Strategies for Waste Management


V. Murugesan

R. Jayabalou

S. Nanjundan
M. Palanichamy

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Asian Academic Network for Environmental Safety and Waste Management
December 10 - 13, 2006

Editors V. Murugesan R. Jayabalou S. Nanjundan M. Palanichamy

Organised by

Department of Chemistry and !:'Centre with Potential for Excellence in Environmental Science Anna University, Chennai 600 025
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II 14. 3 15. 15 16. 23

E-Wastc Cannibalizing used PCs in government sector: Malaysia E-waste project Mus/ala Man, Md Yazid Mohd Saman and Wan Aezwani Wan Abu Bakar Conceptual model for E-waste recycle and reuse Arunoday Chakraborty, Rajat Chakraborty and Anjali Srivastava Electronics waste materials physicochemical analyses and remedial measures r Ramachandramoorthy E-waste: A serious problem for our planet R. AIolorvi::hi Solid Waste Treatment & Recycling (SWT & R) 99 75 87

89 91





29 II). 33 20. 35 43
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Solid waste management in Bangladesh: The present and future Iv/.Habibur Rahman Leaching characteristics of dioxins from MSW landfills containing incineration residues
}illlg-.Iill Kim, ......ollg- i.'(' 110m ami f)ol1g-llool1 1,('(' }




Use of GIS for logistics management and spatial planning for solid waste management: A case study for Dhaka city corporation JId Mafi::ur Rahman, Mohammad Ali and A.l.A. Chowdhury Asian regional research networking tor sustainable solid waste landfill management Kurian Joseph, C. Visvanathan, Chart Chiemchaisri, Gongming Zhou and S.FA. Basnayake



55 3. 63

4. 65

Refuse derived fuel - renewable energy from municipal solid waste 127 current practice and perspectives in Malaysia Puvaneswari Ramasamy Integrating local and foreign technology and resources to solve the MSW 129 management problem in Malaysia Sivapalan Kathiravale, Muhd Noor Muhd Yunusand Mohamad Puad Abu Isotope hydrology for groundwater contamination studies in sanitary
landfill at Pulau Burung, Penang, Malaysia Mohd Tadza Ahdul Rahman, Ismail Abustan, Nabsiah Abdul Wahid and Komarudin Samuding 131


Proceedings of/he 8'" AANESWM, December IO-l3. 2006 Anna Universi/y. Chennai. pp. III - 120




Md. Mathur Rahmanl*, Mohammad Ali2 and A.LA. ChowdhuryJ 'Department of Civil Engineering; 2Environmental Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology; 3Presidency University, Dhaka, Bangladesh *Corresponding author:


Waste management is a global environmcntal issue which concerns about both

d.economicaland environmental problems. Bangladesh, being a densely populated country
:.,,:: ith rapid growth w

of urbanization, faces these problems immensely. There has to be \~, 3ppropriate lanning for proper waste management by means of analysis of the waste p


f situationof the area. This

paper would deal with, how Geographical Information System
A model is designed

.ican uscd as a decision support tool for planning waste management. be

p.' orthe case study area in Dhaka city for the purpose of planning waste management. The f ~suggestions for amendments in the system through GIS based model would reduce the ;;'waste management workload to some extent and exhibit remedies for some of the SWM ~+,problemsin the case study area. The waste management issues are considered to solve


situation problems like proper allocation and relocation of waste bins, ncbeckfor unsuitability and proximity convenience due to waste bin to the users, for the } Rquired areas and future suggestions. The model on DCC study area data for the analysis ~. f'and theresults will suggest some modification in the existing system which is expected to . reduce the waste management workload to a certain extent.

~;tOI11e of the present


Dhaka, which is emerging as a mega city with a population of over 10 million,
is beset with problems of urban influx, inadequate infrastructure, and overburden managcmcnt capacity. Growing waste volume in this city has become one of the critical socia-economic and technical concerns like any other developing cities of the world. At

present,the waste generation rate in Dhaka is around 0.5 kg/day per capita. The rate is Dotconsiderably high compared with the rate of other developing countries; however, , thetotal amount of the waste generation is around 5,000 tonn. per day due to its large III

