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ise of Piracy and Ot"er Maritime Insec#rity in Somalia !emar$s by %avid H& S"inn Ad'#nct Professor( )lliott Sc"ool of International Affairs( *eorge +as"ington ,niversity -.o Caveats /et me begin .it" t.o caveats& 0irst( all of my information comes from open so#rces1 t"ose of yo# .it" access to classified information on t"is s#b'ect may be disappointed .it" some of t"e lac#nae in my presentation& -"e best open so#rce reporting I "ave seen on t"is topic comes from Jane’s Intelligence Review& Second( I am not a la.yer and my analysis may r#n ro#g"s"od over some of t"e legal n#ances of t"e problem( ."ic" are important( b#t ."ic" s"o#ld also yield to common sense& I apologi2e in advance to t"ose of yo# familiar .it" inside information abo#t Somali piracy and to t"e la.yers in t"e a#dience& I .ill be provocative& %angers along Somali S"ores Maritime travel along t"e Somali coast "as long been a dangero#s b#siness& My o.n official connection .it" Somalia began in 3 4 as t"e State %epartment des$ officer for Somalia& 0or t"e ne5t t.o years I spent abo#t a 6#arter of my assignment s#pporting t"e ,&S& embassy in Mogadis"# in obtaining t"e release from Somalia7s Siad 8arre government of t.o American flagged vessels t"at "ad been capt#red in separate incidents off t"e Somali coast on t"e gro#nds t"at t"ey .ere spy s"ips& In fact( t"ey .ere privately o.ned geop"ysical researc" s"ips t"at "ad finis"ed t"eir oil prospecting .or$ in t"e Persian *#lf area and .ere ret#rning to t"e ,nited States& It too$ mont"s to convince t"e Somali government to release t"e s"ips and t"eir cre.s& -"is .as not piracy( b#t it provides an early e5ample of t"e "a2ards of sailing along t"e Somali coast& Piracy "as been a problem in t"e .aters off Somalia for at least ten years& 8et.een 2009 and 2007( t"ere .ere abo#t fifteen s#ccessf#l or attempted pirate attac$s off Somalia and in t"e *#lf of Aden eac" year& In 200:( t"e n#mber of attac$s '#mped to .ell over 3001 different so#rces #se different n#mbers based on differing interpretations of pirate attac$s& At least forty of t"e attac$s in 200: involving abo#t :00 cre. members .ere s#ccessf#l& -"is dramatic increase attracted t"e attention of t"e international comm#nity& -"e sei2#re of a ,$rainian vessel transporting ;90 million .ort" of -<72 !#ssian tan$s( grenade la#nc"ers and amm#nition and a /iberian<flagged tan$er carrying ;300 million .ort" of Sa#di oil to t"e ,nited States #nderscored t"e concern& -"e pirate attac$s s"ifted from t"e Mogadis"# area to t"e *#lf of Aden at t"e end of 2007& )stimates on t"e amo#nt of ransom money collected by t"e pirates in 200: range from ;90 million to ;320 million& -"is may not so#nd li$e a lot as t"e ,nited States distrib#tes bail o#t money( b#t it is "#ge s#m for impoveris"ed Somalia& In addition(
2 piracy "as ca#sed ins#rance premi#ms for a single transit t"ro#g" t"e *#lf of Aden to rise from as lo. as ;=00 to as m#c" as ;20(000& -"e /egal 8ac$gro#nd -"e ,nited Nations Convention on t"e /a. of t"e Sea defines piracy as any illegal acts of violence( detention or depredation committed o#tside territorial .aters for private >rat"er t"an political? ends by cre. or passengers of a private s"ip or aircraft against anot"er s"ip( persons or cre.& On t"e "ig" seas or in any ot"er place o#tside t"e '#risdiction of a state( any nation may sei2e a pirated s"ip( arrest t"e pirates( and sei2e t"e property on board and s#bmit t"e matter to its civil and criminal co#rts& Only .ars"ips and military aircraft or vessels in government service may e5ercise t"is a#t"ority& In 2003( t"e International Maritime Organi2ation adopted a code of practice for investigating piracy and armed robbery against s"ips& President 8#s" signed in 2007 a compre"ensive and s.eeping policy governing diplomatic and legal action to fig"t piracy& -"e policy