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# Chapter 11

## Energy in Thermal Processes

Quick Quizzes
1. (a) Water, glass, iron. Because it has the highest specific heat
( )
4186 J kg C , water has
the smallest change in temperature. Glass is next
( )
837 J kg C , and iron
( )
448 J kg C
is last. (b) Iron, glass, water. For a given temperature increase, the energy transfer by heat
is proportional to the specific heat.
2. (b). The slopes are proportional to the reciprocal of the specific heat, so larger specific heat
results in a smaller slope, meaning more energy to achieve a given change in temperature.
3. (c). The blanket acts as a thermal insulator, slowing the transfer of energy by heat from the
air into the cube.
4. (b). The rate of energy transfer by conduction through a rod is proportional to the
difference in the temperatures of the ends of the rod. When the rods are in parallel, each
rod experiences the full difference in the temperatures of the two regions. If the rods are
connected in series, neither rod will experience the full temperature difference between
the two regions, and hence neither will conduct energy as rapidly as it did in the parallel
connection.
5. (a) 4. The From Stefans law, the power radiated from an object at absolute temperature T
is proportional to the surface area of that object. Star A has twice the radius and four times
the surface area of star B. (b) 16. From Stefans law, the power radiated from an object
having surface area A is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature.
Thus, ( ) ( )
4
4 4
A B B
2 2 16 Ae T AeT = = = P
B
P . (c) 64. When star A has both twice the radius
and twice the absolute temperature of star B, the ratio of the radiated powers is

( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
2 4 2 4
4
A A
B B 2 4 A A A
4 2 4 2 4
B B B B B B B
4 1
2 2
2 2 64
4 1
R T
R T A eT
A eT R T R T

= = = =
P
P
=
401
402 CHAPTER 11
Answers to Even Numbered Conceptual Questions
2. In winter the produce is protected from freezing. The specific heat of Earth is so high that
soil freezes only to a depth of a few inches in temperate regions. Throughout the year the
temperature will stay nearly constant day and night. Factors to be considered are the
insulating properties of the soil, the absence of a path for energy to be radiated away from
or to the vegetables, and the hindrance of the formation of convection currents in the
small, enclosed space.
4. The high thermal capacity of the barrel of water and its high heat of fusion mean that a
large amount of energy would have to leak out of the cellar before the water and produce
froze solid. Evaporation of the water keeps the relative humidity high to protect foodstuffs
from drying out.
6. Yes, if you know the specific heat of zinc and copper, you can determine the relative
fraction of each by heating a known weight of pennies to a specific initial temperature, say
100 C, then dump them into a known quantity of water, at say 20 C. The equation for
conservation of energy will be

( ) ( ) ( )
Cu Zn
1 c 100 C 20 C
pennies water water
m x c x T m c T + = (

The equilibrium temperature, T, and the masses will be measured. The specific heats are
known, so the fraction of metal that is copper, x, can be computed.
8. Convection is the dominant energy transfer process involved in the cooling of the bridge
surface. Air currents can flow freely around all parts of the bridge, making convection
particularly effective.
10. The black car absorbs more of the incoming energy from the Sun than does the white car,
making it more likely to cook the egg.
12. Keep them dry. The air pockets in the pad conduct energy slowly. Wet pads absorb some
energy in warming up themselves, but the pot would still be hot and the water would
quickly conduct a lot of energy to your hand.
14. Write ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 C 1 C
water water air air
V c = m c , to find

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3
3
1000 kg 4186 J kg C
3.2 10 m
1.3 kg m 1000 J kg C
water water
air air
m c
V
c

= = =

16. (c). The ice and the liquid water have the same mass and both undergo a 5C rise in
temperature, but the ice requires less energy to accomplish this. Thus, the specific heat,
( ) c Q m T = , of ice is less than that of the liquid water.
Energy in Thermal Processes 403
Answers to Even Numbered Problems
2. 166 C
4. 0.152 mm
6. 1.17 calories
8. 0.105C
10. (a)
(b) The remaining energy is absorbed by the surface on which the block slides.
9.9 C
3
10
12. 467 pellets
14. copper wins, 89.7C to 89.8C
16. 1.7 kg
18. 47C
20. 49 kJ
22. 0.12 MJ
24. 11.1 W
26. 0.33kg of water evaporated, 0.066 or 6.6%
28.
3
403 cm /hr
30. (a) 0C, with 24 g of ice left (b) 8.2C
32.
3
39 m d
34. (a) 0.50 kW into the house (b) 1.7 kW out of the house
36.
2
2.22 10 W/m C

## 38. (a) 52 W (b) 1.9 kW, 37 times greater

40.
2
7.2 10 W/m C

42.
26
3.77 10 W
44.
3
1.8 10 C
404 CHAPTER 11
46. 91C
48. 1.83 h
50. 14.1 h
52. approximately 0.9 kg or 1 L
54. 45C
56. (a) 75.0C (b) 36 kJ
58. (a) 25.8C (b) No, the mass cancels.
60. (a) 2.0 kW (b) 4.5C
62. 28 L
64. 28C
66. (a) 2.03 kW (b)
2
7.78 ft h Btu
68. (a) 0.457 kg or more
(b) The test samples and the inner surface of the insulation can be preheated to 37.0 as
the box is assembled. Then, nothing changes in temperature during the test period and the
masses of the test samples and insulation make no difference.
Energy in Thermal Processes 405
Problem Solutions
11.1 We assume that all the gravitational potential energy given up by the water is converted
into internal energy and goes into raising the temperature of the water. Then,

(
g
PE Q mc T = = ) or
0 0
T T Q mc T m = + = + gh m
0
c T gh c = +

gives
( ) ( )
( )
2
9.80 m s 50.0 m
10.0 C 10.1C
4 186 J kg C
T = + =

11.2 From ( ) Q m , the final temperature is

c T =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0 0
-3
400 cal 4.186 J 1 cal
20 C 166 C
50.0 10 kg 230 J kg C
Q
T T
mc
= + = + =

T T = +
11.3 The mass of water involved is

( )
3 11 3
3
kg
10 4.00 10 m 4.00 10 kg
m
m V
| |
= = =
|
\ .
14

(a) ( ) ( )( )( )
14 18
4.00 10 kg 4 186 J kg C 1.00 C 1.67 10 J c T = = = Q m
(b) The power input is
9
1000 MW 1.00 10 J s = = ,

so,
18
9 7
1 yr 1.67 10 J
53.1 yr
1.00 10 J s 3.156 10 s
Q
t
| |
= = =
|

\ .

