.Lue; Ethnic Histor) o. Asuns Ku.Lue; Earl) T4rks: Essa)s o. histor) Ku.Lue; The 2tron-est Tri,e + E<-il Ku.Lue; Tam-as o. ;assal "rincedoms Ku.Lue; Ancient T4rkic social terms !ontents Huns &atelines Alan Dateline Avar Dateline Besenyo Dateline Bulgar Dateline Huns Dateline Karluk Dateline Khazar Dateline Kimak Dateline Kipchak Dateline Kyrgyz Dateline Sabir Dateline Seyanto Dateline

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