emp"asi2ed collaborative strategies by states and t"e maritime ind#stry to prevent pirate attac$s and ot"er criminal acts of violence against ,&S& vessels( persons and interests& In 200:( t"e ,N Sec#rity Co#ncil passed a resol#tion calling on all states to cooperate in co#nter<piracy actions off t"e Somali coast& It a#t"ori2ed operations inside Somalia7s territorial .aters to deny t"at area as a safe "aven for pirates ."o operate o#tside t"e 32<mile limit& At t"e end of 200:( t"e ,nited States sponsored a ,N Sec#rity Co#ncil resol#tion t"at a#t"ori2ed co#ntries to @ta$e all necessary meas#res as"ore in Somalia( incl#ding in its airspaceA to capt#re t"ose persons #sing Somali territory for piracy& %efense Secretary *ates 6#ite properly po#red cold .ater on t"is initiative by pointing o#t t"at t"e international comm#nity does not "ave ade6#ate intelligence to carry o#t land<based see$ and destroy missions against pirates& -"e ,&S& 0ift" 0leet commander ec"oed t"is vie.& +"ile t"ere is no "arm in "aving t"is ,N resol#tion on t"e record( since its passage I don7t believe it "as ever been #sed& In Ban#ary 200 ( t"e ,nited States and t"e ,nited Cingdom signed a memorand#m of #nderstanding .it" Cenya t"at permits t"em to "and over to Cenyan a#t"orities capt#red pirates for prosec#tion& Cenya emp"asi2ed t"at t"is s"o#ld not constit#te an open door for d#mping pirates onto Cenyan soil& It remains to be seen "o effective t"is collaboration .ill be& Also in Ban#ary 200 ( nine co#ntriesD%'ibo#ti( )t"iopia( Cenya( Madagascar( t"e Maldives( t"e Seyc"elles( Somalia( -an2ania( and EemenDsigned an agreement to cooperate in preventing s"ip "i'ac$ings and appre"ending pirates for arrest and prosec#tion& Cno.n as t"e %'ibo#ti Code of Cond#ct( it allo.s one signatory co#ntry to send armed forces into anot"er signatory co#ntry7s territorial .aters to p#rs#e pirates and( in some cases( to 'ointly cond#ct anti<piracy operations& -"e fact is( "o.ever( t"at all of t"ese co#ntries "ave e5tremely limited capacity to deal .it" pirates and t"e code is largely meaningless& Somalia is not party to most of t"e relevant international treaties and does not "ave any co#nter<piracy legislation& 8eca#se no central a#t"ority controls Somalia( "o.ever( t"e point .o#ld be moot even if it "ad co#nter<piracy legislation& -"e Somali
9 -ransitional 0ederal *overnment did conc#r .it" t"e ,N Sec#rity Co#ncil resol#tion t"at allo.s foreign forces to engage in "ot p#rs#it of pirates on Somali territory& +"o Are t"e Somali PiratesF -"e pirate gro#ps c#t across Somali clan lines and tend to live along t"e coastline& -"e n#mber of Somalis involved in piracy "as been estimated as "ig" as 3(=00& -"e #nit operating o#t of Cismay# in so#t"ern Somalia comprises pirates from t"e Ha.iye( %arod and 8ant# clans& One of t"e senior commanders is a Mare"an ."ile t"e 8ant# are former fis"ermen& Pirates operating o#t of Harard"eere nort" of Mogadis"# are dominated by t"e S#leiman s#b<s#b clan& -"ey #se )l %ere and Hobyo as s#pply bases and t"e inland to.ns of *al$ayo and *aro.e in P#ntland as logistical and financial "#bs& According to Jane’s( Pa$istani and S#danese nationals "elp plan t"e piracy operations o#t of Harard"eere& -"ere are reg#lar contacts bet.een t"e pirates in Cismay# and Harard"eere& %arod gro#ps "ave a base f#rt"er #p t"e Indian Ocean coast at )yl and at t"e ma'or *#lf of Aden port of 8osasso& Somalis are e5ceptionally entreprene#rial& Piracy is a .ay to ma$e money& -"ere is no evidence t"at piracy is directly lin$ed to international terrorism( alt"o#g" many Somali gro#ps get a c#t of t"e ransom money& Jane’s "as identified a close lin$ bet.een t"e pirates and t"e e5tremist al<S"abab gro#p( ."ic" says it "as lin$s to al<Gaeda& -"e pirates in Cismay# coordinate .it" t"e al<S"abab militia in t"e area( alt"o#g" al<S"abab apparently does not play an active role in