11.4 The change in temperature of the rod is

( ) ( )
4
1.00 10 J
31.7 C
0.350 kg 900 J kg C
Q
T
mc

= = =

(

and the change in the length is

)
( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
6 2
24 10 C 20.0 cm 31.7 C 1.52 10 cm 0.152 mm
L L T

=
(
= = =

406 CHAPTER 11
11.5 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
0.100 kg 129 J kg C 100 C 20.0 C 1.03 10 J Q mc T = = =
11.6 The internal energy converted to mechanical energy in one ascent of the rope is
. Since
g
Q PE mg = = h 1 Calorie 1000 calories 4 186 Joules = = ,

( )( )( )
2
1 Calorie
kg 9.80 m s 10.0 m 1.17 Calorie
4 186 J
| |
= =
|
\ .
50.0 Q
11.7 The internal energy converted to mechanical energy in the climb is .
Thus, the required height is

g
Q PE mg = = h
( )( )
( )( )
3
2
500 Calories 4 186 J 1 Calorie
2.85 10 m
75.0 kg 9.80 m s
Q
h
mg
= = = = 2.85 km
11.8 The internal energy added to the system equals the gravitational potential energy given
up by the 2 falling blocks, or 2
g b
Q PE m gh = = . Thus,

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
s 3.00 m
2
0.105 C
J kg C
b
w w w w
m gh Q
T
m c m c
= = =

2 1.50 kg 9.80 m
0.200 kg 4 186
=
11.9 The mechanical energy transformed into internal energy of the bullet is
( )
2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 4
i i
Q KE mv m
| |
= = =
|
\ .
2
i
v . Thus, the change in temperature of the bullet is

( )
( )
2
2
1
4
300 m s
176 C
4 128 J kg C
i
mv Q
T
mc mc
= = = =

11.10 (a) The mechanical energy converted into internal energy of the block is
( )
2
1
0.85 0.85
2
i
Q KE mv
|
= =

\
i
|
|
.
. The change in temperature of the block will be

( ) ( )
( )
2
2
1
2
3
0.85 0.85 3.0 m s
9.9 10 C
2 387 J kg C
i
mv
Q
T
mc mc

= = = =

(b) The remaining energy is absorbed by the horizontal surface on which the block
slides.
Energy in Thermal Processes 407
11.11 The quantity of energy transferred from the water-cup combination in a time interval of
1 minute is

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3
J J
0.800 kg 4 186 0.200 kg 900 1.5 C 5.3 10 J
kg C kg C
water cup
Q mc mc T
(
= +

(
| | | |
= +
( | |

( \ . \ .
=

The rate of energy transfer is
3
5.3 10 J J
88 88 W
60 s s
Q
t

= = = =

11.12 If N pellets are use, the mass of the lead is
pellet
Nm . Since the energy lost by the lead must
equal the energy absorbed by the water,

( ) ( )
pellet
water
Nm c T mc T = (

(

or the number of pellets required is

)
( )( )
( )
( )
( )( )
-3
0.500 kg 4 186 J kg C 25 0.0 C
467
1.00 10 kg 128 J kg C 25.0 C
w w
w
m c T
N
m c T

= =

.0 C 2
200 C

11.13 The energy absorbed by the water equals the energy given up by the gold bar, and the
final temperature of both the water and bar is 45.0C since they come to thermal
equilibrium . Thus,

( )
gold water
mc T mc T = ( (

, or

( )( )( )
( )( )
3.00 kg 129 J kg C 100 C 45.0 C
0.254 kg 254 g
4 186 J kg C 45.0 C 25.0 C
water
m

= =

=
408 CHAPTER 11
11.14 The mass of water is

( ) ( )
3 3
1.00 g cm 100 cm 100 g 0.100 kg
w w w
m V = = = =
(

For each bullet, the energy absorbed by the bullet equals the energy given up by the
water, so ) ( ) 20 C 90 C
b b w w
m c T m c T =
(
. Solving for the final temperature gives

) ( ) 90 C 20 C
w w b b
w w b b
m c m c
T
m c m c
+
=
+
.

For the silver bullet,
3
5.0 10 kg and 234 J kg C
b b
m c

= =
( )(
, giving

)( ) ( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
3
3
10 234 20 C
10 234

= =
0.100 4 186 90 C 5.0
0.100 4 186 5.0
silver
+
+
89.8 C T

For the copper bullet,
3
5.0 10 kg an
b

=
( )(
d 387 J kg C
b
c = m , which yields

)( ) ( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
3
3
10 387 20 C
10 387

= =
0.100 4 186 90 C 5.0
0.100 4 186 5.0
copper
+
+
89.7 C T

Thus, the copper bullet wins the showdown of the water cups.
11.15 The total energy absorbed by the cup, stirrer, and water equals the energy given up by
the silver sample. Thus,

| |( )
Al Cu
Ag
c s w w w
m c m c m c T mc T + + = (

Solving for the mass of the cup gives

( )
( )
Ag
Ag Ag Cu
Al
1
c s
w
T
m m c m c m
c T
(
=
(

(

w w
c ,

or ( )( )
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
87 32 1
400 g 234 40 g
900 32 27
c
m

=

## 387 225 g 4 186 80 g

(

(

=
Energy in Thermal Processes 409
11.16 The energy absorbed by the water equals the energy given up by the iron and they come
to thermal equilibrium at 100F. Thus, considering cooling 1.00 kg of iron, we have

