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The Sacred Cow in India : A Reappraisal Author(s): Amar Nath Pal Source: Indian Anthropologist, Vol. 26, No. 2 (December, 1996), pp. 53-62 Published by: Indian Anthropological Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41919804 . Accessed: 21/01/2014 09:08
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there a big ox to feeda distinguished (Prakash.26. namely. In thelaterpartof Vedic age.Ballygunge This content downloaded from 94. Calcutta Circular Road. 1954). 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .C. was a popularcustom of Kosambi. debatedand widely eatingtoo. intheIndusvalley.23.1970). Historical background The historical recordsrevealampleevidencesof thecattlein Indian thebullsamongall animals Around 3000 B.cattlewere a sourceof food and a measureof wealth(Brown.C.U. AMAR NATH PAL. anthropology. 35.1961). sociology.1964. 53-62 Anthropologist The Sacred Cow in India : A Reappraisal Amar Nath Pal Introduction The doctrineof the sanctity of the cow is regardedas one of the The Hindusplace thecows dominant theHinduculture.157 on Tue. words to Throughout Vedic types distinguish specialized period. economics. University Department . were used forsacredpurposes(Basham. It discussesbriefly about the originof thiscultural traitand seeks to theoretical controversies It concludeswithan attempt to providea possible their limitations. identify solution of thesacredcow dilemma.Indian (1996) 26 : 2 . the various of cattle.G. subcontinent. of Calcutta.Thispaperintends the cow has been placed in the annalsof Indian history. Vedic age2.700019. The various of disciplines. The Indian sacredcow has become a highly a number thescholars from acclaimed among topicthat getsimmense popularity etc. In thefollowing of Veda3 mention several The cattlewereof greater hymns Rig importance. as on theorigin of thisidea of "sacredcow" is debatable discourses byscholars thewaysinwhich the torecord itis stilla controversial issue. guestforhis honour killing his service withcattleforrendering Even thesacrificial priestwas rewarded of Anthropology.Fellow. symbols representing term on a level higher than other animalsand assigna glorified go-mata(cowbeef and consequently This prohibits theveryacts of cow-slaughter mother).
support This content downloaded from 94. They. imperialreligion. Lodrick 1981).D.1954).someMuslim rulers towards thecows as reconciliation showed with theHindus (Parel respect 1969). antipathy further theMaury on it. (1542forbidding the of the cow. the to fourth A. 1961).. point Brahmarçism in From the third 185-72 B. every After theestablishment of theMuslimregime in India. objectsand like etc. to the Brahmins were incharge mainly According Sutras. On the whole. The to thedoctrine of ahimsa appearedfirst in the Chandogya textual reference marked the This was of theold Vedic by Upanishad5 disappearance period the favoured tradition. B. Vaishnavism or theKrishna cultremained dormant forsome centuries. thegreat Maratha rulet for Shivaji(1627-1680)usedcow symbolically political The protection ofcow gave himthepopular for hisopposition purpose. It was in the15th revived ofVaishnav and century bytheappearance poetsandsaints. It hada significant Sacrifice was the economic performances. Asoka (304rigidity imposed emperor 232 B. The centuries thedoctrine following Upanishadicage in Brahmanical circles. the doctrine of 4 ahimsa or special sanctity on thecow was absentin theVedicliterature except in onlythebarest manner at its veryend whenit appeared (Brown1964). deity offerings in theseventh Withthe inception of Buddhism and Jainism century B. the the ofsacrificing animals. particular.C.1964). ofstatesmanship. also the translation of BhagwatPurana intoHindi.C. As the Krishnalegend maninIndia. 7 8 and the the Bhagavata Gita Manusmriti Arthasastra remained 6. equivocal and ambivalent on thisissue (Brown.157 on Tue.To theVedicpeopletheimportance roleinritual one. 17th 1605) madeinjunctions against slaughter During century.C. 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Cattlewerethechiefsacrificial cornerstone of the Vedic rituals.26. came the doctrine of ahimsa in its fullestmanner.Krishna's cow becamethecow-mother of appealedtothecommon Hindu (Lai 1967). Lord opposition posed a fundamental againstBrahmanical in had to animal sacrificewhereasJainism Buddha.. were offered their as oblation to the milk.C. Both the religious traditions sacrifice. as a matter promulgated antislaughter legislation. Akbar Babar(1483-1530)hadissuedafarman cow slaughter. ghee (butter products Vedic deities (Brown 1964. oil).He set the example of vegetarianism of meatalmostto a vanishing theroyalhousehold'sconsumption curtailing A revival of followed with theriseofSunga (Kosambi 1970).54 THESACRED COW ofcattle was notmerely an (Basham.D.) becameadherent to thedoctrine of ahimsaand madeBuddhism an in his own palace. animalkillings wererestricted to theextent of honouring guests andfor (Prakash. Dynasty centüry century oftheconcept ofahimsawas notclearas theclassicaltexts therealposition viz. ofBuddhism During period preceding emergence and Jainism. Fromthethird A.23.During a period. the century ofbeefwas discouraged andfinally ittooktheshapeofa tabooby consumption theKrishna cultofVaishnavism9 which also started atthesametime (Lai 1967).