t"e pirate attac$s& Al<S"abab re6#ires some pirates to pay a protection fee of = to 30 percent of t"e ransom money& If al<S"abab "elps to train t"e pirates( it mig"t receive 20 percent and #p to =0 percent if it finances t"e piracy operation& -"ere is increasing evidence t"at t"e pirates are assisting al<S"abab .it" arms sm#ggling from Eemen and t.o central Asian co#ntries& -"ey are also reportedly "elping al<S"abab develop an independent maritime force so t"at it can sm#ggle foreign 'i"adist fig"ters and @special .eaponsA into Somalia& A lin$ .it" terrorism is .orrisome( b#t t"e alliance bet.een t"e pirates and al<S"abab is fragile& Pirate Mod#s Operandi Alt"o#g" Somali pirates operate from a variety of bases( t"eir met"odology is similar& -"e attac$ boats are small .ood or fiber<glass fis"ing s$iffs of t.enty to si5ty feet o#tfitted .it" d#al engines of #p to := HP& -"ey are often carried and la#nc"ed by @mot"er s"ips(A #s#ally fis"ing tra.lers or d"o.s t"at .ere commandeered or p#rc"ased by t"e pirates& -"ey #se *PS devices( satellite p"ones and some "ave ac6#ired e6#ipment t"at enables t"em to pic$ #p A#tomatic Identification Signals >AIS? re6#ired by commercial vessels& )ac" s$iff contains t"ree to seven pirates& If t"e attac$ occ#rs in t"e *#lf of Aden( t"e s$iffs overnig"t off t"e coast of Eemen and attac$ ."en morning arrives at speeds of #p to 90 $nots in gro#ps of t.o or t"ree& -"ey often fire a#tomatic .eapons and !P*s at t"e vessel& S"ips t"at stop are more li$ely to be capt#red& -"e pirates #se grappling "oo$s and ladders to board& Pirates t"en force t"e vessel to one of t"e pirate bases at 8argaal( )yl( Hobyo( *araad or Harard"eere ."ere t"ey ma$e a ransom demand& -"e going rate is ;3 to ;2 million( depending on t"e s"ip and cre.& -"e pirates normally receive cas" at t"e point
J ."ere t"e s"ip is being "eld b#t sometimes accept payment to a tr#sted t"ird party o#tside Somalia& Pirates "ave al.ays released t"e s"ips and t"e cre. after payment of t"e ransom and "ave not recapt#red t"e same s"ip& -"e International Naval !esponse -"e s"arp increase in pirate attac$s in 200: res#lted in t"e arrival of additional naval vessels from abo#t t.o do2en co#ntries( most of ."ic" are more dependent on s"ipping t"ro#g" t"is area t"an is t"e ,nited States& Some( s#c" as t"ose from C"ina( !#ssia and India( operate #nder t"eir o.n command b#t coordinate .it" ot"er naval forces& S"ips from t"e )#ropean ,nion operate #nder t"e command of ), NAH0O!( ."ic" began operations in %ecember 200: to protect "#manitarian aid s"ipments& Combined -as$ 0orce 3=0 >C-0<3=0? "as "ad responsibility since 2002 for co#nterterrorism operations off t"e Horn of Africa& In order to free #p C-0<3=0 for co#nterterrorism responsibilities( t"e Combined Naval 0orces establis"ed Combined -as$ 0orce 3=3 >C-0<3=3? in Ban#ary 200 specifically for co#nter<piracy operations in and aro#nd t"e *#lf of Aden( Arabian Sea( Indian Ocean and !ed Sea& ,&S& Navy !ear Admiral -erence McCnig"t is t"e commander of t"e ne. tas$ force& -"ere are c#rrently only fo#r s"ips assigned to C-0<3=3I ,SS 8o5er and ,SS *ettysb#rg from t"e ,nited States( H%MS Absalon from %enmar$ and -C* *ires#n from -#r$ey& It is impossible for s#c" a small force to operate effectively beyond t"e *#lf of Aden& +riting in Stars and Stripes( Bames +arden "as done some e5cellent reporting recently on C-0<3=3& He e5plained t"e operation as follo.s& +"en American forces in t"e *#lf of Aden find a s#spected pirate s$iff( t"e first people to confront t"e s#spected pirates are members of a Coast *#ard /a. )nforcement %etac"ment& -"e ,&S& military is "andling Somali piracy as a criminal problem( not a military one& -"e goal is s#ccessf#l criminal prosec#tion in Cenyan co#rts( and t"at re6#ires a team of legal and la. enforcement personnel& C-0<3=3 foc#ses on criminal prosec#tion instead of offensive