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Molecular Biochemistry II

Rohit Jhawer

I have reviewed this document 2006.10.14 19:03:40 +05'30'

Fatty Acid Synthesis

O H3C C SCoA

acetyl-CoA

The input to fatty acid synthesis is acetyl-CoA, which is carboxylated to malonyl-CoA.

OOC

CH2

SCoA

malonyl-CoA

ATP-dependent carboxylation provides energy input. The CO2 is lost later during condensation with the growing fatty acid. The spontaneous decarboxylation drives the condensation reaction.

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase catalyzes the 2-step reaction by which acetyl-CoA is carboxylated to form malonyl-CoA.

Enzyme-biotin HCO3 + ATP ADP + Pi Enzyme-biotin-CO2 O CH3-C-SCoA acetyl-CoA


-

ll

2
Enzyme-biotin O
ll

O2C-CH2-C-SCoA malonyl-CoA

As with other carboxylation reactions, the enzyme prosthetic group is biotin. ATP-dependent carboxylation of the biotin, carried out at one active site 1 , is followed by transfer of the carboxyl group to acetyl-CoA at a second active site 2 .

Enzyme-biotin HCO3 + ATP ADP + Pi Enzyme-biotin-CO2 O CH3-C-SCoA acetyl-CoA


-

ll

2
Enzyme-biotin O
ll

O2C-CH2-C-SCoA malonyl-CoA

The overall reaction, which is spontaneous, may be summarized as: HCO3 + ATP + acetyl-CoA ADP + Pi + malonyl-CoA

O O C O N C NH CH CH H2C S CH O (CH2)4 C NH O C

(CH2)4 CH

Carboxybiotin

lysine NH residue

Biotin is linked to the enzyme by an amide bond between the terminal carboxyl of the biotin side chain and the -amino group of a lysine residue. The combined biotin and lysine side chains act as a long flexible arm that allows the biotin ring to translocate between the 2 active sites.

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase, which converts acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, is the committed step of the fatty acid synthesis pathway. The mammalian enzyme is regulated, by phosphorylation allosteric regulation by local metabolites. The active conformation of the enzyme associates in multimeric filamentous complexes. The inactive conformation of the enzyme exists as individual protomers.

AMP-Activated Kinase catalyzes Citrate Palmitoyl-CoA phosphorylation of Acetyl-CoA Dephosphorylated, Phosphorylated, e.g., via e.g., by insulinCarboxylase, AMP-activated Kinase activated Protein when cellular stress or causing Phosphatase exercise depletes ATP. inhibition. Phosphorylation Dephosphorylated Polymer of causes the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (active) filamentous Regulation of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase enzyme to dissociate into inactive monomers. This prevents energy-utilizing fatty acid synthesis when cellular energy stores are depleted (when ATP has been dephosphorylated all the way to AMP).

Phosphorylated protomer of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (inactive)

O H3C C

SCoA

The role of AMPActivated Kinase is significant even in tissues (e.g., cardiac muscle) that do not significantly synthesize fatty acids.

acetyl-CoA ATP + HCO3 ADP + Pi

O OOC CH2 C

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (inhibited by AMP-Activated Kinase)


SCoA

malonyl-CoA

In such tissues malonyl-CoA, produced via one isoform of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase, functions mainly as an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. When AMP is high (ATP low), malonyl-CoA production is diminished, releasing fatty acid oxidation from inhibition.

O H3C C SCoA

acetyl-CoA
O

OOC

CH2

SCoA

malonyl-CoA

A cAMP cascade, activated by glucagon & epinephrine when blood glucose is low, may also result in phosphorylation of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase via cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase. With Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase inhibited, acetyl-CoA remains available for synthesis of ketone bodies, the alternative metabolic fuel used when blood glucose is low.

Phosphorylated protomer of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (inactive) Citrate


Dephosphorylated, e.g., by insulinactivated Protein Phosphatase

Palmitoyl-CoA
Phosphorylated, e.g., via AMP-activated Kinase when cellular stress or exercise depletes ATP.

Dephosphorylated Polymer of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (active) Regulation of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase

The antagonistic effect of insulin, produced when blood glucose is high, is attributed to activation of Protein Phosphatase.

Regulation by local metabolites: Palmitoyl-CoA (product of Fatty Acid Synthase) promotes the inactive protomer state of AcetylCoA Carboxylase (feedback inhibition).

Phosphorylated protomer of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (inactive) Citrate


Dephosphorylated, e.g., by insulinactivated Protein Phosphatase

Palmitoyl-CoA
Phosphorylated, e.g., via AMP-activated Kinase when cellular stress or exercise depletes ATP.

