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Materials engineering


Outline of todays lecture Alloying elements The effect of carbon The effect of alloying elements on
microstructure Grain size softening during tempering Embrittlement during tempering Ductile-brittle Transition temperature Temperature of recrystallization Mechanical properties of ferrite Forming of carbides and nitrides

Basic alloying and impurity elements Basic alloying elements

! primer alloying element Mn ! austenite producing element Si ! ferrite producing element

Main impurity elements

S ! hot and cold brittleness " ! hot brittleness # ! gas inclusions $ #% & ! ageing

Effect of C% on properties annealed state

Contraction Z

Hardness HB, Strength (MPa)

Impact Energy , KV


Carbon %
Structura stee s !oo stee s

Strain, contraction (%) Imp. E (J)

Effect of C% on properties

Quenched state Annealed state

"on#heat treatab e

Heat treatab e

The effect of alloying elements on the properties of steel '( )( -( /( 0( 1( 2( Solubility ! ferrite or austenite producing e( &on-e*uilibrium + , transformation Austenite grain Softening during tempering Embrittlement during tempering Ductile-brittle transition temperature 3ecrystallization4s temperature

1. Does it dissolve in the steel

Does not dissol5e

"roduces inclusions6 disad5antageous S6 As6 "b7

Dissol5es better in ferrite ! ferrite producing e(
r6 Al6 Si6 86 Mo6 96 Ti

Dissol5es better in austenite ! austenite producing e(

&i6 Mn6 6 &6 u

Microstructure! C and alloy content

austenitic "lloy % "lloy %



"erlitic: Sec( em


"erlitic: Sec( em

Ferrite producing element

Austenite producing element



Change of transformation#s temperature

$. Effect of alloyng elements on non%e&uili'rium transformation

All alloying elements decreases the Ms and Mf temperatures6 e<cept o and Al( The present of residual austenite increases(
Deep cooling if necessary


T cur5es are shifted to the left(

The critical cooling rate is decreasing(

=ardenability6 trough hardening diameter increases(

Conditions of &uenching >mportance of *uenching? .ith *uenching@tempering $allotropic transformation% the properties can be influenced in .ide range( onditions
=eating to the temperature of A- : A0BC Deeping at constant temperature till material if fully austenitized ooling faster the the critical cooling rate( "ractical condition? E B()F


(ractical conditions
The alloying decreases the critical cooling rate and the Ms temperature(

C*+ MS G -/B C

5.ater 5oil
Effect of through hardenability


The trough hardening diameter The ma<imal diameter of a bar6 .hich can be *uenched to contain 0BF of martensite( see more? lab practice7
Martensitic layer

T cooling 5critf

Temperature distribution

Distribution of cooling rate

The efect of alloying elements on through hardena'ility

D Mn Mo r Si


9 o

austenitizing at I0B and ''BB C "lloying ,%-

"pplication of .omminy test results

9erification of material

=arness according to the standards

Technology information
Ma<imalJminimal hardness by *uenching =arness distribution in the cross section

Distance from *uenched end

/0 The effect of alloying on the austenite grain gro1th

Mn6 Si and B increases the susceptibility to grain coarsening Grain refining effect? Ti6 96 &b6 Al6 Kr
"roducing fine uniformly distributed nitro-carbides on the grain boundaries6 .hat decreases the boundary migration(

#ther has no significant effect of grain coarsening(

*0 The effect alloying on softening during tempering

Temperature of 1 hour tempering

Temperature of 1 hour tempering

+0 The effect of alloying on the em'rittlement during tempering

3mpact energy

Tempering temperature! 2C

r6 Mn cases brittleness if cooled at 0BB10BC 3eason? Enrichment of arbides6 nitrides6 phosphides at grain boundaries " maLes it .orse( &i together .ith r and Mn is disad5antageous B6)7B6-F Mo or B60B62F 8 and fast cooling is ad5antageous(

40 The effect of alloying on the Ductile%%'rittle Transition temperature

&i alloying shifts the >mpact energy!temp( diagram to the left(
'F &i alloying A)BC shift effect