mainly religious thefigurative These are .According is surplus and itresults thecattle population is in hármony thepresent to techno-environmentalists. After analyzing a ofat He identifies constellation as beingprimarily inorigin. hencethepopulation size. Classical Approach thesacredcow Brown(1964) refers theclassicaltexts. Gandhi's vision came under the "Directive In the Constitution of the StatePolicy" (Article48). through surplus.1969). andtheBritish sincethey Muslims But he itemwithin Hinduism. religious concept to theemergence in nature. The political Shivaji festival of cow becamea rallying againstboththe symbol pointforHinduresistance Mahatma Gandhialso spoke arebeefeaters. themother Goddesscult. In 1952. mainly suggests of cow as religiously a purelyclassical approachwhich sees the sanctity viewbyrelating itwith thetechnotakesan opposite whiletheother determined that ofclassicalapproach areofopinion factors. negative. 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and theahimsa of thecow with cows. as contributing leastfiveelements. theCentralCouncil of Principles was set up to fasten Councilof CattleImprovement) Gosamvardhana (Central of cattlebreeding Hindufeelings forthecow withmodern traditional concept in India's economy have led and care.The holinessof cow and its importance on theban ofcow slaughter. mostof thestatesin India to enactlegislation Theoretical Controversy existsamongthe scholars amountof disagreement A considerable of all theories of thesacredcow in India.D.C.157 on Tue. B. of cows as an inseparable manytimesin favour Gandhimostprobably thebeefeaterMuslims. A. nationalist (Cow up Dayananda as an important Protection Society) in 1882 and made "cow protection" Bal Gangadhar Tïlakstarted the of Indiansolidarity. and aggressive anti-Muslim Instead. these. large. day cattlepopulation is not withnature. and their literal use of wordsforthecow in the Vedic literature subsequent of the Brahmin's violations in the Vedas against prohibitions interpretation.23. never incited theHindusagainst Sabha. of his concept component and made thecow symbolan integral partof it.Indian (1996)26 : 2 Anthropologist 55 theIndian totheMuslimrule. anti-Muslim theviolently Hindusawayfrom of India. The proponents environmental from theactofahimsa.In doingso. he tried Gorakhshini Sabhas (Parel. implies to keepthe Go Seva Sangh(Cow ServiceSociety)in 1924. to 4thcentury aboutthe5thcentury This content downloaded from 94. of theseconcepts.A closerexamination overtheorigin of different One assumes fall under two these lines that thought.Cow was also usedas thepolitical symbol during set Gorakhshini Sabha Saraswati movement.26.theroleof cattlein Vedicritual.thetermRaksha s Gorakhshini did not support Dayananda' he founded connotation. theassociation from and itgainedground utmost was of Of ahimsa importance concept. For him.