operations& A team boards s#spected pirate vessels .it" t"e goal of preserving evidence& Any member of t"e team may be called to testify in Cenyan co#rts and m#st be trained in "o. to testify and ."at types of evidence t"ose co#rts are loo$ing for& -"e pirates are ta$en bac$ to t"e ,SS 8o5er if t"e tas$ force commander determines t"at t"ere is eno#g" evidence to detain t"em& ,&S& personnel do not interrogate t"e s#spects beca#se t"e Cenyans only accept confessions done in front of Cenyan magistrates& -"e teams do not try to #ncover t"e piracy net.or$s& -"eir 'ob is only to collect evidence and let t"e Cenyans get confessions& -"e ,SS 8o5er acts li$e a co#nty 'ail and a moving "olding facility& -"is approac" deserves a c"ance to s#cceed and t"ere is one precedent t"at s#ggests it mig"t .or$& In 2004( Somali pirates capt#red an Indian d"o. in international .aters& -"e ,SS C"#rc"ill .as in t"e vicinity( sei2ed control of t"e vessel and detained t"e pirates& Cenya event#ally agreed to try t"e pirates( ."o .ere convicted and sentenced to seven years in prison& -"is is certainly a better sol#tion t"an t"e more common one of capt#ring Somali pirates and releasing t"em on t"e s"ores of Somalia& -"is practice virt#ally g#arantees t"e pirates .ill be bac$ in b#siness .it"in days& 8#t t"e Cenyan option needs to be .atc"ed closely& Ho. many pirates is Cenya .illing to acceptF Ho. many .ill be convicted and "eld a f#ll termF If t"e n#mber of capt#red
= pirates increases significantly( is t"e international comm#nity prepared to pay t"e costs of t"e Cenyan trialsF I .o#ld also note t"at Cenya7s record in t"e s#ccessf#l prosec#tion of persons lin$ed to international terrorism is poor& If it becomes apparent t"at t"e Cenyan co#rts are #nable or #n.illing to deal .it" t"e Somali pirate problem( t"en it is time to confront piracy more forcef#lly& -"e ,&S& Navy "anded over seven s#spected Somali pirates to t"e Cenyan police in Marc"& Ho. Cenya deals .it" t"em may be telling& At t"e same time( t"ere m#st be a fe. cases ."ere t"ere is incontrovertible intelligence t"at certain Somali vessels are operating as mot"er s"ips for pirates& One of t"e ,&S& s"ips in C-0<3=3 is reported to "ave a Scan )agle ,AH system to "#nt pirate vessels& It can relay detailed pict#res t"at recogni2e t"e flags flo.n on fis"ing boats& It ta$es still p"otos and videos t"at are instantly sent to t"e "ost vessel& +it" t"is $ind of information( ."at prevents t"e international comm#nity from sin$ing a mot"er s"ipF -"at .o#ld send a po.erf#l message t"at piracy is dangero#s and e5pensive& -"ere .as one report early t"is mont" t"at an #nidentified naval vessel in t"e Indian Ocean act#ally san$ a mot"er s"ip& -"e ,&S& 0ift" 0leet command said it "ad no information abo#t t"e incident& It is my #nderstanding t"at t"e ,nited States "as placed special teams on s"ips contracted to "a#l cargo t"ro#g" t"e *#lf of Aden for t"e ,&S& Navy& +"en #nidentified s$iffs approac" one of t"ese vessels at a "ig" speed in open .ater( t"e response is to fire flares to .ard off t"e s$iffs& +"ile t"is .or$s .ell for t"e s"ip .it" special teams on board( it simply alerts t"e pirates t"at t"ey need to sei2e anot"er s"ip& ,sing live amm#nition against fast approac"ing s$iffs in t"e open ocean .o#ld send anot"er po.erf#l message& -"e pirates .ill #nderstand t"is $ind of response& %ropping t"em off along t"e Somali coast is no deterrent and even leaving t"em in t"e "ands of Cenyan co#rts may be ins#fficient& On t.o occasions( 0rance s#ccessf#lly capt#red Somali pirates and bro#g"t t"em to Paris to stand trial& -"e ,nited States "as been #n.illing to #se t"is met"od& 8#t t"e 0renc" navy also reportedly t#rned over forty<five pirates to local a#t"orities in P#ntland& -"is is tantamo#nt to release& A Marc" 200 ,N report e5pressed concern abo#t complicity bet.een members of t"e P#ntland regional government