Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute

THE DOCTRINE OF METRES IN THE VEDA Author(s): G. U. Thite Source: Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 68, No. 1/4, RAMAKRISHNA GOPAL BHANDARKAR 150TH BIRTH-ANNIVERSARY VOLUME (1987), pp. 425455 Published by: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Stable URL: . Accessed: 21/01/2014 09:16
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In theVedicsacrificial verses of various kinds are recited. performance Theseversesare composed of theVedic age gave in somemetres. The ritualists in a mystic to the metres. They went on speculating verymuch importance manner on metres their in generaland individual, and also on magicoreligious themetres on thebasis of Vedic speculations significances.Now we shallstudy and tryto illustrate thedoctrine of metres in theVeda. of the word chandas (metre) Etymology of thewordchandas1 is givenby theVedictextsin three ways. Etymology In twoof them therootis thesame viz. chad. But the meaningsdiffer.Thus Mto coveretc." or "to theVedictextsderive thewordfrom chad either meaning we may thefirst please,to seemgoodetc.". Thus to illustrate way of etymology, TS V. 6. 6. 1 where referto it is said, " Prajãpatibuiltthefire ( -altar ). It kept did not approachit; they,clothing being razor-edged.The gods in terror, it and that is in the metres( chandas- ) approached ( chãdayitvã ) themselves " have that name. Similarly, whythdmetres JB I. 283 f.,thiswordsis derived from the rootchad to cover. Prajãpati createdgods. Afterwards Death was also created. Prajãpati advised the gods to protect fromDeath by themselves means of bringing metres. Then the Vasus, Rudras, Ãdityas and together Visvadevasbrought and Anustubh Tristubh, together Gãyatrl, Jagatï respectively, into themand covered[chad) themselves entered thereby. Now because the metres thegodsfrom themetres are called ) covered Death,therefore ( chandãmsi chandas- ( cp. JUB I. 4. 4. Iff.). SimilarlyChãU 1.4.2 derivesthe word therootchad to cover. Thus thegodsafraidof deathentered chandas from into the threefold science. They covered( acchãdayan) themselves with metres. " Because they withthese,that is why the metresare ) coveredthemselves ( calledchandas." AÄ II. 1. 6 also derives thewordsimilarly. " His ( of man) hairare Usnih,his skin Gãyatrl his flesh his sinews Anustubh, his ; Tristubh, bones JagatI,his marrowPañkti and his breathBrhatl. Since he is covered themetres are so called. NiruktaVII. 12 therefore, ( channah) withthemetres, also thewordis derived from thesame root( chandãmsichãdanãt). From this 1. Onthis IS VIII. 2 ff. seoWeber subject), ..54 RGB.

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Volume ABORT : E . G. Bhandarkar160thBirth-Anniversary

kind of etymology the meaningof the word chandas appears to have been ". According formulas to Vinayaka's commentary on áãnkhãyana protecting " is BrãhmanaXI. 5 by thewordchandas "protection metres ofthetextthrough to be understood tathã chãdayantidhiatvacchãdanãt ( paéavo yathãgrhastham chandãínsi varnãms chãdayanti safnghãtaniy amena bahirbhãvanivãranãt ). The etymological the the word of Vedic texts in connection with chandas attempts from of metresviz. coveringand protecting impliesthe magical significance the fearful things. As faras theactual sense of the wordchandas viz. metres, of Vinãyakaseemsto be acceptable. explanatiou in the Vedic texts is Another thewordchandas observed way of deriving from therootchad meaning to MS III. to please,to seemgoodetc.8 According 4. 7, thegodsafter Thenthey Death. afraid Asuras became of the killed having saw themetres thatpleased ( acchan• and entered into them. With everything dayat) them theycovered ( acchãdayanta) themselves.That is whythemetres and are calledchandas. Here boththemeanings of therootchad are mentioned 1 we themetres 2. VIII. are connected 5. withboththe activities. ŠB read, " Prajãpati,having .The gods gave askedforfood.. from freed himself evil,death, are cattle him that food,these to themetres ; and bricks ; forthemetres relating inasmuch him and cattleare food. They ( the metres ) pleased( acchandayan) the word as they are calledchandas". Fromthis etymology, pleasedhim,they chandas seemsto mean " thepleasant, lovelyaspectof a song"3. This etymology also throws of metres viz. to pleasethe lightuponthemagicoreligious significance listener thegods. particularly A quasi-etymology of the word chandas is foundat TB II 2, 8. 6 f. " killed( pressed Thus according to thistext, The gods,after having ) Soma said, 11 it again." They we have killedtheone whowas thebestof us. Let us produce •' are so-called. then produced (sw-) it by means of metres;thatis whymetres the text Here it is not clear fromwhat rootthe wordis derived. Apparently is derives it from therootsü to impel, etc. In that case the etymology produce of a magicoreligious significance It, however, obviously implies unsatisfactory. etc. chandas viz. to impel( thegods), to produce Numberof syllablesand of the metres and of feetof a metrehave of syllables In theVedicliterature thenumber feet is supposedto bo and of The number own their syllables significances. in variousrespects. powerful 2. Hauer, thesame from rootand according theword chandas , 0. 26,derives Yoga it originally meant an enticing to him magical song. this 3. Weber, cp. thesame, etymology; IS, VIII, p.8 accepts IS, I. 29,n; cp. also Wörterbml ') I. 404. 'VackQrnagelAG}IL 2.222;Myrhofer, Debrunner,

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) is to be recited and brahman-splendour. Sometimesattemptshave been made in the Vedic textsfor mystically Thus according to a storyPrajãpati. SimilarlyTristubh wentand came back havinglost one Syllables madea successful and brought not only however.7). According to thattext.157 on Tue. Gãyatrí. All themetres at thattimewereof four-syllables each only. 3. This content downloaded from 94.stone.26. it should be eight-cornered (ŠB III. Now thatwhich was created was flowing. 1 . sand.Th ite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 427 The GãyatrT-metre is said to be of eight foothas eight syllables. 1. pebbles.therefore theDlksanlyesti oftheAgnistoma-sacrifice. 2. Similarly story4 eightof the of Gãyatríis givenby AB III. 15. 27). whyGãyatríis eight-syllabled. from waters. thecake forAgni is to be baked on and it is theAgni's own metre eightpotsherds.thegodssmoteaway the evil. eight a mythological of the number syllablesis given. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . For Gãyatríis eight-syllabled of thesame sacrifice. ore. expláining created in thebeginning. the verily defilement" post shouldhave eightcorners. XVI. 4. fromstone. JA08 legend . 3. The Gãyatrí is eight-syllabled. In themorning-recital the sacrifice is a called or non-brahmin of and is performing abusingly ill-spoken is subjectedto defilement. This number of some ritualdetails. 4. cattle have eight thissãmanhelpsto obtaincattle ( JB III. thusby Gãyatrí he ( theHotr) smitesaway the evil. and as it flowed inasmuch thateight-syllabled eight times. 248). clay. here of has mysticalexplanation why Gãyatrí ). fromclay. For (AB II. syllabled (cp.23. watershe created foam. Forthis Cf. " Eight-syllabic (ŠV II. 4. First Jagatlwent to bring But she wentonlyhalfway. fromsand. 1.Bloomfiold. has eight-syllabled adãrasrt-sãman finale. 1 ff. by meansof Gãyatrí. 6. from and inasmuchas it was flowing( aksarat ). In hoofs. syllable. 25 ff. The sacrificial thepostis also Gãyatríis eight-syllabled.from foam. 1 ). 616 ff.therefore.soma was syllables in theyonder at first and gods tried world to obtainit withtheagencyof metres. VMB Till. SB IV. 1). 1 ff. cameback. the forepart of the sacrifice. Gãyatríwas produced ( SB a Thus VI. frompebbles. Its every syllables ( astãfcsaramha vã ekam gãyatrafn padam BrhU V. if the sacrificer who is ( AB 1. thedefilement.p. one obtainsstrength GãyatrI-verse. metal oregold. expedition thesomabut also thesyllableslost by the othertwo metresand became eightTS VI. 8). 17). withsomedifferences 2. then eighthundred versesare to be recited. felt weary and having lost three soma. Gãyatríis strength and brahman-splendour The Bharadvãjasya thereby" (TMB XV. Thus on the veryoftenservesas measurement ninth of the D Dasarãtra of the vãdasãhasacrifice a groupof eightverses day in theout-of-doors is a chant. Gãyatríis theforepartof thesacrifice. 16. a syllable ( aksara -) resulted therefrom. " For Gãyatríhas eight-syllables.

has eleven syllables. Tristubh three timeseach. a of mâny sacrificial also servesas measurement XXI. Thus be laid down. becomeseleven. let us tworecite somsãvom Adhvaryu's reply ). 13 etc.) and thisnumber of the fire-altar. Thus the number âre to be recited identical with the thunderbolt of Indra.26. Sometimes. Tristubh. 10. 2 the In at the time animals sacrificeos Räjasüya-sacrifice." For Tristubhis eleven-syllabled. 4. cattleis food. GãyatrIis said to be nine-syllabled. Similarly GãyatrI Ãtithyesti i.23.157 on Tue. (idhvaryo consistsof fivesyllables( viz. Similarly The be this of number elevenSämans are to used. one thereby viz.). Thus according a measurement oftwelvestepsfrom is to be laid downat thedistance theGãrha* Ãhavanlya-fire Hence patya-fire. are to be laid downin themiddle layer. strength. 12 etc. " Tristubh withvalour" ( KS XXII. withTristubh. 25). In theAgnistoma-sacrifice ( the call of the Hotr consistsof seven syllables( viz. 3. 141. " For Jagati Jagati withcattle. ). Jagatihas twelvesyllables. 7 ). 3 at the time heldin themiddle ). animalsbelong metre puts animals in his " ( MS III.Tristubh is might. It is moreover " Thus withthose whoknowsthusM ( AB II. 2 ). eleven Lokamprnã-bricks are to details. " For of twelvesyllablesindeedconsiststhe Jagatl-metre.f The " O Adhvaryu. syllables. power. elevenis sacrifice significance also similar(TMB XVII. 1. 2 in this strength ( power. Bhandarkar 150thBirthVolunté Anniversary Thus in the however. 3. whoseabode is Indrahe prospers is a partofa somasacrifice. This number to the opinionof some. 7. " to the means of sacrificer ascends heaven the he by Jagati (ŠB I. the eightwhichare in the thesacrifice. 12. themiddle is identical . verily " AB III. Out of them is beinganointed. a cake is to be which 3 ). thusfoodis layeris themiddle " SB VIII. 10. 15 ). " The Tristubh containseleven X. In case of rebuilding has eleven syllablesand Tristubhis valour. Again. ( ) a hymn with theHotrrecites of midday-pressing beginning janisthã ugrah ( This hymncontainselevenverses. TMB VI.428 ABORI' B. " This makesup twelvesyllables. In thecourseof fire-building-ceremony is twelve-syllabled. said to be containing is often twelve The Jagatl-metre syllables( dvãdasãalso servesas ksarã jagati ) ( JB I. of the eveningpressing . 12 at thethird-pressing place Jagatiin front thusthey ). verseand one om which is oftensaid to be eleven-syllabled The Tristubh-metre ( KS XIX. Rãjasuya might.GãyatrIhas ninesyllables is addedto it ( SB HI. The a baked is that the cake be is to reason nine on Atithyesti potsherds. G.O divine one ").It is Indra's to Tristubh. The Räjasüya is connected 99 AB is VIII. thereby ( ) twelvebricks called chandasyä 3. 13). 3. The Plava( This content downloaded from 94. e. the in the sacrifice. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . somävo daivom "Let us two recite. ). is is the the of the also half of front front sacrifice. In theanimal-sacrifice bakedon eleven potsherds. Whenthesacrificial one buildsthefire-altar post the firstand last sevenversesare to be recited.

