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Original Title: Core 4 Revision Notes

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Core 4 Revision Notes

Notes for the Edexcel C4 specification

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dx

d

sin x = cos x and

dx

d

cos x = - sin x. All the rest can be found by expressing the

function in terms or sin or cos then using the product, chain or quotient rule.

Use formula booklet to help and look at both differentiating and integrating

columns as one is the reverse of the other.

Use 2sinAcosA = sin 2A, 2cos

2

A = 1 + cos2A and 2sin

2

A = 1 cos2A to change into

expressions you can differentiate or integrate. e.g. from cos

2

x into

2

1

+

2

1

cos2A

Remember

dx

d

sin 2x = 2 cos 2x (chain rule) and

x 2 sin = -

2

1

cos 2x + c

Integration

Either by parts or substitution

By parts:

dx

dv

u dx = uv -

dx

du

v dx which means call one bit u and the other

dx

dv

so

integrate the

dx

dv

to give v and differentiate the u to give

dx

du

then sub in to the formula.

Remember: Diff. one and Int. the other and choose to diff. the one that will

disappear.

If still have a product in the second integral bit, swap around which bit to integrate and

do again then if still horrid, do substitution.

Substitution

Always given the substitution so differentiate this then substitute in for dx and then can

cancel OR rearrange and express x in terms of u then differentiate and substitute in.

Example

2 / 1

x 1

1

dx where u = 1 x

1/2

x = (1 u)

2

and

du

dx

= -2(1 u) = 2u 2 so dx = (2u 2)du

u

1

(2u 2) du = )

u

2

2 (

du = 2u 2 ln |u| + c

Substitute back in for u therefore = 2(1 x

1/2

) 2 ln |1 x

1/2

| + c

Parametric Equations

Uses an equation for x and y separately but with an extra variable t to link the two

together. To change to a cartesian equation, solve simultaneously to find the value of t

then write as y=mx + c.

If the parametric equations are for curves, then use chain rule to find the gradient at a

particular point, e.g.

dx

dy

=

dx

dt

x

dt

dy

e.g. if y = t

3

and x = 2t then find

dt

dy

and

dt

dx

then invert

dt

dx

and multiply the two together.

Remember to use the 2 equations to find the x and y coordinates then use y = mx +c if

finding the equation of a tangent or normal.

Binomial Expansion

(1 + x)

n

= 1 +

1

n

x +

2 x 1

) 1 n ( n

x

2

+

3 x 2 x 1

) 2 n )( 1 n ( n

x

3

+ THIS IS IN THE FORMULA BOOKLET

If (1 + mx)

n

then remember that it is (mx)

2

not just mx

2

and you may need to take out a

common factor to get it in the binomial form. Also used when expressing partial fractions

and expanding them.

Rational Functions and Partial Fractions

To do

b

a

x

d

c

factorise anything that you can then cancel down.

To do

b

a

d

c

turn second fraction upside down then multiply.

To do

b

a

+

d

c

make one fraction by cross multiplying so

bd

bc ad +

or make a common

denominator then combine.

To do the reverse (make two separate fractions from one), factorise the denominator

into two factors, express as two fractions each with one of the factors as the

denominator and A and B as the numerators, cross multiply then solve for A and B.

e.g.

) 2 x )( 1 x 2 (

8 x 7

=

1 x 2

A

+

2 x

B

then

) 2 x )( 1 x 2 (

8 x 7

=

) 2 x )( 1 x 2 (

) 1 x 2 ( B ) 2 x ( A

+

then set

x=

2

1

to find A and x=2 to find B.

If there is a repeated root (e.g. denominator may be (2x+3)(x-2)

2

then 3 fractions

3 x 2

A

+

+

2 x

B

+

2

) 2 x (

C

Multiply top and bottom by 2x + 3 then A is on its own and B and C have (2x+3) on the

top then make x= - 3/2 and this will eliminate B and C to find A. Now do the same for (x

2) to find B and so on.

Division of Polynomials

Use long division to find the quotient (how many times it goes in) and the remainder then

can rearrange and thus integrate fractions with polynomials in them.

(20x

3

- x

2

4x 7) (4x + 3) =

4x+3

2 x 4

2

x 5

7 x 4

2

x

3

20x

+

20x

3

+ 15x

-16x

2

-4x-7

-16x

2

-12x

8x - 7

8x+6

-13 (remainder)

So

(20x

3

- x

2

4x 7) dx=

(5x

2

- 4x + 2) 13 dx and can integrate the right hand

(4x + 3) (4x + 3) side so find the solution to the

left hand side.

Differential Equations

Get the xs and dx together on one side and the ys and dy on the other then integrate

either side. This gives you an equation in terms of x and y rather than dx and dy. Then

use the information you are given to find the constant of integration then can use the

equation to solve the problem. Put the constant of integration on one side only.

Example If

dx

dy

=y

2

x then

2

y

1

dy = x dx

2

y

1

dy =

x dx therefore

y

1

=

3

2

x

2

3

+ c

(quotient)

Implicit Equations

These are where the xs and ys occur more than once so cannot be rearrange to make

x or y the subject.

To find

dx

dy

of an curve defined implicitly, differentiate with respect to x but the y terms

differentiate from f(y) to f(y)

dx

dy

using the chain rule. Then rearrange to make

dx

dy

the

subject and this is the gradient formula.

Example If the equation on a curve is x

2

2xy + 4y

2

= 12, differentiating with respect to

x gives you 2x 2y 2x

dx

dy

+ 8y

dx

dy

=0 (the +2xy is differentiated using the product rule)

dx

dy

(-2x + 8y) = -2x + 2y and so

dx

dy

=

y 8 x 2

y 2 x 2

+

+

=

y 4 x

y x

+

+

(this is the gradient formula)

For the coordinates of a point where the gradient is 0, then x + y =0 so rearrange and

substitute in to the equation of the curve to find the point that solves them both.

Vectors

Describes a translation either as a column vector

5

4

or a letter e.g p or multiples of

basic unit vectors e.g. 4i + 5j where i=

0

1

and j=

1

0

To get vectors of directions you arent given, use the commutative rule which means

draw the network and get from A to B using a different route not direct. To show that a

point B is on the line AC, show that the vector AB is a multiple of the vector AC.

The vector equation of a line is r = a + tp (a is the position vector of a point on the line

and p is the displacement vector of the line (the direction the line is going in or the

movement in the x, y and z direction to get from point A to point B)

Find p by subtracting the vectors of 2 points on the line. a is the vector of the first point.

Example

If points A and B have coordinates (-5,3,) and (-2,9,) then the vector equation of the line

between them is p =

9

2

3

5

=

6

3

so the equation is r =

3

5

+ t

6

3

Same process if in 3D.

t is a scalar quantity that tells you how far along the line to move.

You can write this equation using basic unit vectors or column vectors.

To find if and where 2 lines intersect, make one equal to the other and solve for the x,y

and z values (or the i,j and k values) to find the size of t.

Do for all 3 coordinates to check that they do cross in all directions with the same value

for t. If they do not cross in all directions, the lines are skew.

Scalar Product of Vectors

a.b = |a| |b| cos where |a| and |b| is the magnitude (length) of the displacement vectors

and found using Pythagoras and is the angle between the vectors.

a.b means find the product of the x, y and z values and sum them.

.

n

m

l

.

w

v

u

= lu + mv + nw so combining gives |a| |b| cos = lu + mv + nw

If 2 vectors are perpendicular, then p.q = 0

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