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National Security Council Staff NSC was created in 1947 and was intended to ensure that the president

dent would take into account professional military advice in planning national security policy Harry Truman was suspicious of the congressional creation and did not use it much until the Korean War in 1950 The council itself has four statutory members: the president, vice president, secretary of state and secretary of defense When Eisenhower came to the office as an executive secretary the influence of the staff was ensured because he built an advisory system of interagency subcommittees organized around the NSC staff The NSC staff was no threat to the domination of foreign policy by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles After the Bay of Pigs Invasion failed, John Kennedy leaned more heavily on his national security assistant, McGeorge Bundy Kennedy encouraged Bundy to form a Little State Department Bundys staff was small fifteen to twenty professionals Bundys development continued under Lyndon Johnson During the Nixon administration, the White House capacity for advice to the president independent of the Departments of State and Defense was firmly established Kissinger reorganized the NSC policy development process and he played the major negotiating role in the opening to China, the SALT negotiations with the Soviet Union, and the Vietnam peace talks NSC staff strength was cut a bit under Jimmy Carter Zbigniew Brzezinski ensured that the NSC adviser would play a powerful role in the administration Secretary of State was Cyrus Vance Ronald Reagan was determined to cut the influence of the national security adviser and the NSC staff The Iran-Contra affair demonstrated the dangers of too much secrecy and centralized control President Bush had one of the most tightly knit national security teams in the recent past James Baker was the Secretary of State

Richard Cheney was the Secretary of Defense Brent Scowcroft was the National Security Adviser The Gulf War was in 1900-1991 Bill Clinton chose Anthony Lake as national security adviser Warren Christopher was the Secretary of State Secretaries of Defense were Les Aspin and William Perry Since World War II the coordination of the huge national securtity bureaucracies has become a major challenge

Office of Policy Development (Domestic Policy Staff) The New Deal proposals of Roosevelt were virtually all domestic policy Ted Sorensen took care of much of the domestic agenda for John Kennedy Joseph Califanos primary job was coordinating Great Society legislation and implementation for Lyndon Johnson Nixon created the Domestic Council John Ehrlichman was to be its director and he recruited a staff of sixty to seventy by 1972 Nelson Rockefeller Vice President Stuart Eizenstat and his staff of forty to fifty were influential advisers to Carter The domestic staff was changed to the Office of Policy Development (OPD), with a staff of about forty under Martin Anderson, who reported to Edwin Meese OMB Director Richard Darman Chief of Staff John Sununu Clintons National Economic Council staff, however, did play an important role in domestic policy making

Glossary:
Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. was a United States Army general who served as the United States Secretary of State under President Ronald Reagan and White House Chief of Staff under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. He also served as Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, the second-highest ranking officer in the Army. He was the second of three career military officers to become Secretary of State. Arthur Frank Burns was an American economist. He served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 1970 to 1978.