whereas theMuslim for the preference preference . thesurplus is 30 millions.there of 1 cow to 3 bullocksfrom have found Heston(1971). He opinesthatthepredominance of cow amongtheHindusappearsto reflect a religious for thecow. religion largeholdings thesurplus Misra (1973) observesthat bovinesin India datesback at to leasttothe19th areindeedsurplus atpresent bovines century. thenumber ofbullocks hasreduced. years. he arguesthatthepresent bullock institutional arrangements is verymuchneededwhiletheexistence of largenumber of cows population In terms of bullock-replacement. he calculatesthat India had 43.5 of millions Pradesh. thesameprinciples ofDandekar. outthe extent of surplus cow at 19. The two districts Hinduand other (one is predominantly Muslim) were neighbouring chosenfor thepurpose. Freedand Freed(1972. 1981).and Sind withRajasthan that theHindu He remarks of female does lead to unusually cattle.50% surpluscows in 1961. they outthat about32 cows would have been sufficient theexisting stockof bullocks. In terms of bullock- This content downloaded from 94. seems to be unjustified. Similarresultsare obtainedwhenhe with ofEast Pakistan AssamandWestBengal. applying showsthat thestate Uttar adult bovine male of 72. In 1977-78. In dependent were95 bullocks and47 cows in thevillage.37% bytaking a of 2.WestPunjaband parts compares and Gujarat. calving Hestonand others.thesuperiority buffalo is based on economic consideration ofthebuffalo as a milkanimalunderlocal conditions.4 His interval is to similar that of conclusion Dandekar.26. 1969a) assertsthatthe bullocksare essentialfor in India and cows are keptchiefly forproducing youngbullocksin ploughing and orderto maintain bullockstock.thevillageagriculture was totally on bullocks. in explaining theinfluence of religion on thedemography of cattle.56 THESACRED COW Dandekar(1964. According him. East Punjab. This huge surplus resultsfrom the Hindusentiment to thecow. From1958leavinga surplus 59 to 1977-78. present population for as opposed wouldrequire itsmaintenance females only24 millions breeding to theactual54 millions. He works as itwas before.Adopting theratio 1958-59. whiletheHindus do favour cow overbuffalo a ratio ofalmost by 4 to 1. to maintain ofabout15 cows or47% (FreedandFreed1972).Considering theprevailing technology in agriculture. He finds female Therefore. in Heston( 197 1). thus eliminatingthe agriculturalvariables. of cow in districts Hindupopulation higher proportion havingpredominantly thandistricts dominated by Muslims.In the1950s. 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . only keep notcows atall. His samplesshowthat theMuslims buffaloes. Lodrick(1979) explores theimpact of religion on cattle in population urban situation. themajortechno-environmental of changewas theintroduction tractor for As a result.therewere only 12 bullocksand 47 cows. made a diachronic micro-level at a village study level.157 on Tue.23. agriculture operation.
157 on Tue. to be an the It derives of Hindus. butitdoes not (1974) remarks that thecattleare unaffected suggest byahimsa. is done within Ploughing veryshort of time which farmers take no risk of animals from period hiring draught during others. ofcattle which Butthis limit beyond population.As thelandsarefacing fragmentation.1969b. This content downloaded from 94. Azzi speak of thepossessionof cows by a largenumber that cow mayhavesomeeconomicimportance. thisis an ancienttraitwhichdevelopedunder According different in the conditions from thosefound vastly ecologicalanddemographic present day.Thusthetechnoenvironmental function for thepresence ofmost ofthecows hasbeeneliminated and their existence is ascribedto thereligious veneration of cows (Freed and Freed. and policies as positivefunctioned of whichtheyare a part. It is a falsified statement. is featured 1966). leavinga surplus 43 cows.26. for human menand under fodder cultivation wouldbe diverted uses. 1966). draught (Vaidyanathan.Indianagriculture byprivate ownership. cattlealwaysdo compete forexistence (Dandekar.The cattle usedfor arechiefly traction. Techno-EnvironmentalApproach Harris(1966) explainstheentire cattlecomplexof Indiain ecological He addressescattlemanagement terms. Harris. 1978). notthecow. 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . from identity appears ecological meaning in since India.is theanimalofchoicefor theproduction ofmilk. Harris makesan association between cattle andagro-economic complex inIndia. Therefore.as heconsiders. system dungandhide. According pressures the statistical cattledemography and agriculture does not correlation between of landlesspeople. cows givebirth tocalves andthus playa crucialroleinmaintaining bovinestock(Harris. also Because cropresiduesand other cropsused as fodder If thecattleareless.Indian (1996)26 : 2 Anthropologist 57 of replacement. probably adaptiveprocessof theecological system rather than theinfluence The sanctity ofHindutheology.1966). (Diener.etc. process operates uptoa certain cost of cattlecompelsfarmers to give up theownership of highmaintenance animals Nair and this theoretical Harris. smallholding a size and seasonalrainfall. ecologicalentity.1971). In addition. gheeanddung.Heston. there but to a is no other number of cattle Therefore. However. It is a naive statement India a singleunified was never regularities rather itis a cultural NoniniandRobkin.1981).23. ofcow. formulation facesunrelenting toCrotty (1982). Not onlythecows appearto be surplus in boththeperiods. unity to Alland (1975). 1982). from others. are they also uneconomic becausethecattle censusshowthat thebuffalo. Harris further reasons outtheadaptiveness complex 'Men and bovinecattledo notcompeteforexistence'(Harris.thelandput havealternative uses forhuman consumption. onlyabout4 cows wouldhavebeenrequired. (Bhatia way possess itleadstothegrowth 1963. ofcattle andstates. milk.