-- -


Solid Waste Treatment & Recycling

population. The generated waste, which shall be disposed appropriately in the future, will increase rapidly due to the economic and population growth. lL is, therdore, pen;eivcd that appropriate waste management measures are urgently needed to keep the city clean. "The Geographic Infonnation System (GIS) helps to manipulate data in the computer to simulate alternatives and to take the most effective decisions". A comprehensive GIS project for solid waste management, for the Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) can restructure the entire system of garbage collection, disposal and monitoring using GISMIS-GPS. Therefore. GIS-MIS-GPS for Solid Waste Management (SWM) envisions a future where GIS is recognized as an integral and indispensable information tool for civic management, serving the integrated infonnation needs of the citizens.

that (

as a ~ From updat

The objectives of the project
The specific objectives of this study include:
To mah: (iiS as a tool 14)(" aking decisions on investment in infrastructure m 1;I\;ilitics. To make it as an effective & ellicient mechanism for managing the garbage. Route optimization-shortest dumping yard. path from the collection point to the

· ·

To maximize all the infrastructure facilities used.
To help in making decisions about the sorting area, disposal area, truck routes and transfer station justification.

· ·

To optimize the number of collection points and transport of garbage. To maximize the collection coverage, optimize fuel efficiency. To optimize the transportation of garbage from collection points to dump-yards.

Use of GIS
One of the objectives of GIS in the study was to prepare tabular data for the present evaluation and the future prediction about solid waste and to prepare map production (Figure 1). In order to apply GIS to the study, it is necessary to understand the use of GIS clearly and also make it clear the design of database in the process. It should be understood



thatGIScan not solve problemsand issues,but GIS can supportthe practicalplanning

asa supporting tool. Contribution of GIS activity in the study is mentioned in Figure 2. Frompoint of view about facility management in GIS, if once established those databases, updatingand maintenance would be easier for DCe.
Diagram of the use of GIS to SWM Dala Analysis and labulalion






I ~.rt". (ordCC'\'clopmcnt
of SW generation quantities

-sources -in each waste
Identification CalculatOR

- Type o(waste on land ule
of was Ie

Overlay analysis and Cross matrix analysis among thematic maps Tabuladon of data on ward or Zone Repartation for waste type Definition of urban area

I Evalution or SW I ~eneration and I quantities



I 1 JI

I Evaltltion ofSW generationand




Tabular data on the wards-wize and the zone-wise in the study

Prediction of future I ~\Y ~n_!.r!!I!...n!... _

GIS data orSWM racility: SWM racillty:

GIS maps suporting or SWM

to master plan


- illegal

-dustbin. dumping

-waste container,

-open dumping Ipo4
-hospital" Clinic" Dilgon.slle centers

Figure 1 Schematic Diagram for the use of GIS GIS data resources used in the study were as follows:




Ward-wise tabular and analysis data such as population, statistic data etc. SWM facility data concerning to the primary collection such as waste container, dustbin, illegal dumping site and open dumping spot, medical facilities about hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic centers. Thematic maps of Geographic Information produce by the JICA study in SOB: The Study on Urban Information Management for Greater Dhaka City.
Land use, land condition, social economic condition and building and housing

type relating to solid waste generation sources, road condition concerning to accessibility to collection vehicle and administrative boundaries concerning 113


Solid WasIl' T,.ealllll'lIl (~ Rl'qdillg

to population census and grand elevation relating to flooding to make an influence for SWM operation in flood season. In the study area it was extremely difficult to acquire the latest and the most reliable basic data, so it became important data resources for topographic map and thematic maps compiled on those base maps. Process of study Survey activities relating to preparation for master plan The use of GIS Production of geographic information data in the study Production of geographic information data using existing data
GIS functions: - Display of information - Data query and display - Link of relevant - Survey and analysis data - Overlay and tabulation by query -Production of thematic map and evaluation map Map printing I

trans to co ofth shall FigU! dust! colle 6,87: the v wast 6 m3

Practical condition for preparation of master plan: Prehension, - Analysis, - Evaluation, - Prediction


I Monitoring and maintenance of master plan


Application development for solid waste management: Monitoring and supporting of plan, updating of data base, facility management and other application developments

Figure 2 Relation between the process of study and the use of GIS Appropriate setup of waste containers