The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. The Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful action by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba, with support and encouragement from the US government, in an attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. The invasion was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States. On 4 April 1961, President Kennedy approved the Bay of Pigs plan (also known as Operation Zapata. Cyrus Roberts Vance was an American lawyer and United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. Prior to that position he was the Secretary of the Army and the Deputy Secretary of Defense. As Secretary of State, Vance approached foreign policy with an emphasis on negotiation over conflict and a special interest in arms reduction. Vance was the Secretary of the Army during the John F. Kennedy administration. Daniel Patrick "Pat" Moynihan was an American politician and sociologist. A member of the Democratic Party, he was first elected to the United States Senate for New York in 1976, and was re-elected three times (in 1982, 1988, and 1994). He declined to run for re-election in 2000. David Alan Stockman is a former U.S. politician and businessman, serving as a Republican U.S. Representative from the state of Michigan (19771981) and as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (19811985). He served as special assistant to United States Representative and 1980 Presidential candidate John Anderson of Illinois, 19701972, and was executive director, United States House of Representatives Republican Conference, 19721975. Domestic policy, also known as public policy, presents decisions, laws, and programs made by the government which are directly related to all issues and activity within the country. Domestic policy is the set of laws and regulations that a government establishes within a nations borders. It differs from foreign policy, which refers to the ways a government advances its interests in world politics. Domestic policy covers a wide range of areas, including business, education, energy, health care, law enforcement, money and taxes, natural resources, social welfare, and personal rights and freedoms. The Domestic Policy Council (DPC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering domestic policy matters, excluding economic matters, which are the domain of the National Economic Council. The council forms part of the Office of White House Policy which contains the DPC, the National Economic Council and various subordinate offices, such as the Office of National AIDS Policy. The Director of the DPC is titled the Assistant to the President and Director of the Domestic Policy Council . Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States, from 1953 until 1961. As President, Eisenhower concluded negotiations with China to end the Korean War. On the domestic front, he covertly helped remove Joseph McCarthy from power but otherwise left most political actions to his Vice President, Richard Nixon. Edwin "Ed" Meese III is an attorney, law professor, and author who served in official capacities within the Ronald Reagan Administration (1967-1974), the Reagan Presidential Transition Team (1980), and the Reagan White House (1981-1985), eventually rising to hold the position of the 75th Attorney General of the United States (1985-1988). Meese was considered a powerful and influential figure inside the White House. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States (1933 1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he facilitated a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000. Bush was sworn in as president on January 20, 2001. Though he originally outlined an ambitious domestic agenda, his priorities were significantly altered following the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001.

Gerald Rudolph "Jerry" Ford, Jr. was the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and the 40th Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974. The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States promoted by President Lyndon B. Johnson and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. Harry S. Truman was the 33rd President of the United States (19451953). As President Franklin D. Roosevelt's third vice president and the 34th Vice President of the United States (1945), he succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when President Roosevelt died less than three months after beginning his unprecedented fourth term. Truman had been vice president for only 82 days when President Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. Henry Alfred Kissinger is a German-born American academic, political scientist, diplomat, and businessman. He served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as Secretary of State in the administrations of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. After his term, his opinion was still sought by many following presidents and many world leaders. The IranContra affair was a political scandal in the United States that came to light in November 1986. During the Reagan administration, senior Reagan administration officials and President Reagan secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of an arms embargo. James Addison Baker III is an American attorney, politician and political advisor. Baker served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagan's first administration and in the final year of the administration of President George H. W. Bush. Baker also served as Secretary of the Treasury from 19851988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the George H. W. Bush administration. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States (19771981) and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office. As President, Carter created two new cabinet-level departments: the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology. John Daniel Ehrlichman was counsel and Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Richard Nixon. Ehrlichman worked on Nixon's unsuccessful 1960 presidential campaign, and his unsuccessful 1962 California gubernatorial campaign. He was an advance man for Nixon's 1968 presidential campaign. Following Nixon's victory, Ehrlichman became the White House Counsel. John Edward Sununu is a former Republican (GOP) United States Senator from New Hampshire, of Lebanese and Palestinian Christian ancestry. Sununu was the youngest member of the Senate for his entire six year term. He is the son of former New Hampshire Governor John H. Sununu. On November 4, 2008, Sununu lost his re-election bid to former governor Jeanne Shaheen. John Foster Dulles served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world. As Secretary of State, Dulles spent considerable time building up NATO and forming other alliances as part of his strategy of controlling Soviet expansion by threatening massive retaliation in event of a war, as well as building up friendships. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the youngest man elected President and he was the youngest to die. In 1956 Kennedy almost gained the Democratic nomination for Vice President, and four years later was a first-ballot nominee for President. Millions watched his television debates with the Republican candidate, Richard M. Nixon. Winning by a narrow margin in the popular vote, Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic President.