Agni Pãvaka. 2. (SB VI. sword wooden basket(éürpa-). forthe sake of obtaining 390). withlightand brahman-splendour. 17 ).157 on Tue. 22 ŠB by the Agnihotra-offering measured process )• ( " the in the fire.Gâyatrïis the forepart of the in the courseof fire« sacrifice" (SB III. For Soma is of Virãj-nature ( ŠB III. In the of many sacrificial 7." syllables. 5.thesoma is withtenobjects.23. 8). The Virãt-metre is ten-syllabled ( daéãksarã virâtTMB VI. 195 ). The Then lightand brahman -splendour versedPavamänas in the first of usingtwo twenty-four sameis thesignificance the of establishing TMB 8. wedge ( éamyã ( krsn5jina')9 -). Plava-sãman twelve-syllabled to obtaincattle( JB. 3. " Gâyatrï has twenty-four áuci. Thus one establishes The is 2.twice one wipes( spoutof the Viräj-metre Twice one offers spoon ). metre" (SB steps broad in twenty-four " front. 4.Virãj is food. 17). grass is spread. details. The utensils is of also The the 1. 3. In tke also Gâyatrï worksas a measurement By this number versed. " Gâyatrï ha$ is twentyfourthe Agnistoma-laud Catustoma-sacrifice. 5. III. At time the firesa 2 XIX. and Agni cake on eightpotsherds in all. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Here also theten-syllabled thefire-building-ceremony Virãj is mentioned of a year-long sacrificial sessionthe as a measurement. 1. For Gâyatrïhas twenty-four syllables. agnihotra-laddle ( sphya (agnihotrahavani ). JagatIis twelvesãmanhas a twelve-syallabled syllabledand is identical with finalealso serves the Therefore with cattle. Thus thereare twenty-four potsherds Agniwithhis own syllables. 13 ) and thatof Virãj-bricks ( SB VIII. is offered to Agni Pavamäna. Gâyatrïis identical twenty-four can be obtained(TMB XIX." The Bhäsa-säman food" ( JB Ili Virãj hás tensyllables.). Adhvaryu tentimes. 8. twiceone eats (of themilk) and fourtimesone ladles. Again. sacrificial altar II. XIII. : winnowing are following tenutensilsare to be placedon it. 1. 5 ) bothof which is ten. black antelope-skin mortarand pestle ( ulükhalamusale) and the large and small millstones has ten syllables are heremeasured by Virãj which ( drsadupale). For the animal-sacrifice This content downloaded from 94. At thetimeof purchasing soma-stalks. the metesout them 3. 10).Thitb : The Doctriné of metresin the Veda 429 finale. 3. These are ten is Virãj ( ŠB II. Those tenutensils . 1. 2. 1. in themetre are tensyllables there Virãj and the sacrifice acts.26.) and this is also a measurement afterthe sacrificai courseoftheNew and Full moon-sacrificies. Apaciti-sacrifice ( ). On the Visuvat-day withtenstobhasis to be sung as theAgnistoma-sãman.Gâyatrïis Agni'sownmetre. I. potsherds( kapãlãni ). 5. 8 etc. 1. 18 ). 18). forVirãj cosists of ten syllablesand soma is of to be bought of the Sprt-bricks Viräj-nature (SB VIII. The number are laid downin 2. said to be twenty-four syllabledand then the Gâyatrï is sometimes consideration the three feet taken into of all is number together twenty-four of sacrifice.

8. as great syllabled. 11 ). 1. Agnibelongs " SB VI. The metre Tristubh servesas a means of measurement in the sacrifice by this n imber. 22 is hismeasure so much Tristubh him kindles by ( ). The fireaksarã virãj ) also servesas a measurement "For the Virãjbe thirty broad altarfora Soma-sacrifice should behind. 2. Thus the Anustubh-metre the total number of some sacrificial is a measurement details.430 ABORI : R. This makes the number consistsof thirty syllables} thirty. 2. one has to sow theseedsof all the herbs. forty-eight belong JagatI. Virãj. one draw9 whilegathering In theRäjasüya-sacrifice.7. 'Virãj Adhvaryu ( ) puts " " sacrifice ) ( SB VII. 1. as greatas Agni is.157 on Tue. withAnustubh. of the is given (SB XIII. detailsby Some other metres also becomemeasurements of the sacrificial has of syllablesin each of them. At the time of Vasordhãrã-offering. In the Asvaforty-eight-syllabled medha-sacrifice thereare forty-eight also the same In thisconnection offerings. 25 ). Anustubh sixteencups and offers as muchis thespeech. "This makes thirty-two. 242). 4. in the course of fire-building "For JagatI is one offers forty eightofferings.26. 3. fire is builtup. JagatIhas in all valour . 1. godsobtained by in thisworld and evenso doeshe ( thesacrificer footing by meansof Virãj ) now.). Tristubh thenobtainpowerand valour ( KS XXXIV.23. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 2. 6. Similarly the significance significance number the of humanof man to the at time bound central the forty-eight post • sacrifice is the same (SB XIII. "For are these desires to identical be one who to getcattle. 5). "The Tristubh-metre has fortyfour is powerand syllables. The thirty-syllabled Virãj ( triméad of somesacrificial details. " SB III. " The Virãj-metre food intohim is the he the the whole food thus whole . XXI. Bhandarkar160thBirth-Anniversary Volume versesare to be used. 4). Earlier to this fifteen jarfulsof wateris pouredand afterthis also fifteen jarfulsof wateris poured. and thisnumber thirtytwD syllables thewatersforconsecration. the cattle to one thus obtains cattle" (KS syllabled. Similarly Is sometimes said to be forty-four tristubh syllabled( catuécatvãriméadaksarã ). days by performed This content downloaded from 94. 10 The sacrifice of thirtytwo one getsconsecrated daysis thereby ( ). 8. In thecourseof theAsvamedha (the sacrificer is the are to be offered Here also thesignificance thirty Audgrabhana offerings same ( ŠB XIII. Q. steps a firm metre consists of thirty oí the means the syllables. 5. has thirtytwo syllables. they forty-eight syllables ( astãcatvãriméadaksarãjagati ) and this numberalso servesas a measurement in the sacrifice. 1.speechis identical " MS IV. " For GäyatrI building-ceremony twenty-four enkindling Is twenty -four to GãyatrI. stoma is used. sixteenofferings. 3. obtaina firm On the in thisworld footing place wherethe ( ). On theninth a fortyday of theDasarãtrain theDvãdasãha-sacrifice. Thus if the sacrificers desireto possess power ( ojaskãmãh) they should be forty-four in number and get themselves consecrated fora sacrificial session. 9 ) . This also helps to obtaincattlebecause Jagatïis eight-versed and is identicalwithcattle (JB III.

3. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . MS III. the twelve-day-sacrifice syllables IV. On each of the southern. 6 . Brhatl also form twoAnustubhs according ( AB IV. performs thirty days.26. to RV VII. 24). Thus clearhisbody. The Hotrpriest mixes versesin Usnih (28) and Brhati(36). sides. Thus in the Fire-building sacrificial layer. Similarly six Gãyatrís( 6x24 = 144) are equivalentto fourBrhatls (4x36 . For metresare not different (which has thirty-two is its fifth that it is two. shaken thepureand purified one goes to the gods. is of thirtyAnustubh these the speech. ŠB XII. 8 ). 11 . 4 f. Otherwise In that it has elevensyllables(This refers in that it has thirty-three syllablesit is Virãj has tensyllables ) it is Tristubh. havingbornanew. 2.157 on Tue. He mixes verses in the Hotr intertwins I. three the said to be mystically containing powers it is (mystically) Usnih and Gãyatrl (which also have threefeet each). 1. When RV 1-3 with verses in Gãyatrl ( ) thentwo Gãyatrl( 24 syllables ) are mixedtogether. A very of the syllaof the number statement in themysticism interesting " of reason one syllable of Metres are different metres is as not bles follows : by " is theVirãj-metre nor yet by two ( AB I. 3 ).( twelve-day said to be one of is mystically ) sacrifice " For one -six is for twelve one consecrated Upasads days. 28. Therefore " it has that In of five metres. 1 ) . This content downloaded from 94. ŠB VIII. holdscattle" ( TMB XXIII. fourtwo syllables. cp. ). getsautocracy ( KS XX. 9. having the twelve-day sacrificeis (mystically) one of thirty-six days''. twelvebricks becomethirty are put. 6. Similarly a is of some measurement of the Brhatl-metre (sattrímsadaksarã brhatl) the in middle details. One Usnih and one similarly to JB II. 3. 2 ff. bricks. "Brhatl has thirty of Brhatl" ( AB is the way . 1. ) and Pañkti ( 40 syllables Anustubh ( 32 plus 32 ) versescomeintoexistence ( AB IV. The counting of syllablesin a metreis not always very of the number comesintoexiststrict of syllables and objective. through thenumber thirty-six days. KB XXVII. the metres.Brhatlis identical one whoknowing withautocracy. 3 and 18.. 3. Thus they six. cp. The Dvãdasãha. 3 ). 4 ). fortwelvenights.Anustubh withAnustubh. 2. Thereare thirty-six syllathusputs the bles in Brhatl. Anustubh by syllables). Pañkti ( RV I. 161. Whenever a particular number metre the enceevenby combination then of twoversesof different having metres. havingpassed twelvedays continuously. feet.the ceremony. TS V. and cp. 89.144) and threeJagatls ( 3 x 48 = 144 ). 82. 3. 3). that In of nor one reason Virãj syllable yet ( power)" ( AB I. that particular numberof syllablescomes into existence.through has fourfeet footedare cattle ( Anustubh ). 2.23. Thus in the course of the Sodasl-sacrifice.Thite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 431 is speech. and northern western Brhatl-bricks are put.

. 92 ). and actual mentioning theritualtextsoften of themetres. 1 ). 9. VIIfp. In theAgnihotra-performance. 4). ëakvarï-metre. This content downloaded from 94. one praisesAgni standing nearby. forthe (viz. Of. The number and becomesvery offeetofthe metresis also significant oftena measurement details.5different of metresis specifically Instead the exact mentioned. response Adhvaryu's tripada gayatrï ( ). " For áakvarl has sevenfeet.432 Volume ABORl : iř. G. 6). While singing the Yanvasantani -sãman thePrastãva mustbe recitedthreetimes. For GãyatrIhas three to theGâyatrï-metre feetand themorning belongs -pressing has four feet( catuspadã which theTristubh-metre ( TS III. once. theirmysticalspeculations wellthe of sacrifice there is measured one viz. 9. khãdyam is fivefold . one obtainsthereby cattle" (MS L 5-6). 13ff. response Adhvaryu's tristubh) to theHotr'scall at thetimeof themidday-pressing viz. at different number of Although places. Similarly. 2.23. having sevenfeet( saptapadã éakvari) becomes a measurement the in sacrifice.157 on Tue. to activity. For has seven feet ¿akvarï vãcindrãya ( III. Similarly Thus the becomes a measurement in sacrifice. peyam sake of obtaining food" (TMBXII. Thus the number " For Sakvarïhas sevenfeet" JB III. IS. food is to be sungat thetimeof out-of-doors-chant. Among guiding principles of The measurements sacrifice number of metres intact. 9. Thus GãyatrI has threefeet of the sacrificial to the Hotr's call 1 TS III. 2. ( In thisway we observe that ( 1 ) thenumber of syllables as well as that of feet of metresis verymuch significant because it servesas a particularly measurement in many sacrificial details. a number mention number whichwill suit to on the ritual. 2. " For Paňktihas fivefeet. lehyamt cosyam: Sãyana). Thus theAdhvaryu's to theHotr's call at thetimeof thethird-pressing consists response " TS " of sevensyllables viz. Bhandarkar 150thBirth-Anniversary Numberof feet We saw above the significances of syllables in various of the number metres. The finalealso is to be sung thrice and thePratihãra is to be pronounced seven is made.26. Sacrificeis a proportionate. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Numberof metres there are manymetres. uktham . On the third v5ci' forTristubh of offiveverses the a sãman consisting in the Dasarãtra day Dvãdasãha-sacrifice. aiyam. 1 ). 9.Weber. at the timeof the morning-pressing consistsof threesyllablesviz. ukthaèãh. ( 3 ) thetheory of numbers is rather loose and mustbe understood mystically. (2) one gets some good resultsby thismeasurement number maintaining by themetrical supplied . offour consists syllables uktham has foursyllables(TS III. 4. cattle belong to Sâkvarl. keepthe varyaccording 0. The 2. withsevenverses.

