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What command can be used to findout server architechure (x86 or x64) apart from uname?


How do u findout the users who are NOT o!!ed in for more than "# da$s? which fi e u wi chec%? ast & ast o!& 'var' o!'wtmp

When u tr$ to create a fi e& u !ot a error that (No space avai ab e)* +ut actua $ space avai ab e on vo ume? How do u reso ve this issue? Tr$ this df ,i ist inode information instead of b oc% usa!e -.erhaps are $ou out of inodes on this fi e s$stem*/& To (rectif$ it)& remove unwanted fi es or move them somewhere e se*/

How do u extend the 01 in 0inux? 2irst chec% whether is there free space avai ab e in the 13 where the 01 resides* 4 v!disp a$ or 4 v!s Now& extend the 01 usin! be ow command5 (0) option to specif$ the si6e to be increased* 4 vextend ,0 783 'dev'v!##' v#9 2ina $& extend the 2i e s$stem space5 4 resi6e:fs 'dev'v!##' v#9

What are the fie ds in the 'etc'passwd fi e* ;xp ain them? There are < fie ds in 'etc'passwd5 =username5x5>?@53?@5comment5home director$5she A >sername .assword >?@ .rimar$ !roup ?@ Bomment description Home director$ path Che assi!ned to the user

What command can $ou use to review boot messa!es? The dmes! command can be used to disp a$ the s$stem messa!es durin! boot time*

Which account is created on 0inux insta ation?

With the insta ation of 0inux& a super user account is created ca ed as DrootE*

What is a she ? F she is an interactive user interface to an operatin! s$stem services that a ows an user to enter commands as character strin!s or throu!h a !raphica user interface* The she converts them to s$stem ca s to the OC or for%s off a process to execute the command* C$stem ca resu ts and other information from the OC are presented to the user throu!h an interactive interface* Bommon $ used she s are sh&csh&%s etc*

Which daemon trac%s events on $our s$stem? The s$s o!d daemon trac%s the s$stem information and saves it to specified o! fi es*

Gou are o!!ed on as a re!u ar user* Without o!!in! off and o!!in! on as root& $ou are reHuired to create a new user account immediate $* How wou d $ou do it? This can be achieved b$ issuin! the su command* This wi prompt $ou for the password of the root account* .rovidin! the password& o!s $ou in as root* Now& $ou can perform an$ administrative duties* *

Gou are reHuired to restore the fi e memo*ben* ?t was bac%ed up in the tar fi e I$+ac%up*tar* Which command wou d $ou use to do it? The command that we wou d use is5 tar ,xf I$+ac%up*tar memo*ben* ?t uses the x switch to extract a fi e*

What is an ?NO@;? ?t is a structure which has the description of a the fi es and pointers to the data b oc%s of fi e stored in it*The information contained is fi e,si6e& access and modification time& permission and so on*

What is 0?0O? 0?0O is 0inux 0oader is a boot oader for 0inux* ?t is used to oad 0inux into the memor$ and start the Operatin! s$stem*******

What is the difference between home director$ and wor%in! director$? Home director$ is the defau t wor%in! director$ when a user o!s in* On the other hand& wor%in! director$ is the userEs current director$*******

What is N2C? What is its purpose? N2C is Networ% 2i e s$stem* ?t is a fi e s$stem used for sharin! of fi es over a networ%*******

How do ? send emai with inux? ;mai can be sent in 0inux usin! the mai command* ******

What is ;xp ain J.I (Jed Hat .ac%a!e Iana!er) features*

J.I (Jed Hat .ac%a!e Iana!er ) is a pac%a!e mana!ement s$stem (co ection of too s to mana!e software pac%a!es)* Gou can use rpm to insta inux pac%a!es

What is 0inux Che ? What is Che Ccript? 0inux she is a user interface used for executin! the commands* Che is a pro!ram the user******

What are .ipes F pipe is a chain of processes so that output of one process (stdout) is fed an input (stdin) to another** ;xamp e* ps Kef L !rep orac e to ist orac e process from process tab e*

What does ns oo%up do? Ns oo%up is used to find detai s re ated to a @omain name server* @etai s i%e ?. addresses of a machine& IM records&* Fnd such****

What is +ash Che ? +ash is a free she for >N?M* ?t is the defau t she for most >N?M s$stems* ?t has a combination of the B and Norn she features* ******

How does the inux fi e s$stem wor%? 0inux fi e structure is a tree i%e structure* ?t starts from the root director$& represented b$ O'O& and then expands into sub,directories*******