Dephosphorylated Polymer of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (active) Regulation of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase

Citrate activates Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase, promoting activation & enzyme polymerization. [Citrate] is high when there is adequate acetyl-CoA entering Krebs Cycle. Excess acetyl-CoA is converted to fatty acids for storage.

Fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA & malonyl-CoA occurs by a series of reactions that are: in bacteria catalyzed by seven separate enzymes. in mammals catalyzed by individual domains of a single large polypeptide. Evolution of the mammalian Fatty Acid Synthase apparently has involved gene fusion. NADPH serves as electron donor in two reactions involving substrate reduction. The NADPH is produced mainly by the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.

H H3N+ C CH2 SH COO

SH CH2 CH2 NH C CH2 CH2 NH C HO H3C C C H2C O H CH3 O O P O O O

Coenzyme A
-mercaptoethylamine

cysteine Fatty Acid Synthase prosthetic groups:

the thiol of the sidechain of a cysteine residue of Condensing Enzyme domain. the thiol of phosphopantetheine, equivalent in structure to part of coenzyme A.

pantothenate
NH2 N

ADP-3'phosphate
O P O O

N CH2 H H O

N O H H OH O

phosphopantetheine

P O

SH

Phosphopantetheine (Pant) is covalently linked via a phosphate ester to a serine OH of the acyl carrier protein domain of Fatty Acid Synthase. The long flexible arm of phosphopantetheine allows its thiol to move from one active site to another within the complex.

CH2 CH2 NH C CH2 CH2 NH C HO H 3C C C H2C O H CH3 O O P O

phosphopantetheine of acyl carrier protein -mercaptoethylamine

pantothenate

NH O CH2 CH C

serine residue
O

phosphate

Individual steps of the Fatty Acid Synthase reaction pathway are catalyzed by the catalytic domains listed. Fatty Acid Synthase complex is an obligate dimer. Within each monomer, the order of enzyme domains along the primary sequence of the protein is summarized below. There is still debate over the arrangement of domains in 3D within the complex. An atomic resolution structure of the entire complex has not yet been achieved.
Malonyl/acetyl-CoA Dehydratase Enoyl -Ketoacyl ACP Thioesterase N- Condensing -C Enzyme (Cys) Transacylase (Ser) Reductase Reductase (Pant)

Order of domains in primary structure of mammalian Fatty Acid Synthase

Malonyl/acetyl-CoA Dehydratase Enoyl -Ketoacyl ACP Thioesterase N- Condensing -C Enzyme (Cys) Transacylase (Ser) Reductase Reductase (Pant)

Order of domains in primary structure of mammalian Fatty Acid Synthase

As each of the substrates acetyl-CoA & malonyl-CoA bind to the complex, the initial attacking group is the oxygen of a serine hydroxyl group of the Malonyl/acetyl-CoA Transacylase enzyme domain. Each acetyl or malonyl moiety is transiently in ester linkage to this serine hydroxyl, before being transferred into thioester linkage with the phosphopantetheine thiol of the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. Acetate is subsequently transferred to a cysteine thiol of the Condensing Enzyme domain.

acetyl-S-CoA HS-CoA Pant SH Cys SH

malonyl-S-CoA HS-CoA Cys S C CH3 O Pant Cys S O C CH3 O

CO2 Pant Cys SH O

Pant

SH

S C CH2

S C CH2 C CH3 O

1 Malonyl/acetyl-CoA-ACP Transacylase COO 2 Malonyl/acetyl-CoA-ACP Transacylase 3 Condensing Enzyme ( -Ketoacyl Synthase)

The condensation reaction (step 3) involves decarboxylation of the malonyl moiety, followed by attack of the resultant carbanion on the carbonyl carbon of the acetyl (or acyl) moiety.

NADPH NADP+ Pant S C CH2 C CH3 O O Cys SH Pant Cys SH O

H2O Pant

NADPH NADP+ Cys SH O Pant Cys SH O

S C CH2 HC CH3

S C CH

S C CH2 CH2 CH3

OH

HC CH3

4 -Ketoacyl-ACP Reductase 5 -Hydroxyacyl-ACP Dehydratase 6 Enoyl-ACP Reductase

4. The -ketone is reduced to an alcohol by e transfer from NADPH. 5. Dehydration yields a trans double bond. 6. Reduction by NADPH yields a saturated chain.

Malonyl-S-CoA HS-CoA Pant S C CH2 CH2 CH3 O Cys SH Pant Cys S C CH2 CH2 CH3 O Pant Cys S O C CH2 CH2 CH3 O

SH

S C CH2 COO

7 Condensing Enzyme 2 Malonyl/acetyl-CoA-ACP Transacylase (repeat).

Following transfer of the growing fatty acid from phosphopantetheine to the Condensing Enzyme's cysteine sulfhydryl, the cycle begins again, with another malonyl-CoA.