J are three there Tristubh that and JagatT Similarly ¿B XII. g. Tristubh.then the Anustubh-metre is added. 3. withfourversesbecause the is to be gathered thefire-pan theclay forpreparing of Somaare four( TS V. are usedmost to AB. 300 we are thecarriers of sacrifice.. 4). 5). 1. 4 remarks. the number of metresis said to be three.. with the Somathis remarkin connection KPKS XXX. 120 teaches us. dependent on thesemetres . Similarly ( ). metre. The audgrabhaya-oftexvng mentioned above. JB II..TS fire-pan. Gayatrl. Tristubh. one addresses Fire withthewords. 2.(cp. of the metresis said to be fiveand to the metres thenumber At times in the is added. Thus forexample. Andit is quitein keeping thenumber of metres is mystically themselves told to be three. 21 it is said metres is also made to the numberof three ( cp. thethree themidday. pressings that of these threemetres withtheimportance 266).3. thesemany only are the metres.. (TB 1. KPKS XLI.Gayatrl. however. 360 ).and the third viz. 5 ).Thite i The Doctrine of metresin the Veda +33 to thecontext measurements because theritualists the particular wantto support in theritualon thebasis of thosenumbers. 5 and XLVI. themorning. c4Three metresverilycarrythe sacrifice viz.44 metresare. Here reference of are one by one put in contactwith these three metres Soma. 1.44 churning thisKS XXVI. 22. •' cp. 44 Thesemanyare themetres( etãvanti vai chandãmsi) 99 ( cp. above threemetres. forthesefourmetres according fourof the metresalso sometimes in the sacrifice.26. e.. 4 ).. sometimes 13I.. For the number theÃgrayana-cup belongs also KS XXV. is said to be four. MS III. To the of themetres thenumber Sometimes.. JB I. . Thus JB I.55 This content downloaded from 94.. 2.While digging one has to take spade withfourverses. The otherremaining Anustubh.23. race. At thetimeof Samsava ( confusion metres a Somasacrificers two which when non-friendly perform happens pressings or a mountain river not the and at sacrifice separated by places simultaneously ) because thesemany only are the metres( KS metres are givento four offerings sacrifice whenthe horsesare running XXXIV.157 on Tue. Having prescribed this. Havingmentioned Jagatï. 7 remarks.. 5 repeat 44 and The Aindravãyava-cup to Gayatrl. Paňkti-metre6 is to be performed by means of a verse in the AnustubhAgnistoma-sacrifice h in " Pánkfca-yajña 6. 2 44 For four are themetres V. Four metres JagatIand read. . pressings Now.theáukra to Tristubh belongs cups. KPKS XL. At the timeof theGayatrl Be bornafter out fire. 6. Cf. English paper Bsilcalpanyma^ p. 9. 1. At thetimeof theVãjapeyafor four are the metres over to are be four formulas recited them. threeof the metressee to Jagatï". 2. section. This number prominently the the earthfor preparing becomesa sacrificial measurement. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 2.

Cf. thetextssay thatthese are themetres KS 2. fifth foot.157 on Tue. "There are seven metresincreasing by four (syllables Respectively) The orderof theseseven metres. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thentheversebecomesa Paňkti-metre XXIII. Similarlyat the time of singingthe Rathantara-säman. Caland.metresare identical One thus obtainsthe whole speechby means of this offering (MS III. 7.Thus in thediksä48 times thisnumber ( ). 3. KS XXIII. Thenthelatter syllables verse. 86. Then it becomesa footof twelvesyllablesi. an offering of thecow withwhich On theseventh foot-step with speech. metres are seven there verses and obtainsall the as follows (32). for thereare seven metres. Usnih (or Kakubh) than the earlier. Therewithverses in seven metreseach fore one has to recitethe morning-litany stoma. For themetres Brhatïis the number of metresis said to be sevenand then Sometimes it and 1. At the time of " Creeping Here thenumber of metres is mentioned for the out ofdoorschant. G. becomes footof elevensyllables ing foursyllablesare to be added to the eightsyllablesof the secondeightsyllabled foot.23. accordingto some. of a Jagatïa footof GãyatrI-metre metre verse. ( the numberof metresis said to be six and then the metre Sometimes of the morningnamedKakubhenters intothelist. Thus in the recitation litany six metresviz. 6).171. sacrifice Tristubh. Anustubh servesas a measurement. 7. Soma is to be bought. GãyatrI. Out of the seven syllables of the firstfoot. and of seven has one characteristics of all thefivemetres. is said. e. for 2). L'Agni Henry. 23 added to the above six metres.434 A BORI : R. The ritualtexts. Brhati(36). 5. 1.each latter of which has four syllables more . p. 1. For the metres are six. metresare seven in number(TS VI. e. The third footis by itself of eight-syllabled as the verse. forthe the sacrificer -grass by seven stalks of darbha purified ceremony. Thus it foot syllables threeof eight syllables. however. Many is . 3. This content downloaded from 94. 1).mystically. Bhandarkar 160thBirthVolume Anniversary tha metre.I. The remaina Tristubh-metre a of i. (KB The gods invoked Indra in the morning by means of seven metres. The wordsvãhã which is addedto thisverse is to be understood verse. 8.7the brahman-priest creeps as the sixth. seven cubits long. The sacrificialpost to which the victim is bound should be. are six in number ). ene modifies 86). for the sake of makinga form of metres (KB of seven one sings an ajya-laud consisting X.JagatT.GãyatrI ( 24 syllables). Anustubh and Pankti are changedinto Brhatl-metre according " to be six. 3. three are to be attached to thefirst footof theeight syllables. Kakubh. 6. is to be made.26. JB III. 1 ). In SB IX. Tristubh(44) and JagatT (28). So he killsaway theevilbeingsby means of the metres( JB. MS III. in theAgnistomato MS IV. Paňkti (40). KPKS XXXV. 131 1. 8 ). In theAgnistoma-sacrifice XIV. Having shownthis. showthatthisverse contains. ( JB ( stobhati ) six syllables.

the metresare seven and since the sacrifice is extended whenone wears such a garland. 6 etc. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . sacrifice itselfas it were ( JB II. of sacrifice gayatrí Gãyatrlis said to be themouth cp. the IV. yajñamukham ( This content downloaded from 94.the sacrifice ( chandobhir to JUB IV. " The metres ) animalsof the satiate the gods and the gods satiate them. thereis the sacrifice. Thus we observethat the number ofmetres is tolddifferently at different and it varies three to from seven to the of ritual places according requirements of has the metres number numerous that and the chiefof mysticism. 3. it is said. 47 . one obtains of For are the metres the are seven whole and lordship speech. It is further gods. to some ritualists. One obtains ( svãrãjya ) by means of thesesacrifices becausethe metresare seven and theyare identicalwiththe of autocracy world ( JB III.157 on Tue. 17 ). 3.Thite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 435 In the Vãjapeya sacrifice. (MS I. SB I. 369).26. of metres metres SB to concept carrying ( ).e. 1. " By means of metres. are verily the ( draught ŠB IV. 3. KS XIV. 1. for there ares even metres. tayate JB II.).23. 2. 5. JB II.99 The metres theHãriyojanasoma-cup. According are inseparable and sacrifices each other from : " Wherever 12. 4. therelations of metres Now let us study and sacrifice moreclosely. By performing theseven-day sacrifice. one reallysatiatesthe said that by means of drawing " thesacrifice " 2 For 4. they theworldof autocracy speech( JB II. 301 ). 431 . 8. 1. 4. 8). 8. godssee also AB III. Onb then obtains food by means of all the metres. The Dvãdasãha-sacrifice esa sarvacchandä dvãdaéãhah are JB III. described body of that sacrifice-man. to be a man and the metresare sometimes is oftenmentioned Sacrifice of the the limbs as Thus MS III. for. 200. 1. 2. cp. Similarly used to are this also Thus is it other sometimes imply point. increasingby four syllables (TB I. 5. theversescomposed ) are used in the " statedby MS II. 301 ). expressions said. 200). is directly sacrifice are used in Verilyall the metres the sacrifice( sarvãni hi chandãihsi yajñe pray some ujyante)".the lotusgarland which is to be worn by the According sacrificer at thetimeof theDasapeya-sacrifice in the Räjasüya shouldconsistof seven lotuses. significances of thesacrificial themis to serveas a measurement details. there are seven Vãjaprasavlya-oí wears the by means of metres. Metres and Sacrifice That themetres in themetres (i.theyargue. KS VIII. 11.7). therethe " is said to be possessingall themetres sacrifice.9. the metres thereare the metres and wherever the metres. is stretched vai yajnas verily. The metres yad yajño (sa be to like the animals sacrifice to the Thus sometimes supposed carrying gods. SB XII. 4.

311 ). be to to various are said metres. Bhandarkar150thBirthAnniversary 8. 2. Whenthesacrifice departed we however. 11 . The sacriIV. fice in generalis also said to be belonging the sacrifice withGãyatrI (cf. 3. also Thus Some 431 ).436 Volume ABORl : i?. According is identicalwith theGäyatrI-metre. Jagati (JB III. Thus it will seem how sacrificeand metresare closely with each other. the sacrifice in general (TS V. 16.23. by meansof theBrãhmanaand metres findthat metresare said to be bornout of thesacrifice. TMB are said to be the nostrils( nãsike) VII. 9. 3. DvãdasãhaJB 317. According thegods. 5. is said to be from of metres origin of themetres can be evident and sacrifice fromthe The closeassociation horse in theAsvamedha-sacrifice is said to be examples. 1. 9 the thesacrifice. 6 remarks. belonging soma-cups the Aindravãyava cup belongs to Gâyatrï. 15. XLVI. The sacrificial following 2. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ( altar) to the Gãyatrí-altar Sometimesthe built up fire( ) is said to be belonging to AB metre(ŠB VII. although they similar. Therefore. 2. 1. Anustubh created the to III. metresin general. TS V. 24 11 metre are identified. Thus AB IV. 4. KS XXX. 1. 22 ). 2. it is sometimes Sacrifice is said. 6. 11).sacrifice ( JB II. the Dvãdasãha-sacrifice to GãyatrI(ŠB XII. in-breathing ) issuein a different said to be bornout of metres. from in different Kakubh8+12 + 8) they convey ways the sacrifice. JB II. 90. 431 ). 3. and breaths are the two each of thenostrils." AB IV. 1. Elsewhere. 6 identifies 3. 4. 27. It and Dvãdasãha-sacrifice theBrhati the extended is when Dvãdasãha is verilythe Anustubh-metre being being " Sometimes is said to be identical withAnustubh sacrifice in general extended. According part (SB I. 4. 250. 2. KS XXXIII. SB IV. 1. 4). 250. 4. ŠB IV. the Sukra to Tristubhand the to Jagati Ägrayana (e. g. also AB IV.157 on Tue. 7. ( sarvebhyo thesacrifice whichends withilã and JB I. Elsewhere Gâyatrï. 19 The built the Anustubh-metre to XIII. 7 ).Brhatiand Anustubhare said to be the threebellies ofthesacrifice ( JB I. 7). 28).JB III. Sometimes. 2. X. "The Sodasin (sacrifice) is verily fashionedout of all the metres sannirmito vã esa chandóbhyah yac chodaéï cp. KS XIX. of the sacrifice IH. 41. 5). 285). 3. the gods obtainedit back from sacrifice. 4. 4. belonging (SB metres be with the to identical in said is general(ŠBX. 1. connected This content downloaded from 94. Gãyatríis thenavelof thesacrifice-man. 3. 3 ). 5.therefore. TMB VII. G. Thus ßV X. metres the with after-offering general. 6. it is said thatGãyatrIgenerates is also said to have generated thesacrifice which has seven navels. 4. 23. 4. 2. 9 9. ( AB III. 2.26. 20 identifies to theVirãj-metre is said to be belonging 21 . 2. although beingthesamemetre ( Usnih 8+8 + 12. theUsnihand Kakubh-metres " of thesacrifice. Sometimes GãyatrIis said to be the foreto JB 4. ( out-breathing way. the identifies in withthe ¿B III. 45 ). KPKS. 3. up Fire).