Joseph Anthony Califano, Jr. is Founder and Chairman of The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University, an independent non-profit research center affiliated with Columbia University in New York City. He has held many posts in the United States Government including United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare from 1977 until 1979. He is now one of only two living former secretaries of Health, Education, and Welfare (the other is his predecessor, Forest David Mathews). The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China (PRC), with military material aid from the Soviet Union. Legislative Strategies Group is a full service lobbying firm specializing in state and local governmental affairs, issue development, grassroots campaigns, and strategic development. It helps clients craft clear and effective messages and deliver those messages to law and policy makers, the public, organization members, and grassroots leaders. Leslie "Les" Aspin, Jr. was a United States Representative from 1971 to 1993, and the United States Secretary of Defense under President Bill Clinton from January 21, 1993 to February 3, 1994. Aspin ran as a peace candidate in 1970, opposing the Vietnam War. In the Democratic primary he was opposed by Doug LaFollette, who was endorsed by the party. After losing the initial count by a few dozen votes, he demanded a recount and won the primary, by a few dozen votes. The Little State Department-In 1961, President John F. Kennedy and his special assistant for national security affairs, McGeorge Bundy, began a fundamental transformation of the National Security Council (NSC) system and the role of the special assistant. With his own staff of experts who became policy makers in their own right, and with inclusion in the administration's highest decision-making councils, Bundy performed more like a Cabinet official than a presidential aide, in effect becoming the first "national security adviser". Lyndon Baines Johnson often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (19631969) after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States (19611963). He is one of only four people who served in all four elected federal offices of the United States: Representative, Senator, Vice President and President. Johnson succeeded to the presidency following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, completed Kennedy's term and was elected President in his own right, winning by a large margin in the 1964 Presidential election. Martin Anderson is an economist, policy analyst, author and was one of President Ronald Reagan's leading advisors. McGeorge "Mac" Bundy was United States National Security Advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson from 1961 through 1966, and president of the Ford Foundation from 1966 through 1979. He is known primarily for his role in escalating the involvement of the United States in Vietnam during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. McGeorge Bundy was "Kennedy's Kissinger". As Special Assistant to the President for National Security, he was a key player in all the great international events of John F. Kennedy's presidency, including the botched invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. A Member of Congress (MC) is a term used for a politician who has become qualified, appointed or elected, and inducted into some official body, typically to represent a particular constituency in a legislature. In countries with a parliament rather than a congress, the term Member of Parliament (MP) is often used instead. The National Security Council (NSC) is the President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inception under President Truman, the Council's function has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. The National Economic Council (NEC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering economic policy matters, separate from matters relating to domestic policy, which are

the domain of the Domestic Policy Council. The NEC is composed of numerous department and agency heads within the administration whose policy jurisdictions impact the nation's economy. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller was the 41st Vice President of the United States (1974-1977), serving under President Gerald Ford, and the 49th Governor of New York (1959-1973), as well as serving the Roosevelt, Truman and Eisenhower administrations in a variety of positions. A member of the Rockefeller family, he was also a noted businessman, art collector, and philanthropist. Rockefeller, a Republican, was relatively liberal and his views were generally closer to those of the opposing Democratic Party. The New Deal was a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a Cabinet-level office, and is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). The current OMB Director is Jacob Lew. The Persian Gulf War, commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from thirty-four nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of the State of Kuwait. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. The only president to resign the office, Nixon had previously served as a US representative and senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961 under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950. Nixon served for eight years as vice president, traveling extensively and undertaking major assignments from Eisenhower. Nixon waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and lost a race for Governor of California in 1962. Following these defeats, he announced his withdrawal from political life. However, in 1968 he ran again for the presidency and was elected. Richard Bruce Cheney served as the 46th Vice President of the United States (20012009), under George W. Bush. Cheney's political career began in 1969 and he held several positions in the years that followed: White House Staff Assistant in 1971, Assistant Director of the Cost of Living Council from 1971 73, and Deputy Assistant to the president from 19741975. Richard Gordon Darman, known as Dick Darman, was an American economist and businessman who served under five U.S. presidents but is best remembered as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget during the administration of George H. W. Bush (19891993). Richard Vincent Allen was the United States National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1982. Allen is president of the Richard V. Allen Company, a Washington-based consulting services firm. He provides consulting services to international companies and organizations. Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States (19811989), the 33rd Governor of California (19671975) and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor. As president, Reagan implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives. He was reelected in a landslide in 1984, proclaiming that it was "Morning in America". "Morning in America" is the common name of an effective political campaign television commercial which was part of the 1984 U.S. presidential campaign of Republican Party candidate Ronald Reagan. Roger Blaine Porter is an American professor currently serving as the IBM Professor of Business and Government at Harvard University. He was selected as a White House Fellow (1974-75) and served as Special Assistant to the President and Executive Secretary of the Presidents Economic Policy Board (1974 -77) in the Ford White House. Secretary of State or State Secretary is a commonly used title for a senior or mid-level post in governments around the world. The role varies between countries, and in some cases there are multiple Secretaries of State in the