( )
Fe Fe Fe w w w
m c T m c T = or
( )
( )
Fe Fe
1.00 kg
w
w w
c T
m
c T

giving
( )( )( ) ( )
9
5
1.00 kg 448 J kg C 500 F 100 F 1 C F
w
m

=
( )( ) ( )
9
5
4 186 J kg C 100 F 75 F 1 C F
1.7 kg =
11.17 The total energy given up by the copper and the unknown sample equals the total energy
absorbed by the calorimeter and water. Hence,

| |( )
Cu Cu Al Cu unk unk c w w unk w
m c T m c T m c m c T + = +
|

Solving for the specific heat of the unknown material gives

|( )
Al Cu Cu Cu c w w w
unk
unk unk
m c m c T m c T
c
m T
+
=

( )( )
, or

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
{
( )( )( )}
3
250 g 4 186 J kg C 10 C
.8 10 J kg C
( +

=
1
100 g 900 J kg C
70 g 80 C
50 g 387 J kg C 60 C 1
unk
c =

11.18 The kinetic energy given up by the car is absorbed as internal energy by the four brake
drums (a total mass of 32 kg of iron). Thus, ( )
Fe drums
KE Q m c T = = or

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
47 C
C
=
1 2
1
2
2
Fe
1 500 kg 30 m s
32 kg 448 J kg
car i
drums
m v
T
m c
= =

11.19 Since the temperature of the water and the steel container is unchanged, and neither
substance undergoes a phase change, the internal energy of these materials is constant.
Thus, all the energy given up by the copper is absorbed by the aluminum, giving
( )
Al Al Cu Cu Al Cu
m c T m c T = , or

( )
( )
Cu Cu
Al Cu
Al Al
2
387 85 C 25 C
200 g 2.6 10 g 0.26 kg
900 25 C 5.0 C
T c
m m
c T
( | |
=
(
|
\ .

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .

=

410 CHAPTER 11
11.20 The total energy input required is

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
energy to melt 50 g of ice
energy to warm 50 g of water to 100 C
+ energy to vaporize 5.0 g water
50 g 50 g 100 C-0 C 5.0 g
f water v
Q
L c L
=
+
= + +
( )

( ) ( )
( )
5
-3 6
J
, 0.050 kg 3.33 10
kg
J
0.050 kg 4 186 100 C-0 C
kg C
Thus

J
5.0 10 kg 2.26 10
kg
Q
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
+
|

\ .
| |
+
|
\ .

which gives
4
4.9 10 J 49 kJ Q = =
11.21 The conservation of energy equation for this process is

( ) ( ) ( )
energy to melt ice energy to warm melted ice to energy to cool water to T T + =
(

or ) ( ) 0 C 80 C
ice f ice w w w
m L m c T m c T + =
(

This yields
)
( )
80 C
w w ice f
ice w w
m c m L
T
m m c

=
+
(
, so

)( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
5
1.0 kg 4 186 J kg C 80 C 0.100 kg 3.33 10 J kg
65 C
1.1 kg 4 186 J kg C
T

= =

Energy in Thermal Processes 411
11.22 The energy required is the following sum of terms:

( )
( ) ( )
( ) (
energy to reach melting point
energy to melt energy to reach boiling point
energy to vaporize energy to reach 110 C
Q =
+ +
) + +
( ) ( ) ( 0 C- -10 C 100 C-0 C 110 C-100 C
ice f w v steam
Q m c L c L c = + + + + (

( )

Mathematically,

This yields

)
(

( )
( ) ( )
J
C
(
|
3 5
6
J J
40 10 kg 2 090 10 C 3.33 10
kg C kg
J J
4 186 100 C 2.26 10 2 010
kg C kg kg C
Q

| | | |
= +
| |

\ . \ .
| | | | |
+ + + 10
( | |

|
( \ . \ . \ .

or
5
1.2 10 J 0.12 MJ Q = =
11.23 In order to come to equilibrium at 50C, the steam must: cool to 100C, condense, and
then cool (as condensed water) to 50C. Thus, the conservation of energy equation is

( ) ( )
( )
( )
Al
120 C 100 C 100 C 50 C
50 C-20 C
steam steam v w
w w cup
m c L c
m c m c
+ + (

= +
(

or
)
( )
( ) ( )
Al
30 C
20 C 50 C
w w cup
steam
steam v w
m c m c
m
c L c
+
=
+ +
(
.

This gives

)( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
6
C 0.300 kg 900 J kg C 30 C
.26 10 J kg 4 186 J kg C 50 C
( +

+
0.350 kg 4 186 J kg
2 010 J kg C 20 C 2
steam
m

=
+
,

and
2
2.1 10 kg 21 g
steam
m

= =
412 CHAPTER 11
11.24 First, we use the ideal gas law (with T 37.0 C 310 K = = ) to determine the quantity of
water vapor in each exhaled breath:

( ) ( )
( )
10 Pa 0.600 10
8.31 J mol K 310

or
( ) ( )
4 3
18.0 10 kg mol

5
7.45 10 mol 1.34 10 kg
water
m nM = = =
(

The energy required to vaporize this much water, and hence the energy carried from the
body with each breath is

) ( )
5 6
26 10 J kg 30.3 J = 1.34 10 kg 2.
v
Q mL

= =
( )

The rate of losing energy by exhaling humid air is then

J b
Q 30.3 22.0
breath min
respiration rate
| ||
= =
|
\ .\
P
reaths 1 min
11.1 W
60 s
|| |
=
| |
.\ .

( )
3 3 3
4
3.20 m
7.45 10 mol
K
PV
PV nRT n
RT

= = = =
11.25 Assuming all work done against friction is used to melt snow, the energy balance
equation is
snow f
f s m L = . Since
( )
k skier
f m = g , the distance traveled is

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
0
snow f
k skier
m L
m g
= =
5
3
2
.0 kg 3.33 10 J kg
2.3 10 m 2.3 km
.20 75 kg 9.80 m s
s

= =
11.26 At a rate of 400 kcal h , the excess internal energy that must be eliminated in a half-hour
run is

( )
3 5
cal 4.186 J
400 10 0.500 h 8.37 10 J
h 1 cal
Q
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .

The mass of water that will be evaporated by this amount of excess energy is

5
6
8.37 10 J
0.33 kg
2.5 10 J kg
evaporated
v
Q
m
L

= = =

Energy in Thermal Processes 413
The mass of fat burned (and thus, the mass of water produced at a rate of 1 gram of
water per gram of fat burned) is

( )( )
3
400 kcal h 0.500 h
22 g 22 10 kg
9.0 kcal gram of fat
produced
m

= = =

so the fraction of water needs provided by burning fat is

3
22 10 kg
0.066 or 6.6%
0.33 kg
produced
evaporated
m
f
m

= = =
11.27 Assume that all the ice melts. If this yields a result T , the assumption is valid,
otherwise the problem must be solved again based on a different premise. If all ice
melts, energy conservation yields

0 >
( ) ( )
( )
( )
Cu
0 C- -78 C 0 C 25 C
ice ice f w cup
m c L c T m c T
(
+ + + (

(
w w
m c =

or
)
( ) (
( )
)
Cu
Cu
25 C 78 C
w w cup ice ice f
w ice w cup
m c m c m c
T
m m c m c
L
(
+ +

=
+ +

With 560 g, 80 g, 40 g, 4 186
w cup ice w
m m m c = = = = J kg C

5
3 10 J kg L =
Cu f
387 J kg C, 2 090 J kg C, and
ice
c c = = 3.3

this gives 16 C T = and the assumption that all ice melts is seen to be valid.
11.28 In one hour, the energy dissipated by the runner is

( )( )
6
300 J s 3 600 s 1.08 10 J E t = = =

Ninety percent, or
( )
6
0.900 1.08 10 J 9.72 = =
5
10 J Q , of this is used to evaporate
bodily fluids. The mass of fluid evaporated is

5
6
9.72 10 J
0.403 kg
2.41 10 J kg
v
Q
m
L

= = =

Assuming the fluid is primarily water, the volume of fluid evaporated in one hour is

( )
6 3
3
403 cm
| |
=
|
\ .
4 3
3 3
0.403 kg 10 cm
4.03 10 m
000 kg m 1 m

=
1
m
V

= =
414 CHAPTER 11
11.29 The mass of 2.0 liters of water is
( ) ( )
3 3 3 3
10 kg m 2.0 10 m 2.0 kg
w
m V

= = =

The energy required to raise the temperature of the water (and pot) up to the boiling
point of water is

( ) ( )
Al Al boil w w
Q m c m c = +
( )
T

or
( ) ( )
5
J J
2.0 kg 4 186 0.25 kg 900 100 C 20 C 6.9 10 J
kg kg
boil
Q
(
| | | |
= + =
(
| |
\ . \ .
(

The time required for the 14 burner to produce this much energy is

000 Btu h
5
2
3
6.9 10 J 1 Btu
4.7 10 h 2.8 min
14 000 Btu h 14 000 Btu h 1.054 10 J
boil
boil
Q
t

| |
= = = =
|
\ .
(

Once the boiling temperature is reached, the additional energy required to evaporate all
of the water is

) ( )
6 6
2.0 kg 2.26 10 J kg 4.5 10 J
evaporate w v
Q m L = = =

and the time required for the burner to produce this energy is

6
3
4.5 10 J 1 Btu
0.31 h 18 min
14 000 Btu h 14 000 Btu h 1.054 10 J
evaporate
boil
Q
t
| |
= = = =
|
\ .

11.30 The energy that must be absorbed to cool the water and cup to 0C is

( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
1 Al
4
( )
0.180 kg 4 186 J kg C 0.100 kg 900 J kg C 30.0 C 2.53 10 J
w w cup
Q m c m c T = +
( = + =

(a) The amount of ice, at 0C, that must melt to absorb energy equal to Q is

1
4
2 1
5
2.53 10 J
7.6 10 kg 76 g
3.33 10 J kg
f
Q
m
L

= = = =

Hence, if 100 g of ice is used, not all of it will melt. Rather, the final temperature is
0 C with 24 g of ice left over .
Energy in Thermal Processes 415
(b) If 50 g of ice is used, all of the ice will melt and the conservation of energy equation is
( )
( )
( )
Al
0 C 30 C
ice f w w w cup
m L c T m c m c T
(
+ = +

( )

Thus,

( ) ( ) ( )
5
J J
50 g 3.33 10 4 186
kg kg C
J J
180 g 4 186 100 g 900 30 C
kg C kg C
T
T
( | | | |
+ =
( | |

( \ . \ .

(
| | | |
+
( | |

( \ . \ .

This yields a final temperature of 8.2 C T =
11.31 The energy required to melt 50 g of ice is

( ) ( )
1
0.050 kg 333 kJ kg 16.7 kJ
ice f
Q m L = = =
(

The energy needed to warm 50 g of melted ice from 0C to 100C is

) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
0.050 kg 4.186 kJ kg C
ice w
Q m c T = = 100 C 20.9 kJ =
(a) If 10 g of steam is used, the energy it will give up as it condenses is

( )( )
3
0.010 kg 2 260 kJ kg 22.6 kJ
s v
Q m L = = =
3 1
> all of the ice will melt

Since Q Q , . However, Q Q
3 1
Q
2
< +
) T
, so the final
temperature is less than 100C. From conservation of energy, we find

( ) ( 0 C 100 C
ice f w steam v w
m L c T m L c
(
+ = + (

(
, or

)
( )
100 C
steam v w ice f
ice steam w
m L c m L
T
m m c
+ (

=
+
(
,

giving
) ( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
6 5
50 g 3.33 10 10 g 2.26 10 4 186
50 g 10
+
+
100
g 4 186
(

40 C = = T
416 CHAPTER 11
(b) If only 1.0 g of steam is used, then
3
2.26 kJ
s v
Q m L = = . The energy 1.0 g of
condensed steam can give up as it cools from 100C to 0C is

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
4
1.0 10 kg 100 C 0.419 kJ
s w
Q m c T