KS thefire-pan is to be XX.. KPKS XXXI.. KS XXVI..26. antelope's deposited deposited on metres(SB VI. let the " TS VII. for similarcases cp. is to be made is addressedthus : the lump of clay out of whichthe fire-pan 11 fashiontheeby means of the Gâyatrï-metre . 8 ). . 6. 3. Thus in theFire-building metres' bricks ceremony chandasyã-bricks ( ) 1 1 are laid down (¿B VII.. implied be identical ( cp. 6). ). 6 . 7 ff. KS XIX. 10 .). and the metres the hair are metres 7. SB VI. 3 ff.. 9. 3. 2. 5. 1. SB IX.two Adhvaryus (viz. The becomes as it were.. Thus also have close connections I. thefire-pan wordsare uttered At thetimeof fumigating similar in whichfumigaTS IV. 58 . 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ( TB III. 1. 2.following the Gâyatrï-metre .. BaudhãSS X. KPKS XU. . May the Vasus Aňgiras-like . 6. 3. 4. tionis expected 6. Acchãvãka and are to Anustubh Nestr and andUsnih. It is sownup in a black-antelope's golden are able to sustainthegoldenplate( ŠB VI. 5. 3.mystically. 2. 2 .157 on Tue. 17 ). 2. 20.. 6. the hairinside. 1. . 7. Thus whenthe sacrificer ( chandãihsivai rtvijah selectsthepriests selectsmetres he.23. let theRudrasanointthee withthe Tristubh-metre . " SB III. Ädityas Jagatl-metre. 8. 9.. on on hair-side. ff. 6). Whenone selectsthe Hotr one selectsJagatï.. 1 MS III. 4. if notactually. " The fire-pan is prepared by means of the metres. 6 ) .. 2.Th ite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 437 Priestsand metres witheach other. 2. Then Agni becomesdeposited the sacrificer wears a 4. May " 3 VS XI. . the Rudras . Adhvaryu ) and Hotr Maitrãvaruna and Gäyatri. 5.. cp. only. 2. 7 . VS XXIII. activities one takes help fromthe power of In many of the sacrificial a of the metres whileperforming metres. cp. MS III. ( KS XVI. SB XIII. in this way the Hotr and JagatI are identical. At the timeof Upayãjas he mystically the animal whichis killedat the time of the animal(connected offerings). XII.. VIII. is used. Similarly and Pratiprasthãtr Agnidh and Paňkti. 9 manãcchamsinto Tristubh and the identifies and metres priests ). .put in contact Metresare sometimes withthe mystically. One makesmerely mention an activity one will indeedacquire the power thatby referring to the metres and supposes the queens of metres. 8 . Aticchandas. 1 to be doneby meansof metres 1.MS III. 6 f. 9 .Brãhmanãcchamsin and Tristubh. 5. 8. At thattime an embryo whohas beenconsecrated sacrificer entersthe metres(SB III. 5. the thee with anoint Jagatl-metre 12. 2 ). the Brãhaccording JB 319. XIV. ff. 42 . 19 . 1. 3. 7. Ädityas . Anustubhf. Maiträvaruna-priest Acchãvãka to Anustubh.. 16 4< is addressed. 7 aptly remarksin this connection. " Let the Vasus anointthee with formula anointthehorse. metre (TS IV.. 3 . In the courseof the fire-building ceremony.. The lumpof clay forpreparing to be It is the the black skin.. For the hair are metres. For skinwith plate. Thus when in the course of the Asvamedha-sacrifice. 1. 4 ff. Kakubh.fumigated by means of the This content downloaded from 94. 1. Go to themetres sacrifice ( ). to the belongstoGãyatrl. Similarly KS-Asva IV. Visvedevas Tristubh-metre. 4. sacrifice. MS HI.

But from between or not. 1 ff. Here also the three (SB XII. 1. 6. 6 f. . G.. behave in an antipathetic the metres way withthe Sometimes. 4. 17 identifies GãyatrI withthe morning-pressing. SBEtXLVI. XVI. 1. midday-pressing of the Bahispavamäna-laud. XXV. 1. 301. 9. Thus oncemetres ( MS took is told about how reconciliation II. withthesacrifice are ofdoublenature. AgniP This content downloaded from 94." Thou arta whichoccursat the time of the morning-pressing I holdon thee. ). 2. ãfritam tuchando 9. In thePravargya-ceremony. 1. 284. III.. KS XIII. withthe formula. 10. 13 givesa mythological whythesethreemetres explanation AOS J 8. JB I. Thou art. SB XI. p. 1. 5. 3. 1. 8 ). 3. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ãrbhava-pavamãna Again " . 263 .26. KPKS I. bearme untowell-being. 3 if. an eagle .. IV. 9). 5. Cf.8 Metresand the Soma-pressings Tristubh Thus SB XIV.4 ff. prãtahsavanáyogyarh / Oãyatram kanthe traiatubhãnugam madhyamam mãdhyandinayntam /6 / tãram /7 / Širsanyarii jãgatãnngam tãrtlyasammm 6 f. 1. 5). For the connection metresand the threepressings three see also with the and Tristubh Jagati pressings Agnipurãna GãyatrI. 336. 266.438 Volume ABORl : R. metre whatever maybe usedat thetimeof thatpressing." of the GãyatrI-metre. 57. bakedby means of the metres( chandobhir roundthe fire-altar chandobhih dhüpyate pacyate) ". formulas of are put into contact. 280 says Therefore thatGãyatrIis the excellence( jayisthya) of the morning-pressing. Jagatl-metre ^bhu in AV VI. MS I. withthe sacrifice did not agree to cooperate sacrifice. and in connection withthe are the cases of Tristubh Similar Jagati GãyatrI. . Oldeuberg. 7 .. it is called. cp. 48.9 AB III. Tristubh-metre midday-pressing at the third the same is of time at the action pressing.4. 7 . " The GãyatrI-metre thouart ". falconformed time of the midday Pavamãna at the be the is to done at The same action " M. 10. and Jagati with the thirdpressing.. 9. KS I. are to be takenwith thewords sticks thetwolifting . however. . Bloomfield. JB I. 16. Many times with the midday-pressing " to GãyatrI. the Tristubh-metre becometakenby meansof thesemetres ( SB XIV. Theymaycooperate Metres and the Sonia-pressings are closelyassociatedwitheach other. told Purusa third and Nãrãyana Prajãpati pressing respectively." a of Thou art formed the the done with be to formula. and third-pressing Tristubh 265.. Thenthesticks thou art. 3 . mystically.23. 9. SadB 1. 336. At the timeof fencing to be mystically doneby meansof the with threelines also the workis expected metres(TS I. to holdon to Udgätr frombehindat the chanting withthewords. 12. midday-pressing to is said to be " belonging morning-pressing to Jagati ( KS XXII. 16 ). ChãU III. 3. Nothing place it can be concluded thatmetres thisincident them afterwards.. Bhandarkar 150thBirthAnniversary chandobhir metres vã esã kriyate .157 on Tue..

e. and GäyatrI are and used Kakubh Anustubh-metres SB IV. Tristubh brought IV thethird-pressing 2. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Out of the twentyKakubh. versesin Jagatî. Thus Prajãpati distributed sacrifice and metresto thegods.23. explanation GäyatrIbrought and Jagatî the midday-pressing heaven the morning-pressing .Thite i The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 439 are connected withthreepressings. fore can be legitimately calledgãyatra i. 288 anothermythological from the is found. 7 3. Actuallysix metres of the Jagatl-metre consisting and Jagatîare used in thethird Anustubh pressing. the that of the i.Usnih. belonging are notso simple. then and numberforty-eight theKakubhmetre Jagatl-metre foursyllablesare to be added to the twenty-eight is obtained. Similarly. ¿B brought ( cp. e. understood be mysteriously syllables add them to the and should one theKakubh-metre.) and thereis " carried the to the GãyatrI-metre. alone. mentioned The associationof the threemetres withthe threepressings the morning-pressing in a verybroadsense. ).GäyatrI. 20 ). ff. thatof Tristubh. 2. one of thirty sixteenthese forty-eight partsis to be added. Thus in the and of thethird-pressing cases of midday-pressing also are recited. Then we get thenumber syllabled are to be addedto the sixteensyllables i. Brhatl-metres are recited. that of the Jagatl. GäyatrI. that of theGãyatri-metre. 20 f.dityas Jagatî ( forthesegods.26. Tristubh Indra and morning-pressing to Visvedevas at thethird-pressing and A. JB I. 4. 5. 5. otherthanTristubh are used. thisnumber of Usnihand then syllables be it to divided is intotwoparts and withthirty-two metre theAnustubh syllables number sixteensyllableseach. The remaining oftheTristubh eight syllables to thethirty-six syllablesof the BrhatImetre. and the metressee also SB IV. Then a thirtysix syllablesof the Brhatl-metre This content downloaded from 94. are to be added to the twenty-eight of GäyatrItwenty foursyllables syllablesof e. Then again we get the number other i. He allotted GäyatrIto Agniand Vasus at the and at the midday-pressing to Rudras . The remaining of the Yajñayajñlya-saman. thosemetresare also to metres although pressing of Thus out of thetwenty-eight as Tristubh. 1. 242 Tristubh mystically pressing ( JB ). 2. metres withthe threepressings one with of thethree Thus theconnection In the not in a mysterious one mustbe understood middayway and literally. e. According to that explanation. Thus to theabove-mentioned -two. The remaining Thereis already comesto be thirtytwo. verses other than those in the Jagatl-metre midday-pressing Thus in the midday-pressing which is called Traistubhaverses in Tristubh. syllables separatetwenty Then the number i.157 on Tue. ( Usnih. Thus even thoughthereare some metres fortyfour converted into than Tristubhin the midday-pressing they are all mystically be can to be shown the third I. 18). Similarly viz. Although above mustbe understood " by the GãyatrI-metre alone ( SB IV. fortyfour syllables twentyfour are to be added metre is obtained. pressings. e.

respectively ( JB ). pressing amounts. For Gâyatrï consistsof morning-pressing.157 on Tue. The Vasus are eightin number. 8 ). Thus thethird-pressing mystically even though othermetres are used at its time belongs onlyto the Jagatï-metre (JB I. midday-pressing.of the with Tristubh and ofJagatI withthe thirdpressing. If.26. belongs pressing verses are to be recited inJagatl-metre at thebeginning. the time each of all the Soma-sap (AB Soma-pressing. The additional foursyllablesin fifty-two -syllabled Jagatï thisJagatï are identical withthequadrupeds. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . For thispressing belongs to Jagatï 15 At VI. 7. syllables in themorning-pressing the deityviz. Rudra is associatedwitheach syllable. Thus Gâyatrïhas eight in each foot. Similaris the case of the third pressingwhich to which has twelve a belongs JagatI syllablesin foot. The closeconnection of the metresand the Soma-pressings is sometimes in determining someritualdetails. 9). Tristubh-metre by -syllabled amounts and by meansofthetwelve-syllabled to whichthethirdpressing JagatI 101 II. 11). Bkandarkar160thBirth-Anniversary Volume comesintoexistence. The Vasus pressing are eight.4+0 ABORl : R. Vasu is associatedwitheach Therefore. The Rudras are syllable. thereare some exceptions. 1. ). Tristubh has elevensyllables in each foot. of thissacrifice to Gâyatrïwhich amounts is eight-syllabled. In the same obtained manner they worship by Rudraswhoare elevenand by theÃdityaswho are twelve means of theeleven to whichthe midday.). Thus at thetimeof the morningsignificant theMaiträvaruna-priest recites verses in Gâyatrï because the morningpressing pressing belongsto Gãyatrí (AB VI. Similarlyat the firstturn of the Soma is to be pressedeighttimes. Thus the midday-pressing is sometimes to theKakubh-metre said to be belonging becauseKakubhis used in it This content downloaded from 94. The connection of theparticular is withtheparticular deity Soma-pressing basedon theconnection of theparticular theparticular metre with Soma-pressing. At the time of the third-pressing. belongsto the GãyatrI-metre (TMB IX. But to midday-pressing this normalposition. Ãdityais associatedwitheach syllables( Jß I. The Ãdityasare twelve and therefore. offered and drunk. G. Therefore in the midday-pressing the deityviz. Thus Prajãpatiand Indraobtained worship by Vasus. 141 ). 242). Similarly elevenin number.forthe middayFurther.23. for the morning-pressing Gãyatri-metre. We saw above theassociation of Gâyatrï withthe morningpressing. mustbe pouredout. in thethird-pressing thedeityviz. eightsyllablesand the morning-pressing belongsto Gâyatrï ( SB IV. Prajãpati and Indra obtainedworship by the gods by means of performance of the Apaciti ( worship For the morning) sacrifice. to Tristubh(AB VI. the at versesin Tristubh are recited. 1. But if Soma is left over fromthe an expiationis made witha sãman based on verses in the morning-pressing.