The waste bins are needed to be located at suitable locations so that households can find the bins at walking distance. Moreover, Huda identified that very low profile technology which is used by Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) is one of the reasons behind the inadequate management of solid waste in Dhaka city. Under these circumstances,1 there is a possibility to use modern technology to deal with this specific problem andto improve the overall solid waste management (SWM) situation as well. The collectionand 114


ke an

t reiimatic

transportplan proposes the shifting of existing main collection vehicles from open trucks tocontainercarriers gradually considering the higher collection and transport efficiency ofthe container carrier by 4 times of the open trucks. Dustbins collected by open truck shall ereplacedby 6 m3containersaccordingly. b
Dusthins and waste containers concentrate the south area of DCC as shown in Figure3 originally prepared for SWM GIS maps. The GIS data also shows 688 places of dustbinswith 3,837 m3and 383 units of6 m3 and 12 m3waste containers of3,036 m3 in the collection service area of DCC. The present storage volume of dustbins and containers,

1 the


6.873m3, arc equivalent to store waste approximately 1,700 ton, which is about half of the waste generation amount of 3,200 t/d estimated for 2004. As the collection ratio of wasteincreases, the storage capacity of receptacles of waste shall be increased by placing 6 mJwaste containers accordingly.
Location of Dustbins \Vastc Containscrs and in DCC




legMd Locotloo of DtJslblns end wast..,. Contl!llne~ in Wards DDCClcalle' ~~;~,:c;~~.:;~'O"'_'

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Figure3 Location of dustbins and waste containers in DCe (As of September 2004)




Solid Wasle Trealmelll & Re(~,'CIillg

Responding to the procurement/operation of new container carriers, new containers shall be placed to the locations of dustbins to be abandoned or at the appropriate place where there is no obstacle to the traffic and is convenient for access by the container carriers. In addition, placement of waste containers at new locations will also be required due to the present shortage of the volume of receptacles and for the additional volume derived from the yearly increase of waste generation amount and the plan to increase the waste collection ratio from 44% at present to 61% in 2015. Taking up Ward-6 for the case study, the setup of new waste containers is designed as presented in Table 1. As shown in the Table 1, thirteen (13) units of 6 m3containers shall be placed immediately to achieve the collection ratio of 44 % at 2004. For reference, the new containers were setup in relation with the location of existing containers as shown in Figure 4. These new locations and the numbers of waste containers per site shall be verified at each site in consideration of the site conditions and the served population. Reducing the loading time of open truck and route optimization


Time and Motion Survey conducted by the Study Team revealed that the present loading time of open truck takes 45% to 56% of total collection and transport time. Reducing 50% of the loading time or 2 hours assuming the working hours for 8 hours will increase the transport capacity by the rate of 0.5 tonn.lhour to 0.6 tonn./hour. In order to shorten the unloading time, manpower of street cleaners will be helpful. Some of the man street cleaners working nearby the dustbins shall assist the truck cleaners after two
hours morning sweeping work. This operation requires the open truck to have a regular;

API roads soil ~

time collection work everyday to tie up with the manpower of street cleaners.

Table 1 Required numbers of 6 m3waste containers in ward 6
Item Waste Generation Amount - ton/day (m3/day) Planned Waste Collection Amount - m3/day Existing Volume of Waste Containers - m3 Required Volume of New Waste Containers - m3 Required Numbers of 6 m3Containers - unit 116 2004 85 (340) 150-44% 71 74 13 2015 127 106 (424) (508) 335223-52.5% 66% 71 71 152 264 26 44 Year 2010




Route optimization-shortest path from the collection point to the dumping yard, maximizeall the infrastructure facilities used, optimize the number of collection points andtransportof garbage and optimize the transportation of garbage from collection points todump-yardsis solved by using GIS-MIS-GPS as a tool for making decisions.
PrOf'o,~d COV<Nngeril!'8 from ne-w ". oonlalner . L-:J tOOmCovar.g. arM 1 r::::J 200m __2 C ~onm C-.IIO'" Au",..3 ..,.., 01 w..,,, (I,..I..h,... t'-] \,...,"' r:."""...",..1 l.ll.lBtHlK L)u1l\bln,/WfUI\e Container. [=:J 1M m Cm '.".. ..,..., l. J ,'111,n C",--OIU" ..-:I ('::'J ~1tH) (:0 ,,' '''. ~, U\'"Ablnlwll_.. Cort'.I....... tP Du!'llhln!t




Figure 4 Urgent setup of new containers in ward 6 (case study) Appropriate location of landfill sites

The factor to be considered in the case of locating landfill site were related to open water, protectedareas, urban, rural residentialareas, soil pemleabilityand roads, soiltype, land use/land cover and distance to transportation routes.