Grain refinement helps as .ell

&b6 96 Ti6 Al6 Kr6 & microalloying A/BC

>mpact energy!temp( Diagram is shifted to right $maLes it .ost%

6 "6 &6 #6 B('F A)0C B('F " A00C B(B'F & B(B'F #


$as solution% $as solution%

50 The effect of alloying on the recrystalli6ation temperature

The alloying increases the heat and creep resistance(
86 Mo 9 r A''BC J atF A00C J atF A-BC J atF

lassification of steels

Classification according to
'% Steel production methods $old category% )% Structure at room temperature -% ontent of alloying elements

/% "urpose of utilization

Content of alloying elements

(lain ,car'on- steels
Because of the steel maLing process caontais una5oidable elements Mn M B(HF Mo68 M B()F Si M B(1F r6&i6 u MB(-F

Al6 Ti6 96 &b M B(B0F

"lloyed steels
- micro alloyed steels - lo. alloyed steels - medium alloyed steels - high alloyed steels NAlloy M B('F $Ti6 &i6 96 7% NAlloy M - F NAlloy M 'B F NAlloy E 'B F

7tructure at room temperature

austenitic "lloy % "lloy %



"erlitic: Sec( em


"erlitic: Sec( em

!erritic " !errite producing element Semi #erritic $ipoeute%toidic $ipereute%toidic

Lede uritic Semi austenitic Austenitic Austenite producing element



7tructure at room temperature

"erlitic Martensitic Austenitic Ferritic Bainitic

Structural steels
Automotic industry6 machine industry 6 steel structures Thoughness is also a re*uirement M B61F

Tool steels
Machining and forming tools 8ear resistance6 stiffness6 hardness hardenable6 precipitation hardenable alloys

Special steels andalloys

For one specific pourpose
=eat resistance6 corrocion resistance etc(

Designation of steels
According to different standards Most .ell-Lno.n standards? >nternational Standard #rganization American >ron and Steel >nstitute Society of Automoti5e Engineer American Society for Testing and Materials 37O "373 7"E "7TM

Designation of steels
E<ample? .erLstoffnumber
Material group Steel group ' ! steels ) ! hea5y metals - ! light metals / ! nonmetalic 7

'(/- BB <<
number Au< sign

7hort designation

sign S " ; E B 7

"pplication "rea Structural steel "ressure 5essel steel "ipe steels Steels for machines Steels for concrete 7

Main prop. 3e= $Mpa% 3e= $Mpa% 3e= $Mpa% 3e= $Mpa% 3e= $Mpa% 7

e.g. S)-0 ")20 E)-0 7

Designation according to chemical composition

(lain steels0 "lloyed steels0 '/&i rMo'--/ high alloyed steels: OH r&iTi'H-'B ))6 1B6 IB6 ')B

7tructural steels
A? hot rolled structural steels B? flat steel products for pressure 5essels Formable6 .eldable ? Steels for cold forming D? =eat treatable steels E? ase hardening steels F? &itridable steels G? other

"0 9ot rolled unalloyed structural steels

For general purpose =ot rolled of forged state ertificate? 3m6 3e=6 A6 D96 chem( comp an not be used in some cases
arbon e*ui5alent $ less than B60F6 see later%

9arious types E(g(? S)-0P3

"0 :ormalised rolled! 1elda'le! fine%grained steels

&ormalized during rolling Grain size number greater than 1 Au<iliary marL? &? normalised ;? impact energy )2 P at -0BC E(g(? S)20&6 S)20&;

"0 Thermomechanical rolled! 1elda'le! fine% grained steels Thermomechanical rolling? controlled recrystallisation during deformation &b alloying increases the recrystallisations Temperature The grain refinement is promoted by Tialloyinf Au<iliary marL? M E(g(? S-00M6 S-00M;

"0 Thermomechanical rolled! 1elda'le! fine% grained steels 33.