VI. mostly performance. one is askedto use theGaurivita-sãman theversesin BrhatIas an expiation. This content downloaded from 94.Jagatïetc. an Gäyatri pressings. by increasing of syllables. 180 ). convey( being yoked. manner.26. in TMB VIII.. This is toldbymeansof midday-pressing pressing a mythological said to Gâyatrï. Thus Ãruni once possesses " I knowverily theGãyatrI-metre all thepressings. 5. The first and in thethirdare in Gâyatrï. " Tristubh and JagatI story " Let us join thee for She ( Gãyatrl) asked. 11 What will resulttherefrom " " " " me? Whatthouwishest they said. ¿B IV. ¿B 2. The Ãgrayana-Soma-cup is thecalfof theGãyatrI-metre back towards . 8. Thus RV X. TS 4. 11. 10 IV. TMB XIX. She replied. "why Gãyatrl. Although to thesacrificial can sometimes helpful go againstit. 11 also metres . 180.Metres are veryoften animals. if the Soma is left over from the middayto JB to the Brhatl-metre. carrying me uptotheold age ( JB I. 4. 8 metresare said to be the draught themetres animals of gods here ( pa&avo vai devãnãm chandämsi). verily it.Gãyatrlis praised which Thus to 3. To me mustbelongthe whole morning-pressing and I must have the lead of the last two pressings Therefore thewholemorning-pressing to Gãyatrland the last two pressbelongs ingsare introduced by it. 9 it is asked. when yoked.convey ) thesacrifice to the gods" ( cp. pressings. according quotes opinion the number itselfbecame the metres like Tristubh.Therefore. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . " Who knows theyoking of carry " ? ŠB I. someritualthinkers ofall ask. 1 ). In an henoistic all the three to be alone carrying way. As regards themetres and sacrifice in general we mayconcludethat they are closely associated. thethird-pressing becauseit is used is connected withtheAnustubh-metre in it. . forthemidday-pressing According pressing belongs I. 6 f. The from myfameand namedo notdepart realreasonwhyGâyatrïis said to be carrying seemsto be in the all thepressings factthatin morning-pressing in the chants all theversesare in Gâyatrï. 114. beingthesmallest " " themetres carries ? The answer all thepressings is.157 on Tue. it carriesall the turning is taken away a cow which turns back the towards calf Therefore.Thite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 441 based on ( JB I. boasted. 7. 4.56 RGB. 289 ). 3. The metres however are of a doublenature. they Metaphoricaldescriptions The metaphorical of metrescan implythe way in whichthe descriptions metres are supposed a studyof such descripto execute their power.23. 2. fame and name upto his old age. 2. Therefore it is Gãyatrl alone that carriesall the threepressings. Gãyatrl the Similarly " added that one and Gãyatrlthe third-pressing* It is further midday-pressing whoknowsthis. They supposedto be draught are yokedto sacrifice is a cartor chariot which as it were and then the metres thesacrifice. burdens for so the metres in like men. TMB IX. " we read Gãyatrl verilycarriesthe morning-pressing.4. Therefore tionsis fruitful. " As they(animals).

The metres. Compare " Elsewherefour and Jagatï. tçkj This content downloaded from 94. 9. themetres Sometimes Thus of birds. ŠB XI. viz. three 431). 8 also Gâyatrï is described the sacrificer to bird withbrilliant be a golden-coloured wingsand as carrying as a bird the worldof heaven(cp.5. According are described and Jagatï carries the morning-pressing. 120 where pressing.Fromtheabove mentioned to somegood it willbe seenhowthey ricaldescriptions carrythosewhouse them as a meansto obtainsome result. are said to be likebirds. Elsewhereit is said that Gâyatrï Soma from theheaven( SB III. goes to theworldof heavenwithGâyatrï as possessedof wings.Tristubh verily carrythe sacrifice is added to the above the sacrifice are said to be carrying and Anustubh metres II. G. we shallsee. 16). (JB 300. of light. wentto horses horses. knower are magically The metres metaphopowerful.23. Gâyatrï animals. however.. 313 f. Anustubh and Pankti (wings). Thus theidea ofpleasing supposed thegodswhoultimately of pleasing grantthe desiredresultto the performers.and of brilliance". Be a chariot " For I this him shall Gâyatrï and JagatIbecamethewheels way. O metres.12. 1. Three metres carries thethird JB I. AB IV. One uses a particular and pleases and that for a with connected god propitiates god particular closely to be a means times at is the metres him. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .thestomasare said to be thedivine to thosechariots.26. 10 ). chariots and themetres JB III.of to eyes.334 Sacrifice Brahmana-texts. Thus it is : " Just as in theworld mengo withrelaysof freshhorsesor oxen. 8. transposed it is supposed. He whoknowsGâyatrïas possessedof wings.5. use themetres and gods are closely also seen thatmetres kindof result. 20. 5." The becamethehorses.of light. 27 comparesthe metresto horsesand oxen.and of brilliance. The godshaving thedivine yokedthese theheaven. go by you became the side-poles. metre which is associatedor even identicalwitheach. By means of Prajäpatisaid (to themetres). 1. Ridingthischariot. Bhandarkar 150thBirthVolume Anniversary to be draught to ŠB IV. Usnih and Tristubh he went. It willbe. 23 it is to theheaven. in theform thesacrificer carry " said.10 see to thesacrificer theresult ofgods ingranting ofthesacrifice lO. 4. I. 4. Gâyatrï. AB IV. SB XI. carries the midday-pressing Tristubh " it is said. so said there of heavenwhen metres withrelaysof fresh they( theperformers ) go to theworld themetres in thecourseof the Dvãdasãha with he ( theHotrpriest ) transposes metres ". 2. becomefalconbrought having are supposedto be like a chariot.of eyes.442 A BORI : R. of thisalso enjoysthesame kindof chariot. Even thegods.Brhatïbecametheseat. For the Gâyatrï-metre withbrilliant wingssee also KS XXXIV. the metres " forme.^For therole in the p.157 on Tue. Thus TB 1.

The Rudrasare eleven of thehouse-holders means is Tristubh. SB III. 3. The Viräj-metre belongsto all the deities ( sarvavã etac chandah yad virâtSB XIII. 4. theVasus are eight. eye by and speechby means of Anustubh meansof JagatI ( JB I. According and the metres justas thebees collectthesap of flowers. 9. 3. 5. beforethe normal time. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . When the Hotrhe makesthemetres fresh litany.157 on Tue. If anothersacrificer is a then has to Soma-sacrifice one the simultaneously. 8. fromthe middleregion them drove away from from theheavenby meansofJagatI of and from thecattleby means Tristubh. therefore. for the identification stomasetc. By meansof the Pratigara. the Ãdityas the become the are twelve house-holders . all thedeities(chandãmsivai sarvã devatãh) " and thusone takeshold cal with of metres. gods collectedthe sap of metres4 usnihahJB 1. with thedeitiessee also JB I. 3. 3. The Vasus becomethehouse-holders by meansof GãyatrI. 9 metresare identified with the early coming gods ( chandãmsi devãh prãtaryãvãyah (cf. 342 we I. 5 ). 6 ). 99). 9. 2. verily JB breath of means of their means won ear by by Gâyatrï Tristubh. of metres and gods. 1 .26.280). Theyare described to be the housesof the gods ( chandãmsi vãva devãnãm grhãh). 3. Thus " GãyatrI is eight-syllabled.227). 4. II.23. are identispeech. 188. Gods enjoythemetres become exhausted( yãtayãma priestrecitesthe morning-). therefore . 2. 2 ). verily. makesthemetres theAdhvaryu Metres are sometimesidentified with gods.the cattle of gods ( chandãmsi metres are desired Sometimes vai devãnãm vãmam pasavah TS V. 10 ). e. Thus " M Gods defeated the Asuras by means of metres. Furtherthey thisworldby meansof GãyatrI. 6. by This content downloaded from 94. begin performing morningi. The metres carrythe sacrifice to thegods ( ŠB I. 3. all themetres. becomethe house-holders The Visvedevas by means of Anustubh ( no reasoning is given)" (JB 1.Îhitè : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 443 not Thus in theultimate the metressignificant analysiswe have to understand but rather Let us now studythe relations merely magically magico-religiously. Tristubh is eleven-syllabled theRudrasbecome . 332. of all the deities( JB I. 63 )• to be the wealth. The verses of gods ( devapurã vã esã yad in theUsnihmetreare said to be the fortresses to JB I. fresh( SB IV. Therebyone wins all th© litany at midnight and thereby all thedeities : u For metres. MS IV. 13) and the case of the daivatyam is also the same { sarvadevatyo Anustubh-metre vã anustup JB III. Gods tookthehelpof metres in defeating Asurasformany times. read. ( ¿B III. They . JagatI twelve-syllabled by . 3). MS III. Ãdityas by means of JagatI. 350). Metres and gods The metresand gods are verycloselyconnected. 1. 342 .

6. 283 f. 1 fF. 5. by means of the sevenby meansof thesix-syllabic. By meansofmonosyllabic and theAsurasperished metre the gods took away themetre offifteen to theAsuras. The Tristubh together Ädityas brought together Jagati. BrhatIalonereceives thecreditof this kind IV. After death. 2. means of the trisyllabic metreof thirteen means of the the metre of metre.By means of the eightsyllables of the Anustubh-metre tookaway theeightsyllablesof the representing Prajãpati.. TS VI. KPKS XLVI. said.. led by Visnu. 2. The Visvedevas .26.). The monosyllabic one in possession of thegods. At someplacesit is said that the boththe gods and Asuras were possessingmetres.accompanied by othergods theAsurasfrom of theSoma-sacrifice removed thethree pressings ( JB 1. 5.. 9. MS III." Bringtogether fromdeath. Bhandarkar160thBirth-Anniversary Volume meansof Anustubh the Asuras by (JB I. 205 ). 11 ). 10 .the metreof fourteen metre.444 A BORI : R. Asurascalledhimto join themand he joined the gods. " Whyevil themetres.157 on Tue. 4.evil. by meansof thefive-syllabic metre. MS IV. JB I.23.. Gods. 192 f. 179f. 2. syllables. night. other. brought together Metres to be useful to godsat thetimeof reaching to the heavenly proved or even obtaining all theworlds. Thus whenthe were afraid of fire means of metres.27). 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 5.. Prajãpati gods contending took place between them. 13. 4. Sometimes. Gods used themetres in removing death. TS V. gods cameto theheavenly lokam ãyan. gods coming Prajãpati asked.. Gods triedto protect from evil by meansof metres.. 7. " 1 it 3. " Prajãpaticreated thegods. cp. the heptasyllabic theirhighest . . is Thus 2. " By means of world world( chandobhir vai devähsvargam metres. them. cp. 1 . KS XX.The Rudrasbrought . theenneadsyllabic one was thelowest of the Asuras.they Asuras" (TMBXII. cp. By This content downloaded from 94. But gods conquered " metres of Asurasand conquered metre was the lowest them. syllabic. The Vasus gods these. 5 ). 196 f. 3.). The godsnotonly obtained themetres of Asuras by means of theirown metres. 99). themetre of tensyllables . cf. thegodsobtained rf help. Anustubh . the Rudras by means of Tristubh and the protected themselves Adityasby means of Jagatï( KPKS V. The Vasus at one'sproper place. verily.the metreof nine-syllables. ó it is said. These to was evil death. 3. the metreof the fifteen syllableswas their The and the Asuras were each with highest. 11. however..entertheseeach one afterus ? " He said to them.. By meansofthedissyllabic syllables belonging the metre. ). 4 .theyprotected by it by means of Gâyatrï. JB I.removed meansof metres ( KS XXXII. XIX. Indra. by four-syllabic ofelevensyllables twelvesyllables themetre . but theyalso obtainedthe worldof Asuras (cp. In this way the gods conquered the metresof Asuras ( cp. means of ŠB Brhati XII.. darkness. 5 . 3. thenyou will be separated entered it. brought together GãyatrI they . ŠB III. The gods and having become of Anustubh-nature. G. ( JUB I. created. It concealed them. Then the gods throve . 3 ).