33 orevenlowerinseveral also computes theratio is around Notall of thesedistricts have largeMuslim districts ofWestern Uttar Pradesh. Production Function'. according cows in all and as such cow is almost ceremonies worshiponly religious accordedspecial sanctity other amongthem. Theclassicaltheorists see thecow cultas oneoftheancient Hinduvaluesystem. benefit ofhiswritings a largenumber ofcattle starvation. may Dandekar(1970) opposes the use of not have exceeded thedesirednumber.1966. Limitations The classical and techno-environmental theoriststhough have the of their scholastic views on basis advanced analysisof cattle demographic the stilltheapproaches have got certain limitations judgingfrom population.58 THESACRED COW theHindusnever Harris cows. productive Raj (1969) establishes the age-sex compositionof the required demandof USA. religious Rao (1969) advances his view which is based on 'Cobb-Douglas ofmilch as he suggests.1978). 1977). in the 3rd centuryA. It theHindusis a statewhicharisesoutof unconsciousness that the mode of starvation statement. followvegetarianism the of their to dictum sects.D.23.Thedoctrines ofBuddhism.though religions. 1974.demonstrates or unknowingness. traits and Jainism in the7thcentury that came withtheriseof Buddhism B. thanin religion. population sentiment does notoperate on itsdemography.C.157 on Tue. because the productivity. inmost limited. The and laterpopularisedwiththe Vaishnavism of thisstatement is undoubtedly true. evidences is a fallacious Empirical prove starve thosecattle that areless deliberate andtheHindus is entirely consciously or have lost usefulness (Sebring. undergoes or neglect of cattleby that starvation (Harris. The actualnumber animals.Do thecows have significance thanreligiousone ? These are the questionswhichdo not findadequate in classical theoretical model. a of consumption livestockpopulationforgiven pattern He then and of an India.but it stillcasts doubton authenticity other areas. How and whythecows. 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and as a result. are drawn the milk butalso from not from least only region producing samples rather than where buffaloes cows predominate (Misra. Raj (1971) ofcow tobullock 0. Jainism andVaishnavism ahimsa preach towards all animalsnotspeciallycows. notanyother thepeopleofthese cametobe a symbol in Hindutheology ? Eventoday animal. shouldbe based correct formulation and arguesthat 'Cobb-DouglasFunction' on marginal is not free from Rao's estimation bias.becausepeopleget slaughter opinesthat are As the pastureand cattlefeed fromthosetill their(cattle)death. underdeveloped compares developedcountry and there therequired with theobserved outthat is consumption pattern points nomarked differences between thetwoinboth USA andIndia.26. thecause lies elsewhere Following population that base and he concludes thecattle ofIndiahaveeconomic Harris. He. country. expfanation This content downloaded from 94.Later.1987).