=ydrogene resistant steels "roblem? = maLes the ironcarbide dissociate
=igher temperatures peeds up the $TE)BBC % Tensile stress speeds up the process

Solution? stabile carbide producing alloying elements

r6 Mo6 96 8

Better heat resistance6 used in heat treated state #il industry6 refineries6 hydogene appliances

"0 atmospheric corrosion resistant ,1eatheringsteels

The steel corrodes( "ores( u6 r6 "6 &i6 Mo alloying $lo. contentQ% Forming of phosphatic6 sulphatic6 hidro<idic compounds ! closes the pores6 the corrosion stops( "assi5e layer6 red-bro.n color6 M B(- mm E(g(? S)-0PB86 S-00PB8"

"0 7heets and 'ands from high strength heat treata'le steels 8elded structures for high load at lo. or en5ironment temperature( ontainers6 bridges cranes etc( Au<iliary marL? R 8eldable but susceptible to cold cracLing E(g(? S/1BR;

B0 (lain and alloyed steels for elevated temperatures "lain steels $e(g(? ")-0G=%
Sield stress or creep strength is gi5en Steam boilers6 pressure 5essels Tp to A/BBC -

Alloyed steels$e(g(? ') rMoI-'B%

Mn6 Mo6 r6 96 &b and Si6 &i for .eldability boilers6 heat e<changer6 chemistry appliances6 flanges6 fasteners Tp to A0BB-0-BC

B0 ;elda'le fine%grained normali6ed steels

Three sub-classes
3oom temperature *uality $"7&%
T E -)BC

=eat resistant *uality $"7&=%


Sub-zero toughness $"7&;' and "7&;)%

&ot brittle e5en at TG-/B or -0BC

Grain size number is greater than 1 8elding? carbon e*ui5alent

B0 Cryogenic :i alloyed steels

The impact energy is prescri ed #or structures &elo' "()*C +i alloying !CC lattice not sensiti,e to em rittlement Selection according to temperature and thic%ness Accepta le impact energy e,en at "-)) *C Cooling and cryogen technology E.g./ 001n+i2"3, 0-+i04, 56+i7

B0 ;elda'le fine%grained thermomechanical rolled steels

&b alloying to increase the recrystallizations temperature Ti alloying to grain refining 9 and Mo alloying to strengthen Au<iliary marL? M E(g(? "-00M;'

B0 ;elda'le! fine%grained heat treata'le steels

Three sub-classes
3oom temperature *uality $"7R% =eat resistant *uality $"7R=% Sub-zero toughness *uality upto -/BC -ig $"7R&;'%6 up to -0BC -ig $"7R&;)%

Micro alloying elements for grain refining and strengthening $Ti6 &b6 96 &6 B% 8eldability is influenced by? thicLness6 input energy6 design6 .elding process6 electrode

B0 Corrosion resistant steels

Ferritic steels
8eaL corrosi5e en5ironmentU pressure 5essels6 food industry appliances Tp to -0BC '00-)'0 M"a yield stress

Martensitic steels
"ump parts6 5al5es6 turbine impellers Tp to -BBC -ig 0-B-0HB Mpa yield stress

Austenitic steels
8ide range of application From -'I1 to 1BBC applicable $F 6 no susceptibility to embrittlement after solution heat treatment6 there is no TTD9%

Ferritic-austenitic $duple<% steels

C0 Cold rolled flat products from lo1 car'on steels for cold forming
;o. carbon content6 ferritic steel 9ery lo. alloy content D B'7D B16 ? A6 or B ! surface *uality
A? surface insufficiency $e(g( scratch% allo.ed B? no surface imperfection allo.ed

Surface roughness grades

Shiny6 matt6 normal6 rough

E(g(? D B'Am

C0 Cold rolled uncoated steel 'and for cold forming

8ith less than 1BB mm6 thicLness lass than 'B mm un-alloyed and alloyed steel band designation?
Annealed $A% old rolled $ % SLin passed $; % Surface *uality MA6 MB and M

E(g(? D B- //BMB

C0 9ot rolled high strengh steel flat products for cold forming
For cold forming6 hot rolled6 .eldable high strength6 alloyed Thermo mechanical or normalizing rolled ;o. "erlite steels $Ti6 &b6 9% ! =S;A E(g(? S/)B& 6 S/1BM "lastically formable6 shearable6 bendable6 machinable 8elded structures6 automoti5e industry