Government. In the federal government of the United States of America, there is one Secretary of State, the most senior political appointee responsible for foreign policy (that is, equivalent to a Foreign Minister). The specific powers and duties of this office depend on the constitution and laws of the particular state, but they often include responsibility for overseeing elections within the state. The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991. The Soviet Union was a single party state ruled by the Communist Party from its foundation until 1990. Even though the USSR was technically a union of 15 independent Soviet republics, its government and economy was highly centralized. The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Unionthe Cold War superpowerson the issue of armament control. There were two rounds of talks and agreements: SALT I and SALT II. Stuart Eizenstat is a partner at Washington, D.C. law firm, Covington & Burling and senior strategist at APCO Worldwide. He is married to Frances Eizenstat, and has two sons and six grandchildren. From 1977 to 1981, he was President Jimmy Carters Chief Domestic Policy Adviser, and Executive Director of the White House Domestic Policy Staff. Theodore Chaikin "Ted" Sorensen was an American presidential advisor, lawyer and writer, best known as President John F. Kennedys special counsel, adviser and legendary speechwriter. Sorensen was President Kennedy's Special Counsel & Adviser, and primary speechwriter, the role for which he is best remembered today. He was particularly famous for having helped draft the inaugural address. The United States Department of Defense is the U.S. federal department allocated the largest level of budgetary resources and charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the United States armed forces. The United States National Academy of Sciences' Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) is a board of the United States National Academy of Sciences. The mandate of the Board is to integrate understanding of scientific, technological, and economic elements in the formulation of national policies affecting the economic well-being of the United States. Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. The President of Vietnam is the titular head of state and the nominal commander-in-chief of the military of Vietnam, serving as the Chairman of the Council of Supreme Defense and Security. The Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of government, presiding over a council of ministers composed of three deputy prime ministers and the heads of 26 ministries and commissions. Warren Minor Christopher was an American lawyer, diplomat and politician. During Bill Clinton's first term as President, Christopher served as the 63rd Secretary of State. He also served as Deputy Attorney General in the Lyndon Johnson administration, and as Deputy Secretary of State in the Jimmy Carter administration. The Watergate scandal was a political scandal during the 1970s in the United States resulting from the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the Nixon administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement. The White House is the official residence of the President of the United States, recognized worldwide as a symbol of the prestige of the presidency. Built between 1792 and 1800, the sprawling 132-room mansion has been used as a home by every President since John Adams. The East Wing of the White House principally serves as offices for the First Lady and her staff. The First Family's quarters, located on the second and third floor of the historic White House, provide them with privacy and comfort away from the public spotlight. The West Wing is home to the President's office and those of his top staff.

The White House Chief of Staff is the highest ranking member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States and a senior aide to the President. William Anthony Kirsopp Lake, best known as Tony Lake, (born April 2, 1939) is the Executive Director of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), author, academic, and former American diplomat, Foreign Service Officer, and political advisor. He has been a foreign policy advisor to many Democratic U.S. presidents and presidential candidates, and served as National Security Advisor under U.S. President Bill Clinton from 1993 to 1997. William James Perry (born October 11, 1927) is an American businessman and engineer who was the United States Secretary of Defense from February 3, 1994, to January 23, 1997, under President Bill Clinton. He also served as Deputy Secretary of Defense (19931994) and Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (1977-1981). World War II, or the Second World War (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nationsincluding all of the great powers. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski is a Polish American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman who served as United States National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1981.