What is the name and path of the main s$stem o!? +$ defau t the main s$stem o! is 'var' o!'messa!es* This fi e contains a the messa!es and the script written b$ the user* +$ defau t a scripts are saved in this fi e* This is the standard s$stem o! fi e& which contains messa!es from a s$stem software& non,%erne boot issues& and messa!es that !o to Odmes!O* dmes! is a s$stem fi e that is written upon s$stem boot*

What is the minimum number of partitions $ou need to insta 0inux? Iinimum : partitions are needed for insta in! 0inux* The one is ' or root which contains a the fi es and the other is swap* 0inux fi e s$stem is function specific which means that fi es and fo ders are or!ani6ed accordin! to their functiona it$* 2or examp e& a executab es are in one fo der& a devices in another& a ibraries in another and so on* ' or DrootE is the base of this fi e s$stem* F the other fo ders are under this one* ' can be consider as B5 *Cwap is a partition that wi be used as virtua memor$* ?f there is no more avai ab e JFI a 0inux computer wi use an area of the hard dis%& ca ed swap& to temporari $ store data* ?n other words it is a wa$ of expandin! $our computers JFI*

Which command is used to review boot messa!es? dmes! command is used to review boot messa!es* This command wi disp a$ s$stem messa!es contained in the %erne rin! buffer* We can use this command immediate $ after bootin! to see boot messa!es* F rin! buffer is a buffer of fixed si6e for which an$ new data added to it

overwrites the o dest data in it ?nvo%in! dmes! without an$ of its options causes it to write a the %erne messa!es to standard output* This usua $ produces far too man$ ines to fit into the disp a$ screen a at once& and thus on $ the fina messa!es are visib e* However& the output can be redirected to the ess command throu!h the use of a pipe& thereb$ a owin! the startup messa!es to be viewed on one screen at a time Which uti it$ is used to ma%e automate rotation of a o!? o!rotate command is used to ma%e automate rotation of o!*?t a ows automatic rotation& compression& remova & and mai in! of o! fi es* This command is main $ used for rotatin! and compressin! o! fi es* This Pob is done ever$ da$ when a o! fi e becomes too ar!e*

What are the fie ds in the'etc'passwd fi e? ?t contains a the information of the users who o! into the s$stem* ?t contains a ist of the s$stemOs accounts& !ivin! for each account some usefu information i%e user ?@& !roup ?@& home director$& she & etc* ?t shou d have !enera read permission as man$ uti ities& i%e s use it to map user ?@s to user names& but write access on $ for the superuser (root)* The main fie ds of 'etc'passwd fi e are5 9* >sername5 ?t is used when user o!s in* ?t shou d be between 9 and ": characters in en!th* :* .assword5 Fn x character indicates that encr$pted password is stored in 'etc'shadow fi e* "* >ser ?@ (>?@)5 ;ach user must be assi!ned a user ?@ (>?@)* >?@ # (6ero) is reserved for root and >?@s 9,QQ are reserved for other predefined accounts* 2urther >?@ 9##,QQQ are reserved b$ s$stem for administrative and s$stem accounts'!roups* 4* 3roup ?@ (3?@)5 The primar$ !roup ?@ (stored in 'etc'!roup fi e) 8* >ser ?@ ?nfo5 The comment fie d* ?t a ow $ou to add extra information about the users such as userOs fu name& phone number etc* This fie d use b$ fin!er command* 6* Home director$5 The abso ute path to the director$ the user wi be in when the$ o! in* ?f this director$ does not exists then users director$ becomes ' <* Bommand'she 5 The abso ute path of a command or she ('bin'bash)* T$pica $& this is a she *

Which commands are used to set a processor,intensive Pob to use ess B.> time? nice command is used for chan!in! priorit$ of the Pobs* Jan!e of priorit$ !oes from ,:# (hi!hest priorit$) to 9Q ( owest)*.riorit$ is !iven to a Pob so that the most important Pob is executed first b$ the %erne and then the other east important Pobs* This ta%es ess B.> times as the Pobs are schedu ed and are !iven priorities so the B.> executes fast* The priorit$ is !iven b$ numbers i%e ,:# describe the hi!hest priorit$ and 9Q describe the east priorit$*

* How do $ou create a new user account?

useradd command is used for creatin! a new user account*

Which versions of 0inux have $ou wor%ed on ?

Jedhat ;nterprise 0inux 4&8 and 6*