D( 7teels

Dual "hase steels

5ery hard martensite finely distributed in soft ferrite matri<

Good strength6 good formability 8heels6 car body6 bumper6 .ires6 building structures

T<3( steels

T3ansformation >nduced "lasticity Ferritic-austenitic-bainitic microstructure after hot forming Austenite transforms to martensite during further forming car body6 5ehicle industry

D( = T<3(



3> steels

>nterstitial Free E<tra lo. content of alloying elements $-B-1B ppm% Good deep dra.ability6 formability6 no aging =ousehold appliances6 5ehicle o5erlay parts

B9 steels

BaLe =ardening ;o. carbon content alloys6 precipitation hardenable at A)BBC >ncreases the yield stress by A/B M"a though precipitation hardening $ and &% E(g(? after forming during painting 9ehicle body elements

D0 9eat treata'le steels

Must be tough enough and resistant to dynamic impacts Fasteners6 pins6 Voints6 beam structures6 .renches6 a<le6 cardan cross6 gears6 etc( Tnalloyed and alloyed steels "urpose of alloyinf?
>ncrease the trough hardening diameter >ncrease toughness6 decrease TTD9 >mpro5e fatigue resistance Decrease softening during tempering

D0 8nalloyed 9eat treta'le steels

#nly carbon6 no additional alloying element $e<cept elements from production% =igher toughness6 strength Small trough hardening diameter 8ear resistance can be impro5ed by surface *uenching 3m? 0BB7'BBB M"a6 3e=? -BB-0HB Mpa6 A? )B-''F6 K? 0B-)BF designation? nn6 .here nn G F Au<iliary marLs? E? S M B(B-0F6 3? B(B)B F M S M B(B/BF

D0 "lloyed 9eat treta'le steels 3.

Mn (1.4-1.65%) cheap >ncreased trough hardening diameter Susceptibility to o5er heating and embrittlement during tempering $fast cooling necessary% Must not be used for parts .ith ser5ice temperature belo. BC E(g(? )HMn1

D0 "lloyed 9eat treta'le steels 33.

Cr (even 2%) Most common alloying element Strongly >ncreases the trough hardening diameter and yield stress Good surface hardenability For lo. to middle stresses6 engine parts6 a<les E(g(? -/ r/

D0 "lloyed 9eat treta'le steels 333.

Cr-Mo (even 2% Cr, 0. -1.2% Mo) Mo eliminates the embrittlement during tempering r and Mo are strong carbide-forming elements6 tempering at higher temperatures $A1BBC % Significant strength and good toughness For middle sized part for high fatigue and impact loads( A<les6 parts .ith teeth E(g(? 0B rMo/

D0 "lloyed heat treata'le steels 3?.

Cr-! (0."-1.1% Cr, 0.1-0.2% !) Similar to r-Mo steels a little cheaper but .orse toughness For middle sized part for high fatigue and impact loads( E(g(? 0' r9/

D0 "lloyed heat treata'le steels ?.

#i-Cr-Mo(-!) (0."-1.1% Cr, 0.1-0.2% Mo) ;arge sized parts .here the fast cooling can not be realized( &i decreases the ductile to brittle temperature $TTD9% Mo eliminates the embrittlement during tempering Though hardening diameter increases significantly $A'0B mm% Engine parts6 cranLshaft6 *uenched@tempered state E(g(? -1&i rMo'1

D0 "lloyed heat treta'le steels ?3.

$oron steels Mn6 Mn- r alloying6 B micro alloying Though hardening diameter increases significantly Deli5ered generally in hot formed state Good toughness E(g(? )BMnB06 )2Mn rB0-)

E0 Case hardening steels

arbon content belo. B()F Tough core and .ear resistant surface layer A'F in the surface layer6 1B-1- =3 an be used up to the diameter of AHB mm $through hardenability% =eat treatable steels ha5e higher strength for the same toughness &o carburizing for fatigue loaded parts6 -0-/0 =3

E0 8nalloyed case hardening steels

Small size parts for modest loads pins6 gear pumps =arness? 00-1B =3 Tp to )B--B mm size E(g(? 'B6 '0