So by making one reaches theheavenly it is said. 9. you let us reach the M it theydid not reach it. 5. At the time of carrying theheavenalso godstookthehelpof metres( TMB XII. Theyfurther decidedto searchout us . 11. XX. TS V.3 i TS 2. thegodsin reaching theheaven. 8 f. 7. 6). food..Thite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 445 " theheavenly world( brhatyã vai devãh) svar gam lokámãpnuvan ( cf. 6 ).. godsare said to have gone to the worldof heavenby -Vir means of a verse-quarter mystically ãj (i. . gods. 1. TMB VIII. Gods obtained theheavenly thefire-altar in this way. When towards of heaven. primordial GäyatrIbecametheco-yoked (helper) of Agn} This content downloaded from 94. Thus of Agni ( chandãmsivã agner vãsah MS III. and themetres thesacrifice by meansof theBrãhmana Metres are sometimesconnectedwith Agni in various ways. 120 ).2) of Agni( chandãmsivã agnehyonih Metresare said to be the place of origin ) 5 us teaches that XXXI. 1 a beloved KS XIX.. But BrhatIcould. They mixed together ofheavenunrecognisable to maketheworld in order metres ( MS IV. are said to be clothes metres are according to KS XX. at the timeof discovering Gods obtaineda greathelp fromthe metres the had runaway from them. sacrifice.157 on Tue. 13 ).e. According to ¿B III. 5. 3. this sacrifice.23. Sacrifice. ).44 metres Agni.let us search .. V.. gods said to the metres. SB IX.26. 10. essences but all theworlds( cp. 5 . XX. " Sacrifice.Agnistandsin specialconnection Among In thedivine. 3. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . reached Tristubh it they nearly theyemployed through and added (these it. theyagain took the help oí metres. KPKS XXX. vã chandãmsi khalu catvãri sarvãrii ( agneh priyã tanüh). 1. Therefore. 4. theGäyatrl-metre. (KS altar by means of metres. 7. 1. 3. 3 says that Agni reachedthe northern because metresand firesare are built fires( fire-altars by means of metres ) are mentioned to be seven beloved seats of identical. could not help the world. This has beentoldby TMB " " Through : 2 The VII.5). 8. SatobrhatI is a kindof the ofheaven world the gods are Sometimes feetof twelve each. . 4.theydesiredthat othersshouldnot reach thegodsobtained theworld the it. 5. 10. food. 45 ). a group of ten verse-quarters the sun calledVirãj because Virãj has ten syllables). world by meansof BrhatI. The other metres. three Brhatl-metre having syllables said to have obtainedall the worldsby means of SatobrhatI (TMB XVI. Anustubh. JB 1. 2. TS V. The metres formof Agni ( esâ vã agneh priyã tanüh yac chandãmsi . which out thesacrifice " hath the The the from left ran gods said. with thegods. Thus we read.. KS XIX. Jagatï. 3 ). They employed heavenly GäyatrI. away for". through . cp. thefire-altar shouldbe as broadas thirtysix steps on theeastern side. food. world. KPKS XXX.5. Then they squeezed out the essences of the quarters " Then theyobtainednot merelythe or) foursyllablesto Anustubh. For BrhatIhas thirtysix syllables. 7.XII. 9. III. 1. ( AB.

TS III. 14. 7. 6. For Agni religion to GäyatrI etc. day Indra withTristubh ŠB VI. 4. Tristubh-metre Indra and Rudra. (AB ). " Indra. 4). 6. G. 2. 2 we included was TS Tristubh 11. 5. 11 it distributed the sky. Agni's metreis Gâyatrï. III. 5. 10. belonging we read following Sometimes like gayatro'gnih expressions (MS III. this offering is to be made by offering. Similarremark is also found when in KS XXI.5). 32 ) or gãyatraccandã agnxh(TMBXVI. afterhavingkilledVrtra.1). 7. meansof speechin theTristubh-metre. III. 30. 21 I. Anustubh withtheTristubh-metre. 4. described the to III. 5). KS as thethunderbolt of Indra. cp.4. Similarly thisremark is madeby thesame text whenit prescribes thatthefire should verses at the timeof New-and Full-moon-offerings enkindlingbe in Gayatrl-metre KB XIX. 3. 4). 1 after verses in that Gâyatrïhaving prescribed metre be employed should at the timeof establishing fires( agnyãdhãna) ( cp. 9. see also KS IX. was the share ofthesacrificial divinesacrifice. 7 . Tristubh is.For Gâyatrïhas eight syllables. MS I.2. Indra has a special connection ßV V. VI. 8. to AB 13. meansofa cake bakedon eight potsherds. 3 has a similar This content downloaded from 94.157 on Tue. 101 ). belongs Many timesthe following to GãyatrL Agni's metreis GäyatrI [gayairo vã agnir gãyatracchandãh) "• This remark is made by KB 1.Agni to 's is metre one thus belongs Gâyatrï. 2. Tristubh In the primordial.26. 13.7 identifies for Indra" ( ßV X. 11. also and KS XXX. Sometimes Gâyatrï and Agni have been identified (SB 1. KS XX. 6. 2. MS I. witheach other VII. 10. AccordXIV. 5 . This actionis also to be donewitha verse in Gâyatrï. The same remark XXIX. SB II. 1.1. 3 says: withthe Anustubh-metre Agni is connected is a belovedform of Agni ( anustubhvã agneh priyã tanüh).2. 2. II. Prajãpati assigned ing " Indra obtainedworship Elsewherewe read. 6. Indra.17. XXI.5. 1 . AB II. Then one is repeated in KS propitiates Agniby meansof his ownmetre. for this remark also 4). 1 . Èhandarkar 160thBirthVolume Anniversary are based on that some ritualprescriptions (îfcVX. " is said. Here there seemsto be mixedwiththeidea of magicalpowerof metres. see IX. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 4).19 cp. 5 gäyatro'gnir gãyatracchandãh it is a matter of putting downof a ghee-filled spoonmadeof Kãrsmaryawood in thecourseof Fire-building-ceremony. For Agnibelongs to Gâyatrï. MS IV. XXII. {indras tristubh III. 29. read. By means of the Tristubh-metre " fromRudras at the midday-pressing( JB II. 2. Agni Agni withhis Gâyatrï. 4. 8. Similarly " by means of eleven syllableswon the Tristubh-metre(cp. 130. 5.11 Indra.13. KS XI. It is noteworthy thisconnection of Agniand Gâyatrïandthisconnection has somemagico-religious remark is made: " Agniverily significance.23. chosehis portion in which ). 8). MSI. 4 in connection withthe Udavasânïyâ At theend of the Agnistoma-sacrifice. 2 ) or gãyatramagneš chandah( AB 1.446 ABORl : iř. propitiates is theidea of propitiating a god and thus the idea of ownmetre.8. 2.4. 4. 9. (KB III.

Indra got the help of many metres. 3. Thus at the timeof killingVrtra. 110 f. 4. According and Tristubh Anustubh it is said that them Elsewhere havinggathered together. 7. verilyis all the metres" ( sarviàni chandamsi prajãpatih). one propitiates " For " if Indrais thismetre viz. Indra by his ownmetre. 5.3. ). one propitiates ownmetre forthesame reason( Sânà II.3. 158. 2. Thus " WhenPrajãpatiwas relaxed. Such is the case of the line ( indrasya kämam aksaran JB III.42). Therefore all the othergods then the supremacy also has a of Indra. Tristubh-connection Indratakeshelpof manymetres his other in accomplishing thanTristubh task. TMB VIII. 2. Satpadã.. "Prajãpati. 13 it is said.163). KPKS XXXI.the cattlehavingbecomemetres went( came) out from him. cp. 9 ). Thus herePrajãpatiseemsto have created themetres forhisownuse. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to relaxed. III.2. 295. cp. pati is said to have put himself together. significance. the but cotaining wordIndra. " Prajãpati assigned to the gods the sacrifice This content downloaded from 94. Thus AB III. 2. 1 if. The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 447 to godsin the a sacrifice story. 1.23. Even a verse or footof it not in Tristubh.Thus in the the Prauga-laudin the Tristubh-metre. to JB III.Thite . 5. 6 Prajãpati.157 on Tue. 6 ( see above) wherePrajãAB II. SometimesPrajãpati and metres are said to be identical( prajäpatir vai chandãmsiMS IV. 4.theyearafter creatures. 193f. Indra killedVrtraby means of áakvarl. one belongsto Indra and foodalso belongs thus obtainsfood belongingto Indra (KS XX. 8. shouldbe regarded as having a formof Tristubb. According to JUB I. 206). Indrakilled (cf. In that storyit is told that Brhaspatioffered house of Indra with verses in Tristubb. KB XXII. ¿B VI.He According Aà III. themetres(prajãpater vã etãnyangäni yac chandãriísi verily. The ascription of a particularmetreto some particulargods has been done by Prajãpati. For Indra and see also KS XIX. Similarlyby reciting one hundred versesin TristubhIndraby his metreon this day. The origin verycloselyconnected of metres is said to be from Prajãpati. 2. Tristubh (áãnà I.33.11:). ¿B VII. are theseviz. by using magico-religious ceremony. metre in theform of Anustubhhavingraisedthethunderbolt (JB 1. 18 says " Prajäpati'slimbs. 2 ). 3.Quite in agreement withAà II. 7 ). Indrahurledthunderbolt againstVrtraby means of Usnih and Kakubh-metres to JB I. The Indra-Tristubh connection recognised Mahãvrata ritual. JB 1. In thecourse of theFire-buildinga curds-filled is to be put downwitha verse ceremony spoonof udumbara-wood in Tristubh.for Tristubh to Indra. creating puthimself together by meansof themetres. According Vrtra by meansof Sakvarlmetre. Metres are sometimes withPrajãpati. 2 ).theevil and they themselves from gods protect didaccordingly. 16 ). 7.26." ( ¿B VIII.he advisedthe to create the and metres thedeath.1. 5. Indra followedafter a female evil being named DIrghajihvI. 4.