section Only slaughter aged themdo it and neglectthemto deathdue theirpoor economicconditions. babies. area. fully aspect Conclusion stated that thesanctity Whilereviewing thetopic.26. a caste and have number of tribal lower caste Hindus.This is indeedan ironical majority theHindusdo notsell their the a of cows to house. part. be completely riotsbetweenHindus and ignored. Earlierattempts explainthecattlecomplexfrom credentials in ambit to getmodern of view. popular According present results from theadaptation to agro-ecological and daycattle population system is never under theinfluence ofreligion. Epistemologically.they The eldest membersof such familiessometimesbecome nostalgicwhile to other members who associatedwith thosecattle narrating family pastevents listen in rural tothem with Even new born attention.itcan be positively ofcow inIndiais nota recent Itsgenesisdatesbackat leastto the phenomenon. killing by Hindu sentiment. a religious 7thcentury B.157 on Tue. ecological perspective. polarised This content downloaded from 94. implies Hindusdo notlove and respect their rather what do is cows. of statement. upper great people given theconceptof ahimsaimposesban on beef-eating Moreover.It emanates from itsreligious point the in Marvin Harris who theworks 1960slargely of explains problem through and the hiatus between the two increased Since then. turn. The techno-environmentalists further comment thatthe Hindus are or either sell the cattle to house starve themto death rational. specially rapt aregiventhenamesoftheir havelost. opposedto ahimsa. to see in almostall citiesthat theMuslimproprietors of hotelsand restaurants locatedin areaswith mixedpopulation "No-Beef' written on hanga boardwith it to attract Hindusthere. The Hindu fundamentalists raised occasionally slogans in whichban on cow-slaughter In emulate took a significant order to position. the etic of from culture. they just-being In reality. which Hindusto takea very It is notunusual prohibits cheapsourceofprotein. they slaughter when lose their economic in that the This. theroleofreligion cannot Nevertheless. up beef-eating. In many love towards cows is stillreflected mourn houses. only they potentialities. them. debate.C.as a matter by two sharply theories. Milkmen in thecityof Calcuttaand other areasiiold-the-same suburban view.Indian (1996)26 : 2 Anthropologist 59 The techno-environmental whileestablishing their standin theorists.At the timeof communal indiscriminate of cows the latter was an attempt on to strike Muslims. this have also done some to the errors.All thesephenomena do notrule out theeffect of atleast in on the of cattle religion. divided the entire of fact. fortheir cattlewhichare sold out to slaughter occasions. But their in a number of ways.Thereseemsto be a majortheoretical limitation of transformative theemicaspectcan notbe derived ruleinempirical analysis.is marked discussion. 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . management population.23.Theseinstances belovedcows whom they show that theactionof Hindusin thiscontext is notalwaysan expression of their belief.
Vedanga. allegorical 6.26.thesacredcow encompasses an intricate between relationship and It factors. . . andis marked successive byfour .C. would be unrealistic to trace which economic-ecological religious one precedes theother. byreligious prescription. 3. results intoa largenumber of emaciated cattle which importance are indeeduneconomic and less adaptive too. the feedbackmechanismis not balanced as the overdue on theahimsa. 4. Theearliest which isattached toSamaveda and isaligned with the Upanishad teaching ofpantheism. Itstext ishighly andsymbolic.C. 9. century 8.With to the Indian regard cattle complex. upto A. Vedas-Rigveda. This content downloaded from 94.The analytical of each one power gets momentum if it recognizesthe importance of the otherone. important andBhagavata Purana. to each limitations. Calcutta.the byseveral such as Rama. in fact. philosophy containing gospel 7.157 on Tue. to400B. phenomenon operates well ifitis protected On theother thepositively hand. the limitations of one theory are thesourceof explanation fortheother theory. A monotheistic tradition that centres round the ofthe Visnu. form 5. must be viewed within the of framework feedback They An ecologically adaptivesocio-cultural relationship. Moreover. Itis written and anaccount ofIndian customs and byKautilya gives society. themostimportant issue is whether thefeedback mechanism is in balanceor not.D. functioned whenit is economically religious phenomenon performs smoothly viable and ecologicallyadaptive. 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .60 THESACRED COW The polemicsclustering around thesacredcow dilemma havealready reached its pinnacle withouthavinga single exposure to its solution.In thiscontext. period Samaveda and Athararvaveda. both the analyticalmodels. This isbased ona paper submitted for "Research inSocial report Training Programme atCentre ForStudies inSocialSciences. Itdepicts ancient Indian codified social customs andpractices the fourth laws. practices between 1000B. most ofwhich dealwith A few ofthem alsocontain socio-historical andphilosophical mythology. Notes 1. Concise form ofHindu the ofKrishnaism. In India.Samhita. Yajurveda. Theearliest Vedathat contains a large number ofhymns. Since religious worship the Vedic cult of Visnu modifications hasundergone incarnations age. (1988-89)" Anthropology 2. Theperiod extends from 3000B. Brahmana andSutra In stages Upanishadic four collections oftext from the Samhita arereferred toas the four particular. They are.C. Krishna etc.23.complementary other and constitute twosides of a coin. Inits the most ones are Mahabharata literatures. aspects. TheIndian doctrine ofnon-violence ornon-injury toany oflife.In theoretical parlance.C. to200 B.Aranyaka. thoughhave theirown are equally important.