E0 "lloyed case hardening steels

Alloying elements are the same as those of heat treatable steels ;o. carbon content6 MB6)F r-Mo alloying for middle sized and loaded parts $bush6 pin6 gears% Susceptible to o5erheating6 up to the diameter of /B-1B mm Mn- r-Mo alloying for highly loaded parts $gears6 chain .heels6 a<les% up to the diameter of 2B-HB mm &i- r-Mo alloying for e<trem strong dynamic loads tough core6 high surface hardness

>0 :itrida'le steels

They are basically heat treatable steels Aim? 5ery hard .ear resistant surface layer Addition of nitride-forming elements $ r6 Al6 96 Ti% 3esults? .ear-resistant6 hard6 better fatigueresistance( Sensiti5e to high local pressures E(g(? -/ rAl&i2-'B

Other structural steels

Free-cutting steels Steels for roll-bearings Spring steels Steels and nicLel alloys for cryogenic and ;o.Temperature application =eat resistant steels and nicLel alloys Steels and alloys for 5al5es of internal combustion engines

>ree%cutting steels

For high performance machining cells aim? brittle chip S and S:Bi alloying E(g(? ''SMn-26 'BS)B6 //SMn)H

7teels for roll%'earings

=igh .ear resistance and fatigue limit arbon content B(H0-'('F - hardness S M B(B'0F6 " M B(B)0F6 # M B(6BB)F "olishing ! fatigue

Ruenching6 cooling to temp( $--BC %6 lo. temperature tempering ! 1) =3 E(g(? 'BB r16 'BB rMnMoSiH-/-16 'IMn r06 'H&i rMo'/-16 2BMn/6 D#?O10 r'/6 OHI rMo9'H-'6 HBMo r9/)-'16 OH)8Mo r91-0-/

7pring steels 3.

Storing of elastic energy =igh yield stress $'BBB-'-0B M"a% and acceptable ultimate tensile strain are necessary $1-HF% =eat treatable steels6 B(/-B(2F -content6 lo. temperature tempering $/0B-/HBC % For different purposes

7pring steels 33.

=eat treated springs from hot rolled steels by forming Si alloying6 3e= increases r-96 r-Mo9 high performance6 high dynamic loads E(g(? %&'i", 60'iCr!", 60CrMo%-2 old rolled narro. steels trip for heat treatment Good surface *uality6 3m up to )'BB M"a E(g(? C"5' orrosion resistant steels strip for springs For corrosi5e media

7teels and nic@el alloys for cryogenic! lo1% temperature and heat resistant application
Tnalloyed J alloyed $corr( resistant too% Applicable up to IBBC Mo? carbide-forming increases strength The corrosion must be taLen into account beside of heat-loading( E(g(? 42CrMo5-6, 25CrMo4, #iCr20(i)l (#i alloy), *10Cr#iMoMn#+!$15-10-1

&i alloying for lo. temperatures E(g(? 41#iCrMo"-%-2, *&#i , *6Cr#i1&-10

9eat resistant steels and :i%alloys 3.

"roblem? #<idizing of steelsW surface o5er 0BBC Austenitic6 ferritic6 austenitic-ferritic steel reep resistant and strength are the characteristic properties Alloying .ith r6 Si6 Al Applicable e5en at IBBC -ig Groin coarsening can be a problem &i based superalloys $not iron alloysQ%

9eat resistant steels and :i%alloys 33.

Susceptible to grain coarsening and embrittlement at -0B00BC and o5er IBBC 6 better in S-containing en5ironment6 e(g(? O'B rAlSi'H

Grain coarsening is not significant e5en at higher temperatures6 bet.een 1BB-HBBC the X-phase causes brittlement6 e(g(? O'B&i rAlTi-)-)'