= = =
3 4
Q +
1
Q
4.186 kJ kg C

Since Q is less than , not all of the 50 g of ice will melt, so the final
temperature will be 0 C . The mass of ice which melts as the steam condenses and
the condensate cools to 0C is

( )
3 3 4
2.26+0.419 kJ
8.0 10 kg 8.0 g
333 kJ kg
f
Q Q
m
L

+
= = = =
11.32 The total surface area of the house is

side walls end walls gables roof
A A A A = + + +
(
A

where ) ( )
2
m =
side walls
2 5.00 m 10.0 m 100 A = (

(

) ( )
2
.0 m =
end walls
2 5.00 m 8.00 m 80 A = (

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
4.00 m tan37.0 24.1 m = (

1 1
gables 2 2
2 2 A base altitude = ( =

(
8.00 m
) ( )
2
m =
2 2
304 m
2 10.0 m 4.00 m cos37.0
roof
A =
2 2 2
100 m 80.0 m 24.1 m 100
100 (

m

Thus, A = + + + =

With an average thickness of 0.210 m, average thermal conductivity of
4
kW m C

( )
( )
4.8 10 , and a 25.0C difference between inside and outside temperatures,
the energy transfer from the house to the outside air each day is

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 00 s
4 2
m C 304 m 25.0C
86 4
0.210 m
(

(
(

4.8 10 kW
kA T
E t t
L

(
= = =
(

P
6 9
1.5 10 kJ 1.5 10 J E = =

or

The volume of gas that must be burned to replace this energy is

( ) ( )
9
3
1.5 10
9 300 kcal m 4
E
V
heat of combustion

= =
3
39 m
J kcal
=
J
186

Energy in Thermal Processes 417
11.33 The rate of energy transfer through a block of the given dimensions is

( ) ( )
4 2
30 C
15 10 m 0.56 m C
0.080 m
Q T
kA k k
t L

| | | |
= = = =
| |
\ . \ .

P

where k is the thermal conductivity of the material.
(a) For a copper block, 397 J s m C k = and

( )
J kJ
397 0.56 m C 0.22 0.22 kW
s m C s
| |
= = =
|
\ .

P
(b) For air, ( )
J J
0.0234 0.56 m C 0.013 13 mW
s m C s
| |
=
|
\ .

= P =
(c) For wood, ( )
J J
0.10 0.56 m C 0.056 56 mW
s m C s
| |
=
|
\ .

= P =
11.34 (a) With the outside temperature higher than that in the house, we have
( )
5
90 F 70 F 20 F 20 11 C
9
h c
T T T = = = = = and the rate of energy transfer into
the house is

( )
2 2
-3
J 11 C J
0.84 0.16 m 5.0 10
s m C 3.0 10 m s
T
kA
L

| | | | | |
= = =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

P

or 0.50 kW into the house = P
(b) With the interior warmer than the outside air, we have
( )
5
70 F 0 F 70 F 70 39 C
9
h c
T T T = = = = = and the rate of energy transfer out of
the house is

( )
2 3
-3
J 39 C J
0.84 0.16 m 1.7 10
s m C 3.0 10 m s
T
kA
L

| | | | | |
= = =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

P

or 1.7 kW out of the house = P
418 CHAPTER 11
11.35
T
kA
L

|
=

\

|
|
.
, with
2
cal 10 cm 4.186 J J
0.200 83.7
cm C s 1 m 1 cal s m C
k
| |
| |
= =
|
|
\ .

\ .

Thus, the energy transfer rate is

( ) ( )
2
8
J 200 C 20.0 C
83.7 8.00 m 50.0 m
s m C 1.50 10 m
J
4.02 10 402 MW
s

| | |
= (
|
\ . \

= =
P
|
|
.

11.36 Since the air temperature inside the box remains constant, the power input from the
heater must equal the energy transfer to the exterior. Thus,
T
kA
L

|
=

\

|
|
.
, giving

( )
( )
2
2
2
10.0 W 4.00 10 m
2.22 10 W m C
15.0 C 1.20 m
L
k
A T

| |
| |
= = =
|
|
\ .
\ .

11.37

outside inside i shingles sheathing cellulose dry wall
air film air film
R R R R R R R R = = + + + + +
( )

2 2
ft F ft F
0.17 0.87 1.32 3 3.70 0.45 0.17 14
Btu h Btu h
R

= + + + + + = (

11.38 The rate of energy transfer through a compound slab is

( )
, where
i i
A T
R L k
R

= = P
(a) For the Thermopane,

2
pane trapped air pane pane trapped air
R R R R R R = + + = +

Thus,
2 2
0.50 10 m 1.0 10 m m C
2 0
0.84 W m C 0.0234 W m C W
R

| |

= + =
|
\ .
(
2
.44

and
) ( )
2
2
1.0 m 23 C
52 W
0.44 m C W

= =

P
Energy in Thermal Processes 419
(b) For the 1.0 cm thick pane of glass:

2 2
2
1.0 10 m m C
1.2 10
0.84 W m C W
R

= =

(

so
) ( )
2
3
-2 2
1.0 m 23 C
1.9 10 W 1.9 kW
1.2 10 m C W

= = =

, 37 times greater
11.39 When the temperature of the junction stabilizes, the energy transfer rate must be the
same for each of the rods, or
Cu Al
= . The cross-sectional areas of the rods are equal,
and if the temperature of the junction is 50C, the temperature difference is
for each rod.