and pirate activities& C-0<3=3 "as no a#t"ority to operate on land1 it is strictly a maritime force& 8#rea#cratically( it falls #nder t"e ,&S& Central Command ."ile Somalia is #nder A0!ICOM( ."ic" "as responsibility for t"e Combined Boint -as$ 0orce<Horn of Africa >CB-0<HOA? based in nearby %'ibo#ti& CB-0<HOA "as no anti<piracy responsibility and apparently does not cond#ct operations inside Somalia& -"ere seems to be a b#rea#cratic disconnect "ere& !ear Admiral McCnig"t commented to Stars and Stripes t"at pirate attac$s can be stopped p#rely from t"e sea .it" eno#g" s"ips& +"ile t"is may be tr#e in a tec"nical sense( it is #nrealistic beca#se all t"e .orld7s naval forces do not "ave eno#g" available s"ips to protect t"e 20(000 vessels t"at pass t"ro#g" t"e *#lf of Aden ann#ally and t"e .ider 2&= million s6#are miles of ocean ."ere Somali pirate attac$s "ave occ#rred in recent years& P#rs#ant to a ,N resol#tion( t"e Contact *ro#p on Piracy off t"e Coast of Somalia "eld its first meeting in Ne. Eor$ in Ban#ary& Its goal is to facilitate disc#ssion and coordination of actions among states and organi2ations to s#ppress piracy off t"e coast of Somalia& It .elcomes participation by any nation or international organi2ation ma$ing a tangible contrib#tion to t"e co#nter<piracy effort( or to any co#ntry significantly
4 affected by piracy off t"e coast of Somalia& !epresentatives of t.enty<fo#r co#ntries and si5 organi2ations attended t"e first meeting& Somali *rievances -"ere are also important iss#es on t"e Somali side& -"ere is a long "istory of illegal fis"ing in t"e ric" .aters off Somalia( especially by )#ropean and Asian vessels& -"e international comm#nity "as never ta$en t"e iss#e serio#sly and Somalia "as been incapable of dealing .it" t"e problem since t"e central government collapsed in 3 3& One of Somalia7s political leaders complained in 3 2 to t"e government of Italy t"at #nlicensed Italian tra.lers .ere destroying marine reso#rces and t"e ecosystem& It is generally agreed t"at foreign fis"ing vessels made indiscriminate #se of pro"ibited met"ods of fis"ing incl#ding drift nets( #nder .ater e5plosives( $illing of endangered species and destr#ction of reefs( biomass and fis" "abitats& Somali fis"ermen appealed .it"o#t s#ccess to t"e ,N and t"e international comm#nity to "elp t"em rid t"e co#ntry7s s"ores of foreign s"ips& -"e Cenya<based Seafarers Assistance Programme reported in 2004 t"at "#ndreds of illegal fis"ing boats .ere in Somali .aters at any one time in a ; 0 million a year b#siness& Somalia7s minister of fis"eries and marine reso#rces stated t"is mont" t"at an estimated 220 foreign<o.ned vessels .ere engaged in #nlicensed and illegal fis"ing in Somali .aters& +"ile it is diffic#lt to envisage t"ese s"ips plying Somali .aters today in vie. of t"e t"reat of piracy( t"e international comm#nity s"o#ld ta$e steps to ens#re t"is practice does not ret#rn once t"e t"reat of piracy is over& Allegations of to5ic .aste d#mping( oil spills and n#clear .aste d#mping along t"e Somali coast are more diffic#lt to prove and seem to date bac$ to an earlier period& A former e5ec#tive director of ,N)P c"arged in 3 2 t"at Italian companies .ere d#mping to5ic .aste along t"e Somali coast& !ecent evidence of to5ic .aste d#mping is s$etc"y( alt"o#g" t"e statement released in Ban#ary by t"e Contact *ro#p on Piracy off t"e Coast of Somalia referred to @t"e prevalence of illegal fis"ing and to5ic .aste d#mpingA off t"e coast& Ot"er negative developments related to piracy in Somali .aters( in addition to t"e sm#ggling of arms t"at I "ave already noted( incl#de "#man traffic$ing( migrant sm#ggling and t"e narcotic trade from Afg"anistan& Somalis die ro#tinely as t"ey try to ma$e t"eir .ay to Eemen& Any international effort t"at foc#ses e5cl#sively on ending piracy against foreign s"ips .ill receive little Somali s#pport #nless it