· · · · · ·

Proximity to surface water
Distance from transportation routes Distance from environmentally sensitive or protected areas

Distance from urban areas Distance from rural settlements areas
Landfoml and Soil Type Land lIsdland cover Haul distance 117


Was/e Trea/men/

& Re<:I'<:IiIl~

At present, approximately two-thirds of waste discharged in Dhaka is transported to Matuail Disposal Site and one-third is transported to Bali Band. After closure of Bali Band and open of Amin Bazar Disposal Site, the spatial condition of Wards for accessing to the disposal sites will change. The Figure 5 shows the spatial relation of zones to the disposal sites in future. All the Zones are covered within 15 km radius from either Matuail for Zone-I to Zonc-5 or "min Bazar for Zonc-6 to Zone-I O. The future waste generation amount of each ofthe 5 zones is estimated almost half and halt: With regardto the mentioned spatial relation, the whole DCe's Zones shall be divided into the coverage areas of either Matuail or Amin Bazar for the benefits of transport distance, time and the fuel cost.



I \

(orG There I in cae dcfini' Capa
in the lhroug1 skill.
" ,. " t'

agencie GISdat
IOpOgral eopogra] Refere, I. 2. A. ( syst GJ.

Figure 5 Divisions of zones with relation to the future disposal sites Recommendations Establishment of management frame for the use of GIS A goal for the GIS installation in each organization of Dee is reconfirmed, and aim of database development makes it clear. The frame of the GIS application and the development of a database are established to make it promote the integration of the information. The following item is made the target of the GIS installation for the business model of DeC

]] 8




SWM: Facility management for SWM facilities, primary collection and secondary collection service, collections and transport service, monitoring of dumping and environmental management and others. Urban planning: Land use planning, urban development planning, building control, public facility management and public services, urban facilities management, education and medical, transportation, disaster management, environmental management and others. DCC business control management: residence registration, building and housing registration and taxation and others.

'Completionof GIS ward map and data cleaning
The present data may be satisfied for cartography purpose, but data is not available

GISoperations because data specifications are not good for every data in all wards.

Thereare no rules and no unifications about data as follows: different naming offile name jaeach ward, different data structure among files in each ward, demarcation problems of boundaries and etc. f.:'definite

FCapacity building of human resource

Human resources in charge orGIS must be developed to implement GIS operation

Jio the practical management. Operational abilities of GIS stuffs should be increased o ~dIrough njob training.It is necessaryto grow GIS stuffsand to educatethe operation
.,. skill.

; Establishmentof information


Information Infrastructure should be established by data exchange among relevant ~. agencies. There are several tasks to support GIS data to relevant agencies and to uses

it,ographic maps to cover with Dhaka Metropolitan Area. At the present, large scales of
~tIipographic maps are being prepared by SOB though the JICA study. 1 ;References A. Ogra, Logistics management and spatial planning for solid waste management systemusing geographic information system. GJ. Lunkapis, GIS as decision support tool for landfills silting. 119

: GIS datafromrelevantagenciesin Bangladeshgovernment.Thereare not much reliable





i Salid Waste Treatment& Recycling


M. Tolba, SolId Waste Management: A geo-envlronmemal sensing data and GIS.

apprual.:11uSlIlg 1t:IIIUlC ;


5. 6.
7. 8.

O. Apaydin and M.T. Gonullu, Route optimization for solid waste collection Trabzon (Turkey) Case study. O. Aurobindo, Municipal applications of GIS for effective solid waste I management, workshop on solid waste management systems, Dehradun (2002). .
R. Vijay, A. Gupta, A.S. Kalamdhad and S. Dcvotta, Estimation and allocation of solid waste to bin through geographical information systems. R.U. Koelpin and LA. Goldblatt, GIS development in the hazardous waste geology section, Office of solid and hazardous waste management, Indiana Department of Environmental Management. S.M. Ahmed, Using GIS in solid waste management planning: A case study for Aurangabad, India, Final Master's Thesis (2006).




'Cent 2Asian I

Abstract The Asi; Thailand and S is actively caIT) the Asian Rcgia by Swedish Intl
research or thi~ municipal solid prevailing duml waste degradati with these issue: composting, enl and space requ conditions are f the network par uses the experti~ results, and com


10. S.M. Anwar, Solid waste management and GIS, M.Phil Thesis (2004).

Introduction Today, th solid wastes- a st by technology a distinctly differe

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