Ethnology 399-408. /Cows. ofcultures.M. Anapproach tothe sacred cowofIndia. Economic andPolitical production 5: 527. Deryck setting.B. ofthe ofthe continent the Muslims.L. inCow : Horns Lai.529-31. : Lalvani House. W. complex.Cannibals : Theorigins andkings NewYork : Random House. Economic 16:245-55. Weekly : 1982. Alan. Weekly Donald andEugene Robkin Thedialectics 1978. Indiain historical outline. 1977. 1970. This content downloaded from 94.26. Sacred cattle andmore sacred functions.Adaptation. Famines inIndia.1964. Anthropology 209. Berkeley S. Weekly . . Thesanctity ofthe cowinHinduism. 1981.1963. cow: Diener. Weekly 1559-67. andRuth 1972. 1969b. Crotty.D. 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Anthropology A. by A. Freed. Current 1 Harris. B. ecology Anthropology : 51-66. 1969a. survey. versus in theorigins of India's sacred cattle Ecological adaptation political appropriation Dialectical 3: 221-41.Indian (1996) 26 : 2 Anthropologist References Alexander 1975. House. Sociological 22 : 297-308. 15-34. Corry Anthropology Bas A. Theculture and civilization Kosambi. cows. ecology. Raymond species by a K. Current 15:317-24. pp. Dandekar. Economic andPolitical 4: 1267-69. ofculture. 1271. 1974. Nonini. Anthropology . . 20 : 241-42. 1971.Normal 1964.Nair andM Harris. 1973. ofthesacred Paul. Problem ofnumbers in cattle. . Comment on Bovine sex and ratios in India. Brown. More on India's sacred cattle. Annual Review Ailand. Azzi. 1981. Cowdung models.Surplus cattle in India: A critical Bulletin Mishra. The wonder that wasíndia : A survey culture Indian subham. : Sidewisk London and before coming ofthe jackson.157 on Tue. Weekly India's sacred cattle andcultural Economic andPolitical 4: . 1970.1954.Mukandi Edited slaughter ofa dilemma. "Cow cult inIndia".M. of ancient Delhi : Vikas House. Anthropology Marvin 1966. Cattle ina North S. Current 12: 191Heston. Current 22 : 483-502. wars andwitches : Theriddles NewYork : Random pigs. Vaidyanathan. Stanley village. On religion andmilk bovines in an urban Indian Current Lodrick.Thecultural ofIndia's sacred cattle. Economic 355. Bombay Publishing 1979. places: Origin : University ofCalifornia Press. Sacred sacred andsurvival of animal homes in India. Publishing 1967.Shah. 16:331-53. of Anthropology 1974. NewYork : AsiaPublishing House. Current 23: 375. D. Bhatia. 4:59-73.N.N. cowsandwater Sacred buffalo in India : Theusesof ethnography. indian 11: Freed.23. . Anthropology V.
62 THESACRED COW . Political Studies Om1961. of Anthropological andM. December..23. 21 Jan 2014 09:08:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thepolitical ofthe cowinIndia. Harris. 1978. Review concerning . (From A. Weekly India's cattle : Some results. Sebring.H.). sexandspecies Bovine ratios in India.26. Weekly of Agriculture pp225-27.N.N. Anthony symbolism ofCommonwealth 7: 179-203.K. 1200 Frakash. K. Anthropology This content downloaded from 94. : Theories India's sacred cattle andempirical Economic andPolitical findings. 6: 717-22. Economic andPolitical Rao. 1971. New DelhiVikas House. Indian Economic 4 : 1-33. Current 23 : 365-83. A. Research 43 : 309-24.Nair Vaidyanathan. Delhi: Munshi Ram Manoharlal. Journal Parel. planning Publishing 1969. James Journal 1987.H.1969. Foodanddrinks inancient India earliest times toC. Liverstock inindia. Bovidicy.C.157 on Tue. Investment inlivestock inagrarian : Ananalysis economics ofsome issues Raj.1969. 'sacred cows* and'surplus cattle*. 'surplus' empirical Review .D. 1982.
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