also ma$es a serio#s effort to stop t"ese activities t"at "arm Somali interests& Ne5t Steps -"e first t"ree mont"s of 200 .itnessed a decrease in t"e n#mber of s#ccessf#l pirate attac$s( especially in t"e *#lf of Aden& 8y one acco#nt( t"e pirate s#ccess rate fell from a "ig" of =0 percent to abo#t 90 percent& At t"e pea$ of pirate activity off Somalia( seventeen vessels .ere being "eld& 8y t"e end of Marc"( t"ere .ere only nine vessels and 3=9 cre. "eld by pirates& -"is .as probably d#e to a combination of more effective co#nter<piracy efforts and ro#g" seas t"at made it more diffic#lt for t"e pirates to operate&
7 Nevert"eless( t"e International Maritime 8#rea# reported forty<five attac$s in 200 as of early Marc"& Since t"e beginning of April( t"ere "as been an increase in attac$s& Many of t"em "ave occ#rred "#ndreds of na#tical miles from Somali s"ores& -"ere .as even an attempt on a b#l$ carrier some 00 na#tical miles from t"e coast& -"ere "as been a cl#ster of attac$s abo#t J00 na#tical miles so#t"east of Mogadis"#& -"e most recent s#ccessf#l attac$s occ#rred near t"e Seyc"elles Islands in t"e middle of t"e Indian Ocean& Somali pirates sei2ed a yac"t and t"en an oceanograp"ic researc" cr#iser near t"e island of Ass#mption& -"e latter reportedly is being ta$en to Harard"eere on t"e Somali coast& Somali pirates capt#red a *erman container vessel abo#t J00 miles off t"e so#t"ern Somali coast bet.een Cenya and t"e Seyc"elles& A Eemeni t#gboat( -ai.an fis"ing tra.ler( 0renc" yac"t and 8ritis" cargo s"ip "ave also fallen prey in recent days& More attention needs to be given to t"e role of Eemen in t"e attac$s t"at ta$e place in t"e *#lf of Aden& -"e ma'ority of t"e attac$s occ#r closer to t"e Eemeni coast t"an t"e Somaliland and P#ntland coasts& ,&S& Admiral Mar$ 0it2gerald( ."o is assigned to NA-O( commented at a recent naval conference in So#t" Africa t"at Somali pirates are obtaining f#el and engine parts from individ#als( not t"e government( in Eemen& A Eemeni coastg#ard official 6#ic$ly denied t"e allegation& /ogistical s#pport for Somali pirates in Eemen s"o#ld come as a s#rprise to no one& -"e reaction to Somali piracy from t"e s"ipping comm#nity "as been interesting& According to Jane’s, t"e pirate attac$s in t"e *#lf of Aden in 200: impacted less t"an one<"alf of one percent of total s"ipping& 8eca#se of t"e relatively lo. ris$ t"at a vessel .ill be capt#red( many of t"e s"ipping companies are '#st not .illing to pay t"e cost of meaningf#l sec#rity& -"ey are inclined to play t"e odds rat"er t"an increase t"eir over"ead& A fe. s"ipping lines "ave rero#ted certain s"ips aro#nd t"e Cape of *ood Hope( t"#s avoiding t"e S#e2 Canal and *#lf of Aden& -"is adds significantly to t"e cost of s"ipping as it increases by 9: percent t"e distance bet.een !otterdam and Singapore& -"ere is also some ambivalence abo#t t"e efficacy of c#rrent protection meas#res& In late Ban#ary( pirates capt#red a *erman li6#efied<gas tan$er& +"en attac$ed( t"e vessel "ad been part of a convoy in t"e *#lf of Aden and .as transiting t"e designated sec#rity corridor .it" a n#mber of ot"er s"ips and an Indian .ars"ip& It "ad even delayed its transit t"ro#g" t"e *#lf of Aden by si5teen "o#rs in order to travel .it" a convoy& )vents moved so 6#ic$ly( "o.ever( t"at t"e Indian .ars"ip .as #nable to protect t"e *erman tan$er before pirates boarded t"e vessel& Nearly everyone ."o "as st#died t"is problem "as concl#ded t"at t"e only .ay to s#bstantially eliminate Somali piracy is to establis" an effective Somali national government t"at is committed to ending piracy and "as t"e land<based and maritime reso#rces to accomplis" t"e tas$& -"ere is no prospect t"is .ill "appen soon( alt"o#g" t"ere is positive movement in t"is direction& It is e6#ally essential to ta$e into acco#nt Somali grievances s#c" as illegal fis"ing by foreign vessels in Somali .aters&