Thus,
50 C T =
Cu Cu A Al
Cu
T T
k A k
| |
= =
|
\ .

l
Al
A
L L
| |
|
\ .
= , which gives

( )
Al
Al Cu
Cu
238 W m C
15 cm 9.0 cm
397 W m C
k
L L
k
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

11.40 The energy transfer rate is
( )( )
( )( )
5
5.0 kg 3.33 10 J kg
58 W
8.0 h 3 600 s 1 h
ice f
m L
Q
t t

= = = =

Thus,
T
kA
L

|
=

\

( )
|
|
.
gives the thermal conductivity as

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
58 W 2.0 10 m
7.2 10 W m C
0.80 m 25 C 5.0 C
L
k
A T

= = =

11.41 The absolute temperature of the sphere is T 473 K = and that of the surroundings is
. For a perfect black-body radiator, the emissivity is
0
295 K T = 1 e = . The net power
radiated by the sphere is

( )
( ) 60 m 4 ( )
4 4
0
2 4
8
2 4
W
5.67 10 4 0.0 73 K
m K
Ae T T

=
| |
(295 K)
4
net
( (
=
|

\ .

or
2
1.1 10 W 0.11 kW = =
net

420 CHAPTER 11
11.42 With an emissivity of , temperature of T 0.965 e = 5 800 K = , and radius of
, the total power radiated by the spherical Sun is

8
6.96 10 m r =
( )
2
.96 10 m
(

(

( )( )
4
8
2 4
W
4 6 0.965 5 800 K
m K

| |
= =
|
\ .
4 8
5.67 10

AeT

or
26
W 3.77 10 =
11.43 The absolute temperature of the pizza is T 373 K = and the total surface area of this
cylindrical object is

The power radiated into space (or the rate of energy loss) is

( )
2
0.35 m + ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 0.35 m 0.020 m 0.81 m A r rL r
(
= + + = =

( )( )( )
4
4 8 2
2 4
2 3
W
5.67 10 0.8 373 K
m K
7.1 10 W ~10 W
AeT
| |
= =
|
\ .
=
0.81 m
11.44 The net power radiated is
( )
4 4
0 net
Ae T T = , so the temperature of the radiator is
1
4
4
0
net
T T
Ae
(
= +

(
. If the temperature of the surroundings is
0
22 C 295 K T = = ,

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
4
2
0.90
(
(
(

4
8 2 4 5
3 3
25 W
295 K
5.67 10 W m K 2.5 10 m
2.1 10 K= 1.8 10 C
T

= +

=

11.45 The absolute temperatures of the two stars are 6 000 K and 12 000 K
X Y
T T = = . Thus,
the ratio of their radiated powers is

( )
4
4
4
4
2 1
Y Y Y
X X X
AeT T
AeT T

| |
= = = =
|
\ .

6
Energy in Thermal Processes 421
11.46 Assume that the ground below the pavement is a very good insulator and that the
emissivity of the blacktop is unity. Then, in steady state, the square meter of asphalt
must radiate energy at the same rate as receiving it from the Sun. From
4
AeT = , the
temperature of the asphalt is

( )( )( )
1
1
4
4
-8 2 4 2
1000 W
364 K
5.67 10 W m K 1.00 m 1.00
T
Ae
(
(
( = = =
(
(

91 C =
11.47 At a pressure of 1 atm, water boils at 100C. Thus, the temperature on the interior of the
copper kettle is 100C and the energy transfer rate through it is

( )
2
3
4
W 102 C 100 C
397 0.10 m
m C 2.0 10 m
1.2 10 W 12 kW
T
kA
L

| |

| | | |
(
= =
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .
= =

11.48 The mass of the water in the heater is

( )
3
3
3 3
kg 3.786 L 1 m
10 50.0 gal 189 kg
m 1 gal 10 L
m V
| | | |
| |
= = =
|
| |
\ .
\ . \ .
(

The energy required to raise the temperature of the water from 20.0C to 60.0C is

) ( ) ( ) ( )
7
10 J 189 kg 4 186 J kg 60.0 C 20.0 C 3.17 Q mc T = = =

The time required for the water heater to transfer this energy is

7
3.17 10 J 1 h
1.83 h
4 800 J s 3 600 s
Q
t
| |

= = =
|
\ .

11.49 At an average rate of 1000 W, the energy radiated between 4 PM and 8 AM is

( )
7
3 600 s J
1000 16.0 h 5.76 10 J
s 1 h
Q t
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .

( )

The mass of stone which can give up this quantity of energy as its temperature drops
from 30C to 18C is

( ) ( )
7
3
5.76 10 J
6.0 10 kg
800 J kg C 12 C
Q
m
c T

= = =

422 CHAPTER 11
11.50 The energy needed is

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )
3 3
3
kg
10 1.00 m 4 186 J kg 40.0 C 1.67 10 J
m
Q mc T V c T = =
(
| |
=
| (
\ .

8
=

The power input is
( )( )
2 2 3
550 W m 6.00 m 3.30 10 J s = = , so the time required is

8
3
1.67 10 J 1 h
14.1 h
3.30 10 J s 3 600 s
Q
t
| |

= = =
|

\ .

11.51 The energy conservation equation is

( ) ( ) ( )
Pb Pb Cu
98 C 12 C 12 C 0 C
ice f ice w w cup
m c m L m m c m c
(
= + + +

This gives

( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) C 12 C (

5
Pb
J
128 86 C 0.040 kg 3.33 10 J kg
kg C
0.24 kg 4 186 J kg C 0.100 kg 357 J kg
m
| |
=
|

\ .
+ +

or
Pb
2.3 kg m =
11.52 We approximate the latent heat of vaporization of water on the skin (at 37C) by asking
how much energy would be needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 kg of water to the
boiling point and evaporate it. The answer is

( ) ( ) ( )
37 C 100 C 6
4 186 J kg C 100 C 37C 2.26 10 J kg
v water v
L c T L

+ = +

or
37 C 6
2.5 10 J kg
v
L

(

Assuming that you are approximately 2.0 m tall and 0.30 m wide, you will cover an area
of ) ( )
2
2.0 m 0.30 m 0.60 m = =
(
A of the beach, and the energy you receive from the
sunlight in one hour is

) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 6
1000 W m 0.60 m 3 600 s 2.2 10 J Q IA t = = =
Energy in Thermal Processes 423
The quantity of water this much energy could evaporate from your body is

6
37 C 6
2.2 10 J
0.9 kg
2.5 10 J kg
v
Q
m
L

= =

The volume of this quantity of water is
-3 3
3 3
0.9 kg
10 m =1 L
10 kg m
m

= = V

Thus, you will need to drink almost a liter of water each hour to stay hydrated. Note, of
course, that any perspiration that drips off your body does not contribute to the cooling
process, so drink up!
11.53 The conservation of energy equation is