>n o<idizing S-containing en5ironment6 e(g(? O'0 r&iSi)0-/

&i alloys
Pet engines6 rocLet industry6 e(g(? &i r)-Fe

7teels and alloys for valves of internal com'ustion engines

=omogeneous microstructure6 high alloying6 calculable thermal e<pansion ;oads? unsteady temperature6 corrosion6 o<idation6 fatigue6 striLe6 .ear Bars6 .ires =ot formable6 hard to machine Main types Martensitic 5al5e steel e(g(? *40Cr'iMo10-2 Austenitic 5al5e steel e(g(? *50CrMn#i#+#21- , #i,e25Cr20#+(i

9adfield steels

Austenitic6 high alloyed Mn steels A'()F 6 AB(/ Si6 A')(0F Mn >mpact .ear resistance6 hardening during .ear $cold forming% >nner not-hardened layer gi5es good toughness For dynamic and .ear loads 3ailroad s.itches6 e<ca5ator bucLet6

Tool 7teels

A? Tnalloyed tool steels B? =ot forming tool steels ? oldforming tool steels D? =igh speed steels

Aeneral re&uirements

=arness6 .ear resistance toughness =eat resistance 3esistance against thermal fatigue Appropriate trough hardening diameter

"0 8n alloyed tool steels

B(/0-'()0F B(/0F '(')0F

content ! 0/ =3c ! 1) =3c

#nly base alloying and impurity elements $Mn6 Si6 S6 "% For hand tools E(g(? C 0-, C100 T marL? un-treated state

B0 9ot forming tool steels

Ser5ice temperature o5er )BBC 6 but hardness and heat resistance e5en at 1BBC $-H-/1 =3c% Main alloying elements? r6 Mo6 86 &i6 o

arbide compounds! hardness at high temperatures losed-dies for forging6 die-casting dies

E(g(? 55#iCrMo!", *40CrMo!5-1

C0 Cold forming tool steels

Main alloying elements? Mn6 r6 Mo6 96 86 &i To increase through hardening diameter and impro5e strength 8ear resistance =ardness =eat-treated( Ser5ice temperature at room temperature $ma<imum '0B-'HBC % E(g( utting and punching tools E(g(? I0Mn8 r906 O)'B r8')

E0 9igh speed steels

For high performance machining( 1)-1/ =3c harness at A1BBC Main alloying elements ? 86 Mo6 96 o Special heat treatment method( $precipitation hardening% E(g(? =S1-0-)6 =S'B-/---'B

Corrosion resistant steels

A? Ferritic corrosion resistant steels B? Martensitic corrosion resistant steels ? Austenitic corrosion resistant steels D? Duple< $austenite : ferrite% corrosion resistant steels

"0 >erritic corrosion resistant steels

The alloying element forms a cohesi5e6 non-porous surface layer pre5enting the further o<idation( Ma< B(BHF carbon in ferritic corrosion resistant steels and A'-F r alloying 3e= A)HB--)B M"a6 AG'H-)BF Good formability and .eldablility Good corrosion resistance in .ear and modest corrosi5e media? food industry6 beer- and milL industry For some purposes? semi-ferritic steel increased strength $chemical industry% E(g(? *2Cr(i12, *6CrMo1"-1, *2CrMo(i2 -4

B0 Martensitic corrosion resistant steels

ferritic corrosion resistant steels are not strength enough higher content @ heat treatment =eat treatment? *uenching : tempering content? bet.eenB(BHF and '()F

Surgery blades6 scalpel6 needles6 food industry blades E(g(? *12Cr1%, *105CrMo1", *"Cr#i)l1"-"

C0 "ustenitic corrosion resistant steels

Ferritic corrosion resistant steels does not ha5e good resistance against strong acids( Austenitic steel
MB(B-F : A'HF r : A'BF &i $Mn6 u6 &%

r-cardibes form at grain boundaries by slo. cooling at 1BB-HBBC 6 .hich spoils the corrosion resistance
an pre5ent by alloying of Ti and &b

=ard to machine E(g(? O'B r&i'H-H6 O- r&iMo'2-'---

D0 DupleB corrosion resistant steels

=igh r and &i content A/B-1BF austenite at room temperature =igher strength Better stress-corrosion resitance an be applied as heat resistant steel as .ell( E(g(? O) r&i&)--/6 O) r&iMo u8&)0-2-/

Corrosion resistant steels