Malonyl/acetyl-CoA Dehydratase Enoyl -Ketoacyl ACP Thioesterase N- Condensing -C Enzyme (Cys) Transacylase (Ser) Reductase Reductase (Pant)

Order of domains in primary structure of mammalian Fatty Acid Synthase

Product release: When the fatty acid is 16 carbon atoms long, a Thioesterase domain catalyzes hydrolysis of the thioester linking the fatty acid to phosphopantetheine. The 16-C saturated fatty acid palmitate is the final product of the Fatty Acid Synthase complex.

There is some evidence that the 2 copies of the multidomain enzyme are aligned antiparallel, as below. In the transfer step the growing fatty acid is preferentially passed from the ACP phosphopantetheine thiol of one subunit to the Condensing Enzyme cysteine thiol of the other subunit of the dimer. However intrasubunit substrate transfers also occur.

Pant-SH HS-Cys

Cys-SH HS-Pant

Fatty Acid Synthase dimer

Explore with Chime the structure of the E. coli -Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase III, equivalent to the domains of the mammalian Fatty Acid Synthase that catalyze the initial acetylation and condensation reactions.

Palmitate, a 16-C saturated fatty acid, is the final product of the Fatty Acid Synthase reactions. Summary (ignoring H+ & water): acetyl-CoA + 7 malonyl-CoA + 14 NADPH palmitate + 7 CO2 + 14 NADP+ + 8 CoA Accounting for ATP-dependent synthesis of malonate: 8 acetyl-CoA + 14 NADPH + 7 ATP palmitate + 14 NADP+ + 8 CoA + 7 ADP + 7 Pi Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytosol. Acetyl-CoA generated in mitochondria is transported to the cytosol via a shuttle mechanism involving citrate.

-Oxidation & Fatty Acid Synthesis Compared


Oxidation Pathway Fatty Acid Synthesis pathway location acyl carriers (thiols) e acceptors/donor -OH intermediate 2-C product/donor mitochondrial matrix Coenzyme-A FAD & NAD+ L acetyl-CoA cytosol phosphopantetheine (ACP) & cysteine NADPH D malonyl-CoA (& acetyl-CoA)

Fatty Acid Synthase is transcriptionally regulated. In liver: Insulin, a hormone produced when blood glucose is high, stimulates Fatty Acid Synthase expression. Thus excess glucose is stored as fat. Transcription factors that that mediate the stimulatory effect of insulin include USFs (upstream stimulatory factors) and SREBP-1. SREBPs (sterol response element binding proteins) were first identified for their regulation of cholesterol synthesis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids diminish transcription of the Fatty Acid Synthase gene in liver cells, by suppressing production of SREBPs.

In fat cells: Expression of SREBP-1 and of Fatty Acid Synthase is inhibited by leptin, a hormone that has a role in regulating food intake and fat metabolism. Leptin is produced by fat cells in response to excess fat storage. Leptin regulates body weight by decreasing food intake, increasing energy expenditure, and inhibiting fatty acid synthesis.

Elongation beyond the 16-C length of the palmitate product of Fatty Acid Synthase occurs in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Fatty acid elongation within mitochondria involves the -oxidation pathway running in reverse, except that NADPH serves as electron donor for the final reduction step. Polyunsaturated fatty acids esterified to coenzyme A are substrates for the ER elongation machinery, which uses malonyl-CoA as donor of 2-carbon units.

10 9

O C OH

oleate 18:1 cis 9

Desaturases introduce double bonds at specific positions in a fatty acid chain. Mammalian cells are unable to produce double bonds at certain locations, e.g., 12. Thus some polyunsaturated fatty acids are dietary essentials, e.g., linoleic acid, 18:2 cis 9,12 (18 C atoms long, with cis double bonds at carbons 9-10 & 12-13).

10 9

O C OH

oleate 18:1 cis 9

Formation of a double bond in a fatty acid involves the following endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins in mammalian cells: NADH-cyt b5 Reductase, a flavoprotein with FAD as prosthetic group. Cytochrome b5, which may be a separate protein or a domain at one end of the desaturase. Desaturase, with an active site that contains two iron atoms complexed by histidine residues.

The desaturase catalyzes a mixed function oxidation reaction. There is a 4-electron reduction of O2 2 H2O as a fatty acid is oxidized to form a double bond. 2e pass from NADH to the desaturase via the FAD-containing reductase & cytochrome b5, the order of electron transfer being: NADH FAD cyt b5 desaturase 2e are extracted from the fatty acid as the double bond is formed. E.g., the overall reaction for desaturation of stearate (18:0) to form oleate (18:1 cis 9) is: stearate + NADH + H+ + O2 oleate + NAD+ + 2H2O