( )
( ) (
Cu Cu
27 C 90 C
w w cup glass
m c m c T m c T + =
( )
)

This gives
( )
( )
Cu Cu
Cu Cu
90 C 27
w w cup glass
w w cup glass
m c m c m c
T
m c m c m c
+ +
=
+ +
( )( )( )
C
, or

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
0.200 387 90 C 0.400 4 186 0.300
0.400 4 186 0.300 837 0.200
T
+ +
+ +
837 27 C
29 C
387
(

= =
11.54 The energy added to the air in one hour is

( ) ( ) ( )
6
10 200 W 3 600 s 7.20 10 J
total
Q t = = = (

and the mass of air in the room is

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
3.5 10 kg = 1.3 kg m 6.0 m 15.0 m 3.0 m m V = = (

The change in temperature is
( ) ( )
6
2
7.2 10 J
25 C
3.5 10 kg 837 J kg C
Q
T
mc

= = =

giving
0
20 C 2 T T T = + = + 5 C= 45 C
424 CHAPTER 11
11.55 The rate of energy transfer to the surface is

( )
2
W 37.0 C 34.0 C
0.210 1.40 m
m C 0.025 0 m
T
kA
L
| |

| | | |
= =
| | |
\ . \ .
\ .

which gives
3 600 s J 1 kcal
35.3 30.3 kcal h
s 4 186 J 1 h
| |
| |
= =
|
|
\ .
\ .

Since this is less than 240 kcal h , blood flow is necessary for cooling.
11.56 (a) In steady state, the energy transfer rate is the same for each of the rods, or

. Thus,
Al Fe
=
Al Fe
100 C 0 C T T
k A k A
L L

| | |
=
|
\ . \
|
|
.

giving ( ) ( )
Al
Al Fe
238
100 C 100 C 75.0 C
238 79.5
k
k k
| |
| |
= = =
|
|
\ .
+ + \ .
T
(b) If L , the energy conducted in 30 min is

2
15 cm and 5.0 cm A = =
( ) ( )
4 2
Al
4
W 100 C 75.0 C
238 5.0 10 m 1800 s
m C 0.15 m
3.6 10 J 36 kJ
Q t

(
| | | |
= =
| |
(
\ . \ .

= =

11.57 The rate at which energy must be added to the water is

6 4
kg 1 min J
0.500 2.26 10 1.88 10 W
min 60 s kg
v
Q m
L
t t
| | ( | | | | | |
= = = =
| | | ( |
\ . \ . \ .
\ .

From
100 C T
kA
L

| |
=
|
\ .
, the temperature of the bottom surface is

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4 2
2
1.88 10 W 0.500 10 m
100 C 100 C 109 C
238 W m C 0.120 m
L
T
k A

= + = + =
(

Energy in Thermal Processes 425
11.58 (a) ( ) ( ) 0.600 Q mc T mgh = = gives
( ) 0.600 gh
T
c
= , or

( ) ( ) ( )
2
0.600 9.80 m s 50.0 m
25.8 C
387 J kg C
=

0
25.0 C T T T = + = +
(b) N . As seen in the above calculation, the mass of the coin cancels. o
11.59 In the steady state,
Au Ag
= , or
Au Ag
80.0 C 30.0 C T T
k A k A
L L

| | |
=
|
\ . \
|
|
.

This gives

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) Au
80.0 30.0 C
314 80.0 C 427 30.0 C
51.2 C
314 427
T

+
= =
+ +
Ag
Au Ag
C k k
k k
+
=
11.60 (a) The rate work is done against friction is

( ) ( )
3
50 N 40 m s 2.0 10 J s 2.0 kW f v = = = =
(b) In a time interval of 10 s, the energy added to the 10-kg of iron is

( ) ( )
3 4
2.0 10 J s 10 s 2.0 10 J Q t = = =

and the change in temperature is

( ) ( )
4
2.0 10 J
4.5 C
10 kg 448 J kg C
Q
T
mc

= = =

11.61 (a) The energy required to raise the temperature of the brakes to the melting point at
660C is

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6
6.0 kg 900J kg C 660 C 20 C 3.46 10 J Q mc T = = =

The internal energy added to the brakes on each stop is

( ) ( )
2
2 5
1
1 1
1 500 kg 25 m s 4.69 10 J
2 2
car i
Q KE m v = = = =
426 CHAPTER 11
The number of stops before reaching the melting point is

6
5
1
3.46 10 J
7 stops
4.69 10 J
Q
N
Q

= = =

(b) This calculation assumes no energy loss to the surroundings and that all internal
energy generated stays with the brakes. Neither of these will be true in a realistic
case.
11.62 We assume that the time interval is so short that only the part of the rod immersed in the
liquid helium undergoes a change in temperature. The mass of this half of the rod is

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 4 2
Al Al
2 2.70 10 kg m 2.0 10 m 0.50 m 0.27 kg m A L

( = = =

From conservation of energy, ( )
He Al Al
He
v
m L m c T = , or the mass of helium evaporated
is

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
Al Al
He 4
He
0.27 kg 900 J kg C 295.8 C
3.4 kg
2.09 10 J kg
v
m c T
m
L

= = =

The volume of liquid helium evaporated is then

3
He
He 3 3
He
3.4 kg 10 L
28 L
122 kg m 1 m
m
V

| |
= = =
|
\ .

11.63 (a) The internal energy added to the volume Q V of liquid that flows through the
calorimeter in time is t ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Q m c T V c T = = . Thus, the rate of adding
energy is

( )
Q V
t t
| |
|
\ .
c T

=

where
V
t

| |
|
\ .

## is the flow rate through the calorimeter.

(b) From the result of part (a), the specific heat is

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3
3
3
40 J s
0.72 g cm 5.8 C 3.5 cm s
10 g J
2.7 2.7 10 J kg C
g C 1 kg
Q t
c
T V t

= =

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .

Energy in Thermal Processes 427
11.64 When liquids 1 and 2 are mixed, the conservation of energy equation is

( ) ( )
1 2
17 C 10 C 20 C 17 C mc mc = , or
2 1
7
3
c c
| |
=
|
\ .

When liquids 2 and 3 are mixed, energy conservation yields

( ) ( )
3 2
30 C 28 C 28 C 20 C mc mc = , or
3 2
28
4
3
c c
| |
= =
|
\ .
1
c

Then, mixing liquids 1 and 3 will give ( ) ( )
1 3
C 30 C mc 10 T mc T =

or
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 3
1 3
10 C 28 3
10 C 30 C
1 2
c c
T
c c
+
+
= =
+ +
30 C
28 C
8 3

=
11.65 During the first 50 minutes, the energy input is used converting m kilograms of ice at
0C into liquid water at 0C. The energy required is
( )
5
1
3.33 10 J kg
f
L m = = Q m , so
the constant power input must be

( )
( )
5
1
1
3.33 10 J kg
50 min
m
Q
t

= =

During the last 10 minutes, the same constant power input raises the temperature of
water having a total mass of
( )
10 kg m+
( )
by 2.0C. The power input needed to do this is

( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
10 kg 10 kg 4 186 J kg C 2.0 C
10 min
m
Q
t t
+
= =

2 2
m c T +
=

Since the power input is the same in the two periods, we have

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5
3.33 10 J kg 4 186 J kg C 2.0 C
50 min 10 min
m 10 kg m+
=

which simplifies to ( ) 8.0 10 kg m m = + or
10 kg
1.4 kg
7.0
= = m
428 CHAPTER 11
11.66 (a) The surface area of the stove is
( ) ( )
2
2 2
cylindrical stove ends
side
A A A r r = + = + h , or
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 0.200 m 2 0.
stove
A = +
2
200 m 0.500 m 0.880 m =

The temperature of the stove is ( )
5
400F 32.0 F 204 C 477 K
9
s
= = = T while that of
the air in the room is ( )
5
70.0 F 32.0 F 21.1 C 294
9
r
= = =
0.920 e =
(
K T . If the emissivity of
the stove is , the net power radiated to the room is

)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 4
8 2 4 2
5.67 10 W m K 0.880 m 0.920 477 K
stove s r
A e T T

=
( )
4 4
294 K
(
=

or
3
2.03 10 W =
(b) The total surface area of the walls and ceiling of the room is

( ) ( ) ( )
2
3 2
4 4 8.00 ft 25.0 ft 25.0 ft 1.43 10 ft
wall ceiling
A A A = + = + = (

If the temperature of the room is constant, the power lost by conduction through
the walls and ceiling must equal the power radiated by the stove. Thus, from
thermal conduction equation, ( )
h c i
A T T R =
( )
, the net R value needed in the
walls and ceiling is

( )( )
3 2
3
ft 70.0F 32.0
2.03 10 J s

1.43 10 F
1054 J 1 h
1 Btu 3 600 s
h c
i
A T T
R
| |
| |
= =
|
|
\ .
\ .

or
2
7.78 ft F h Btu
i
R =
Energy in Thermal Processes 429
11.67 A volume 0f 1.0 L of water has a mass of
( ) ( )
3 3 3 3
10 kg m 1.0 10 m 1.0 kg m V

= = =

The energy required to raise the temperature of the water to 100C and then completely
evaporate it is ( )
v
c T mL = + Q m , or

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6 6
1.0 kg 4 186 J kg C 100 C 20C 1.0 kg 2.26 10 J kg 2.59 10 J Q = + =
( ) ( )

The power input to the water from the solar cooker is

( )
( )
2
2
0.50 m
0.50 600 W m 59 W
4
efficiency IA

(
= = =
(
(

so the time required to evaporate the water is

( )
6
4
2.59 10 J 1 h
4.4 10 s 12 h
59 J s 3 600 s
Q
t
| |

= = = =
|
\ .

11.68 (a) From the thermal conductivity equation, ( )
h c
kA T T L ( =

, the total energy lost
by conduction through the insulation during the 24-h period will be

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 2
12.0 h 12.0 h 37.0 C 23.0 C 37.0 C 16.0 C 12.0 h
kA
Q
L
= + = + (

)

or
( ) ( )
| |( )
2
4
0.012 0 J s mC 0.490 m
3 600 s
14.0 C 21.0 C 12.0 h 9.36 10
0.095 0 m 1 h
Q

| |
= +
|
\ .
J =

The mass of molten wax which will give off this much energy as it solidifies (all at
37C) is

4
3
9.36 10 J
0.457 kg
205 10 J kg
f
Q
m
L

= = =

(b) If the test samples and the inner surface of the insulation is preheated to 37.0C
during the assembly of the box, nothing undergoes a temperature change during
the test period. Thus, the masses of the samples and insulation do not enter into the
calculation. Only the duration of the test, inside and outside temperatures, along
with the surface area, thickness, and thermal conductivity of the insulation needs to
be known.
430 CHAPTER 11
11.69 The energy m kilograms of steam give up as it (i) cools to the boiling point of 100C, (ii)
condenses into a liquid, and (iii) cools on down to the final temperature of 50.0C is

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 2
3 6
6
2.01 10 J kg C 130 C 100C 2.26 10 J kg 4 186 J kg C 100C 50.0C
2.53 10 J kg
liquid m steam v
water
Q mc T mL mc T
m
m
= + +
(
= + +

=
(

The energy needed to raise the temperature of the 200-g of original water and the 100-g
glass container from 20.0C to 50.0C is

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4
0.200 kg 4 186 J kg C 0.100 kg 837 J kg C 30.0 C
2.76 10 J
needed w w g g
Q m c m c T ( = + = +

=

Equating the energy available from the steam to the energy required gives

( )
6 4
2.53 10 J kg 2.76 10 J m = or
4
6
2.76 10 J
0.010 9 kg 10.9 g
2.53 10 J kg
m

= = =