95. 8. 6. 8 ). KS goddesses. 1. Thus of Anustubh Prajäpaticreated all themetres. TS III 4. MS III. 17 says. IX 5. 4. 8. KPRS XXXV. .11.particularly Sometimes are identified and themetres with thegoddesses wivesofgods) is used to indicate " the the wives one of them. 7). 9. While MS III. G. He allotted Gayatrï at the morning-pressing and to the and Rudras at Indra Tristubh Vasus. says. 309. Jagatï. these with XII. Sinlvãll is Jagati. 5. JB 1. is manytimesspecially withPrajäpati and is Anustubh connected said to be his own metre ( sva/uchandah AB III. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. goddesses.. 2. TS III.23. MS IV. 4. 8. XII.290. theysing at the Theythen that the metre is for it Brhatl propsup the sun at ( midday-pressing ) ( part).448 ABORI : 2ř. 4. sapful..7). Thus MS IV. In thisstory themetre and thatbecame his own metre. " By withthe Brhatl-metre. 5.wife. TS V. 8 : " Anustubh is Prajäpati 's ownmetre verily ( has some This of and connectoin Anustubh sva/h patéh Prajäpati chandah).For sacrifice pati and Anustubhis Prajäpati's own metre. Rãkã is Tristubh. 2 .9. KS goddesses.5 says thatthe metreAnustubhbelongsto Prajäpati ( prajãpatyam). 5 . Metres are sometimes describedas goddesses. III. Established 8. thegodscarried meansof theout-of-doors chant. The sun seems to be speciallyconnected thesun to the worldof heaven.. II. 86. Agni midday-pressing " it is said Višvedevasand Ãdityasat thethird-pressing further . KB XIX. 4.7. verily glory. 4.2 interprets to bake thefire-pan and it is the metresthatare requested metres ( cp. cp. ŠaňA II. 7 24 in Brhatl. 3. 3. 4 f. IV MS the metres fresh one makes 3. cp. TS VII.197. Since metresare identical oblationsto these and cattle. Therefore.6. This content downloaded from 94. Thus Anumatiis Gayatrï.Kuhüis Anustubh. midday ( ). " " TMB VII.1 it is said that Prajäpati belongs to Anustubh) Prajäpati and Anustubh( prajäpatir vd ( änustubhah ). in pluralmeaning the wordgna ( woman. SB " " thissun shines. fixed it at middayby means of Brhatl. says.39). to these oblations his metresbecome exhausted( yãtayãrm offering By ). 7 ¿B KS XIX.26. ( ayãtayãmacp. Bhandarkar150thBirth-Anniversary Volume to and metres in portions. KPKS M anustubh vai Prajä XXXV. it is "Metres are said. 1. getsoffsprings ( see also SB these of metresand XII. Then the sacrificebecomes established on its ownmetre.. For the identification goddesses. 1. 8). ritualsignificances. Thus at the time fumigating fire-pan. III.157 on Tue. and cattle one If. " Whosoeverperforms a Soma-sacrifice.Thus the Audgrabhana-offering in the Agnistoma-sacrifice is to be offered withPrajäis identical witha versein Anustubh.. He belongs in 3. 7). by offering goddessesand also withoffsprings TS 4. III. 13 ) KS XXIII. ( KS XXIII. Some textsidentify anustubhTMB IV. 9. May the wives with this by identifying (bake) thee". JB 1.

2.157 on Tue. are said to be foodof Anustubh and Anustubh metres. 130. KB XVI. shining you " mountains ( ^V VIII. Thus the There can be one sãman based on the versesof numerous RGP. Sometimes to be foodof each other. 2. 5 ). shares. So theycan sometimes go against thegods. 6. Theysaid. 131 Brhaspatiis said to be belonging to theGâyatrï metre. Thus in the divinesacrifice. 9. This place seemsto referto the midday-somaAnustubh feastwhich is in specialconnection Tristubh. Metres and Sämans in variousways. XVIII. 1. Soma concealed Savitr unitedhimself primordial. In Yama all themetres as likeUsnih. 7. withUsnih. 5. In orderto theTristubhthemselves the from death." May Rudrasfence by means youround of Tristubh MS I. " Tristubh » is the wife of Rudras ( cp. Rudras with Tristubh.. KPKS V. thesãmans they is said to be food of sãmans.thisonewhoshines.Ädityas with Jagatï and VisvedevaswithAnustubh (cp. MS I. 16). 10. 9 says. 4. 4. are put ( RV X. SB VI. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . theevil. JB II.57 This content downloaded from 94. connections withgods. TÃ III. Thus GB II. Rudrasbrought protect together metreand concealedthemselves in it ( JUB I.23. says thatthesun belongs BrhatL Rudras are connected withTristubh. were Thus according thegods. Thus aboutthe connection themetres and are double-natured cooperthey mostly although power-substances sometimes can them ate withgods and are verycloselyassociated with go they in their themetresare magicoreligiously significant againstthegods. 10 . witheach other Metres and Sãmans are closelyconnected II. ). was the -metre 130. 4). the himselfwithAnustubh and the praise-songs ( uktha)• BrhatI supported Mitrãvaruna of X. 1 ). 5). We shall not carryyour " Gods thenattributed ladled libationto the the four-times oblations. 3. 2.. 3 ff. moreover. Many othergods also are associatedwith some metres. For they to a story.26. the speechof Brhaspati glory Virãj (RV 4). Rudras supported Agni by means of Tristubh (KS VII. 1. 3 mentions with as Soma's metre. Metres are double-natured. 4. At thetimeof fencing aroundthe fireone addresses to Agni. 17 ). XXXIX. 5. 16). KS IX. 8. 14. 7 also to to BrhatI. 9. Marutsare addressed the on follows : " Whenthepoetspoured were then a Tristubh-feast. SB VI. Indraand Agni are said to be the deities in general( asti vai of metres çhandasãm devatendrägni (SB I.Vasus are connectedwith Gâyatrï. KPKS them and thusmade themshare-holder of the sacrifice ( KS and gods we concludethat of the metre XXIX. 1 KPKS 10. ( ). and JagatIenteredintoVisvedevas( RV X. GãyatrIetc.Thite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 449 M KPKS IV.metres once ran away from " desirous of somesharein thesacrifice. JB are mentioned 384. 19. 7 ) . 2.

7 " Speechis metres JB II. KPKS GãyatrT is specifically con1 XXXVI. 10. 8. SB X. He thencreatedthe followingPrsthasãmans GMB Revatl. 1 it is 367). 103. 5 .JB 299 and Thus AgniIndra. of Sämans is implied. 2). 3. 1. " Metresare vãk . 7. 2. 3 it is said. Manytimes can be assumed thattheseare nothing and speechare said to be identical. according Prajãpati GãyatrI from sãman. Thus are also identified metres Sometimesindividual vai with identical said tobe is speech( vãg gãyatrlKS XXIII.157 on Tue. Sakvarlwas thelast ( highest ). 8 if.Visvedevas created varioussãmanswiththehelpof metres. TMB VII. 1. Bhandarkar150thBirthVolume Anniversary is one. 5) and theNidhanavatsämanfrom thePañkti-metre ( ¿B VIII. 3 created 3. ). but it is based on versesof numerous metres. ascend sacrifice use metres speech increasing by four. Svãra-sãmans. Metres and speech (vãc) These two also are connected with each other. 6 the is metrical( chandasyä). 188 . 1. 1. 1. From 2. Vairãja. CHU III. Similarly 301 " Metresare identical withthewholespeech: chandãmsi vai sarvã vãk " : vãg with all themetres and ŠB VIII. II. KS XXXVI.theone consisting themetres said. Sometimes of sevenfeet were born. KB XI." ThereAgnistoma-sãman '• foreone manthrives as thefood Here also theidea viz. thesvara-sãman from Tristubh-metre ( SB VIII. " Speechis identical " u vai sarvãriichandãmsi ). speech ( chandãmsivai vãk " cp. out of thiswomb. SÍB III. 3. ( ) withthespeech. 1. 5). respectively. JB 1. The metrenamed Anustubh nectedwith the speech ( vãg anustubh.. 113.450 ABORI' R. and Nidhanavat the created Aila-sãmans. RV IX. metres in manyways. 2 . 8). 1. 5. Thus even metresincreasing by four syllables of are describedas the ascendances of speech. how tells said to be thewombof Rathantara-sãman. cp. Thus TB to the mind. sãmans. " Whenfrom speech " cp. áakvarls 5. 3 sevenspeehesof the seersare said to havecriedforSoma and it metres but thesevenmetres. G. 5. 8. all the othermetres and fromthemetreshe created GãyatrThe created the GãyatríElsewhere it is said that Prajãpati created theGãyatra-sãman from metre(¿B VIII. Thus when the performers as it were the II. 8 : chandãmsi : vãg vai chandãmsi also MS III. the Aida-sãmanfrom the Anustubh-metre (SB VIII.He thenthought : Rathantara. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 8 ). JagatI GãyatrT. 2. IV. us variousgods I. and 10. 12.they ( JB metres are said to be bornout of speech. 8 . GãyatrI is Brhat. The Sãmans are sometimes said to have their originin themetres. 1. 1 . Prajãpati Anustubh and of Rksama-sãmanswith the help Tristubh. be the Brahman is said to singing speechwhich priest PV IX. MS III.Prajãpati Prsthasãmans ofcreating is said tohaveseenGãyatrT as a womb. XV. 2 .23. 9. 53.Vairüpa. 3.26. 1. This content downloaded from 94. 17 of them viz. 7. III. 1. IX. the Rksama-sãman fromthe Jagatï-metre (SB VIII. 1. 2.

Anustubh metreis veryoftendescribed to be the supreme of all the metres. In the Vrãtyastoma-sacrifice shouldbe in Anustubh. According to be largeand then became theAnustubh-metre.). Henoisticpraise of some metres Some metres have beenhenoistically praised by theVedic texts. 15.c<We worship the Anustubh-metre " His statement as identicalwith all the metres. the 16. For theyspeak impure speech. the speech desired ficant.3). Dãrbhya. JagatI -syllabled of the the finale viz. 4. metres see being TB XIX.157 on Tue. 7. 15. 1. 1. JB 11. Yajnãyajníya-sãman twelve-syllabled. withall the metrescan be soughtin the following to be identical story. 5.knowing you theking from removed me?" KesI replied. to JB II. 8. places This praisehas many significances. one takesit withall themetres IV. Kesin. This collection. by thesupreme go to thesupreme is described as thebestness cp. Anustubh Thus totallywe get the numberthirtytwo is thirty-two This content downloaded from 94. vag vã anustubh: AB I. Tristubh mystic . Whenone takestheabove-mentionver ed waterwith an Anustubhas it were( MS se. The reasonwhyAnustubh is said 10. In thesame contextAnustubh is also said to be identicalwithall the metres( anustubhvai sarvãriichandãmsi ). For " Anustubh metres( paramã vã esã chandasãfnyad anustuk). In the Asvamedhasacrificethe Pratipad is the supreme of all the ( openingtristic ) is in Anustubh. TMB XII. But whenthe Pratipadin Anustubh in speech (JB II. thelast used. ŠB becomesfirmly established in speech VIII. 5 KS etc. KPKS 5. 3. ElsewhereAnustubh ( jyaistas theheight hyamvã anustuhbhTMB VIII. one-syllabled of syllables. 13.1). 3 ). 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Adhvaryu leads the sacrificer to the height priestthereby ( MS IV. 4. 3. 1 it is described ofthe metres. water becauseA. is identical with speech. 1 ).Thite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 451 269. TMB VIII. is vãc . SB I. 28. For Anustubh withspeech is identical Pratipad-verse (vac).23. Thus at different are different metres to treated be of the highest importance. identification thereby (TMB 7. áaňA II. supreme one makesthesacrificer state" (TS V.In this the water is rain also collected. 1). 12. is taken witha versein Anustubh. I. The context is of collecting watersfortheconsecration of a king intheRäjasuya-sacrifice. 221). etc. was based on the following : GãyatrIis eight-syllabled calculation eleven . thethree-night-sacrifice is supreme of all the animals. 5. In the Agnistoma-sacrifie. 7. MS IV. 326. And because A. For Anustubh identical with all the MS III.26. the fourfold stomais the of all thestomas. 2. is theheight( varsma) of themetres. they prosper verse of the Yajñayajñíya-chantis to be transformed into Anustubh. 3. 5. 3. Those who are leading the life of Vrãtyasare devoidof speechas it is were.425. KesI of Purohitaship for KesI Dãrbhya took over the Ahina Äsvatthi'sfunction " asked Then KesI Ahlnas what have Sätyakäml. XXX. Thus the is rituallysignivãc and A.

he Therefore. as theheight TB 1.452 ABORT : i?.285). 315 ). For A. MS III. 7. is described the metes out the Soma-stalks when Adhvaryu witha verse in A. 9. In lootingof Räjasüya-sacrifice.7. V. For Aticchandas is said to be superior Aticchandas to all the also SB IV. 3.6. 4 . Thus according other ŠB VIII. II. KPKS XXXVII.346. 8. 7 . cf. 2. TB 1. In the it is identical also thePrastotr-priest thesame for singsa Sãman in Aticchandas Pravargya-rite as identical withall themetres see reason(SB XIV.9. chandãmsy of the tristich Marutvatlyasastra is in the Aticchandas service. sings a Sãman in the For it is identical withall the metres Aticchandas-metre. 13. cp. beingonlyone is beyond at themidday. 6. 2.2. 4 . 3). KS XIX. 11 ).Thus Gâyatrï is said to be •u bestness {jyaisthyam" JB 11. metres. 95 ).7. GP. 6). 13 A. " For abhiA. Sometimes Gâyatrïis praisedhenoistically. whyit supersedes the othermetresis. 353 . metresand thus that Soma becomesmetedout mystically withall themetres 1 ( ŠB III. 1 AB as the 111.8.Thus Soma-stalks are to be meted said to be identical For that metreis identicalwithall the with a verse in Aticchandas-metre. 2.1 According of the metres.3. 22. 1. 2 metre( chadiichandah ). 2.the opening indeedis this Aticchandasamongst metres. 127). 4. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .9. 412. It covers(includes) all themetres. KB XXV. 7. TS VI. 4 .157 on Tue. Thus it is out withall the metres.5. furthest distance{parmã parävat). 5). cp. reason see also JB 48.23. cp. thechariot witha verse in Aticchandas. KS theheight makesthesacrificer ofthemetres. it is both 227 it is thebeginning JB According {agram) This content downloaded from 94. MS course of the the afterthe symbolic IV. Sometimes to ÔB VIII. Thus Anustubhstandsforall themetres the metres all Anustubh supersedes ( anustup sarvãni chandãmsi 1. 5 .15 it is described paribhuh KS XXX. 6 ). 9. At thetimeof Avabhrthathe Prastotr-priest bath at the end of a soma-sacrifice. 3. 60. of his equals ( TS VI. 1. to II. "Aticchandasis a covering metres. Bhandarkar150thBirth-Anniversary Volume . ati ) » On thecentral day of theAsvamedha-sacrifice. 1. surpassesall the othermetres( aticchandã vai sarvãni chandãmsy " as superior to all the othermetres bhavati JB II. 4. to AÄ 1. 5. 1 . MS III. 361). 12. II. ( SB IV. 9. is identicalwiththem( JB syllabled.26. 5. 392. all themetres( ekã hyeva sã sarvãyi it is said thatA. Many times A. 4 ) . The V. 296. "No othermetrehas as many syllables( as Aticchandas has •' JB III.thesacrificer stepsdownfrom with all the metres(SB V. 76 .4. also TS XXIV. The metrenamed Aticchandas is also praisedhenoistically. 3. Many timesit is describedas theend of all the metres( anto vã anustup chandasãmJB III. 5. and metre. 3. G. 9 ). is said to be the best and biggestof the as the height[varsma ) of the metres.For cows. "For outstanding " is theAsvamedhaamongstsacrifices outstanding (SB XIII.1. For Aticchandas TMB 11.2. 4. . In the the is to be Ekatrika-sacrifice Gãyatrapãrsvasãman sungin Aticchandas. 6. 1.

G. to the Vedic texts.Thus MS III. In the New. Thus Gâyatrï itselfbecame Tristubh metres three For these it is identicalwithall the metres. 30 JagatIis said to be all metres( jagati sarvãni chandãmsi ). Thus according is said to be connected ««All this whatever is Gâyatrï". 12. 1. only are mysticallyall the metres. 6 is Viräj said tobe identicalwithall themetres ). J. fore ) down all four runs horse when therefore the uses four running putting Gãyatris. 2 ). 178). 366-368 are used. Tristubh and then Gâyatrï itselfbecame syllables joinedit withthree Tristubh. therefourGãyatrís. 339).286).and Full-moon-sacrione a Gãyatri-verse formula. All the beingsare has come into existence withthe metres( prajãs chandãmsi said to be identical JB I. it is told how Gâyatrï is identical with all themetres. Therefore. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . cp. ( virãd vai sarvãni chandãmsi ŠB VI. ¿B XIII. Jagatithenjoinedto thisnew Tristubh withone syllableand thenthe and new JagatI came into existence.26.2. Some othermetresare also praised henoistically. Thus in the Asvamedha( horse-sacrifice metres ) threeverses in Anustubhs viz. III. In accordthe beingsare changed of the metres. as an invitatory This content downloaded from 94. after uttering fices. cp. 4. 1. ) In Mbh VI.157 on Tue. ( Jagatï.1. 2. 2 ff. 32. 4. 277 ).23. Because one uses threeAnustubhs one uses mystically standson threefeetand becauseone ( mystically whenstanding. TMB VIII. 335 . is be two said to divided into whole world one that is metrical parts thatis non-metrical other ( KB III. feetTS V. 1 with the metres. (áB 9. SV II. " Among themetresI am Gâyatrï" and thus G. 12. and Viräj are said to be the most valiant of all themetres yad virât ca gãyatrl ca ( eteha khalu vai chandasãmviryavattame JB II. thehorse. 10. Thus the havea cosmiccharacter Metres according and the viz. 227 ). Therefore.Thite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda 45i thebeginning and bestness of themetres ( gâyatrïvai chandasãmagramjyaisîhshouldbe in Therefore the of theKanistha-vrâtyas Vrätyastoma-sacrifice yam). 9 of all the metres According JagatIhas reachedthe highest thriving ( jagati vai chandasãmparamaraposampustã).17). 4. Now three Anustubh ( 3 x 32 = 96) = three uses Anustubhs one 4 24 when makefourGâyatrïs( x 96). 3. ( 24 syll. 3. and to So that it leads thoseVrãtyasto be at the beginning Gâyatrï-metre. bestness ( JB I. 1 ). to TMB XXI. ance withthe arrangement and releasing anu vimuktim prajãh kalpante]B I. Sometimes createdfromthe speech said to be the highest ( parãrdhyã) of all the metres 3.). 1 . 55 Lord Krsna says. But some othertimesthe wholeworld to ChãU III. is one of the manifestations ( vibhüti) of Lord Krsna. Thus Tristubh and JagatIrequested Gâyatrï to allow them to join it. The worldly ( chandasãm klptim of the use of on the magico-religious are dependent occurrences significance in the also said to be the Sakvarï is bestness( jyaisthya -) of all the metres(JB 11.

TS V. 258. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . SB X. Metres havebeenconnected withtheworlds in variousways. to be recitedin any one of these threemetresaccordingto the caste of the sacrificer. Thus I. 3. Viräj holdsthe earthand the middleregion( virãjã imau lokau theearth. 7.. e. TMB VII. 1.. " This worldbelongsto GãyatrI.157 on Tue. the middleworld. 13 ). Rãjanya and Visya-castes the fire a verse is forward at the time of bringing Therefore Jagatï-metre.and the heaven are said to be identical withGãyatrI. KS XIX. 2. According in keeps TS V. 9. 6. 6 etc. Both of the two samyãjyãs are in the same metre. Because all this universe( jagat ) is based on this (earth). SB I. 2. Brhatï and Tristubhrespectively. 2. Thus there theearth. 1. III. 20 ). KB VIII. 3. Thus AB I. 8. the middleworldto . 286 following story themetres divided sharesin theworlds. Tristubh and JagatT respectively (JB 1. 3. 1. 5. 4. 4. the their Gâyatrïshared that Tristubh the and world middle world JagatT ( i.254). ofheavenis also identified Virãj. gâyatrï). are also identified general 381). For in a year there Brhatï with 10 VI. IV. G. 34. and the upperones are bigger.26. to be identical Metres are sometimes supposed with the year ( samvatsaro vai Thus TS II. 7.. Sometimes 15 theheavenis identified are identified (JB II. 4.339. 11 givesa reasonwhy the earthis Jagatï. 11 ) . 9 it is said. but sometimes withJagatï( SB XII.. 1. 4. 1.23. therefore the earthwith is Jagatï( cp. Bhandarkar160thBirth-Anniversary Volume offers witha Tristubh-verse the lowerteethare smaller ( 44 syll. e. At the time of the middaythe one sings praises with the help of pavamãna-laudin Agnistoma-sacrifice metres and thisis forthesake of keeping the worldsjoint.and Brãhmana. 4. and castes are sometimes Metres connected. All the metresin withheaven( chandämsivai svargo lokah JB II. JB I. Tristubh. 2. This content downloaded from 94. 10 identifies thisearth withsome metres. 4. 224 . MS II. 2. 8 . 5. Thus TMB 3. ). Thus the ritualistic use of themetres to the all worlds contactwitheach other. world dhrtau middle and heavenare said to be identical ). 9 the worldswiththe metres( ime vai lokã etani chandämsi). this world ( i.). twelve are twelvefull-moon-days. The world Brhatïand heavenly world withTristubh.). 2. withthe year or seasons.4. cp. is given: 14 When KPKS XXIX. Elsewhere with Gâyatrï. eighth days ( afterthe full-moon-days ) and and Brhatï also has This makes the numberthirty-six twelve new-moon-days. 28 mystically with connects Gâyatrï. theheaven ) earth). 2 Gâyatrï is identified theyear. Therefore. 2. and thatworld The earthhas been sometimes identified Tristubh to Jagatï with GãyatrI (SB I. Therefore themolars are of equal size ( SB XI.454 ABORl : R. identifies ¿B 4. identifies VI. 8. SB VI. 3 ). Thus many factors of themacrocosm use of the metres( see also on themicrocosmic depend JB 1.

autumn. Metres are also identified e. and winter summer. are also described to be bornout of theseasons. ŠB VIII.85. 11. 1 ). withthe autumnand Pañkti withthe Jagatïwiththe rainyseason. The metresare considered rather thanmerely magicoreligiously performmagically. The metresare.Theyhelpthesacrificial ance in manywaysthechief of which is that theyoftenbecomea measurement of the sacrifice are whichis a measuredactivity par excellence. respectively. According belongto the Anustubh-metre. of theuse of metres important significance Whilerecapitulating the important pointsin the studyof metresin the Veda we mustnotethatmetres in the are considered to be verymuch important sacrificein which thereare numerous or songs whichare in some recitations to be powersubstances. Thus GãyatrI ). The sun is described to be belonging to the Brhatl-metre ( KPKS IV.They areconsidered MBh. 1 ff. Metresare an essentialpart of the Vedic music as can be seen from their close relations withsãmans and speech. TS IV. 3. thirty-six syllables.23.. Metres aresaidto beborn XIII. 24). 5 ff. SB IX. But one helpful also uses particular metres forparticular them. however. Metres and Pañkti are said to be born out of the spring.26. 2. withthe spring. Therefore SometimesGãyatrI is connected Tristubh with the Summer. againstthesacrifice aresometimes as dirty. 2 ff. 1. to TS V. 39 chanwiththedirections. 21 Jan 2014 09:16:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 19. 1. But theywork metres.157 on Tue. 3. 2. The godsin orderto propitiate metres are so closelyconnected withthem withgodsthatthey are often identified that the powerthe metrespossess is nothing but the and it seemssometimes divine power. They have a cosmic signiof double-nature11 ficance. 2. 1 thedirections dãmsi vai diéah. g. Thus looked down. oftheSautrâmanï-sacrifice is in BrhatI. 7 ). and can sometimes go as well as againstthegods. The sãmanwhich in course is to be sungafter of the sacrificer the consecration M. " Established in BrhatIthesun shines shines when the sãman in BrhatI is sung ( ŠB XII..Thite : The Doctrine of metresin the Veda +55 BrhatI is the year (see also ŠB XII. Similarlythe sacrificer 8. 19. 1. Gods oftenuse the metres for theirown purposes. Anustubh Tristubh. 5. The metres to gods. This content downloaded from 94. is Thus the metreshave a cosmiccharacter and thiscosmic character forthemagicoreligious in theritual. Jagatï. 3 2. rainyseason. MS II 7.19metres oatofPrajapati's sweatand therefore {svedãc* dirty chando malatmakam). Anustubh winter(KPKS XXV.