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STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED 1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 FORMATION:
The Committee of Public undertaking of the Fifth Lok Sabha was the first Parliamentary Committee to undertake a significant review of the formation of SAIL. Objectives of the Department of Steel: 1. Rapid growth of the industrial sector, of the economy, of the state as a leading agent of the growth process; and 2. Ability of the Government to divert investment into areas which are strategic from the point of view of future development. Based on the above consideration, the proposal to set up a holding company for Steel and associated input industries were approved by the Government in January, 1972. Accordingly, the formation of the Steel Authority of India Limited was approved by the Government in December, 1972. The company was incorporated on January 24, 1973 with an authorized capital of Rs. 2, 000 crores. In 1978 SAIL was restructured as an operating company managing the steel plants at Rourkela, Bhillai, Durgapur, Bokaro.

1.2 PRESENT STATUS:


Today, SAIL is one of the largest entity in the country, with assets more than Rs. 10, 000 crores. Its innate strength lies in its technologies and professionals and a trained manpower of 2,00,000 and a sales turnover of around Rs. 11,000 crores.

1.3 SAIL-FOR FUTURE MODERNISATIONS AND EXPANSIONS:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 100% production of steel through Basic Oxygen Furnace(BOF) route 100% processing of steel through continuous casting Value addition by reduction of semi finished steel Auxiliary fuel injection system in all the Blast furnace Energy saving schemes Adherence to environment norms.

2. LAYOUT OF MEGHAHATUBURU IRON ORE MINES


The Meghahatuburu Iron Ore Mines(MIOM ) is one of the captive iron ore mines of Bokaro Steel Plant. MIOM is about 385 km away from BSL in south. This mine is connected by broad gauge railway line to the Steel Plant. Meghahatuburu Iron Ore Mines has been designed for an output of 4.25 MT of washed lump and fines. In both the mines, mining is being done by Shovel-Dumper combination, with complete mining being done by Shovel-Dumper combination and ROM being washed in ore beneficiation plant. Meghahatuburu mines, have a total capacity of 8.55 million tones of ore. The quality of iron ore at MIOM is good with Fe content being 63%. Composite material from MIOM is likely to give an aluminia-silica ratio of 1.5 and total gauge less than 5%.

2.1 LOCATION:
Longitude: 85 16 east Latitude: 22 04 north Altitude: 918 m above main sea level

2.2 TYPES OF ORES:


Hard massive/hard laminated(Fe:60-65%) Self laminated(aluminous: 58-63%) Self laminated (siliceous: 60-65%) Blue Dust (>Fe:65%) Laterite (Fe: 57-59%) The wastes are laterite, shale, BHQ, and BHT and Phyllites.

2.3 WATER SOURCES FOR MIOM:


Karo and Pardih Nala for drinking water Ghagirathi and Kumdi Nala for industrial water

2.4 MIOM RATED CAPACITY:


ROM: 5.0 MT Lump Ore + Fine Ore: 4.25 MT

3. WORKING METHOD Ore Processing:


In case of MIOM,, iron ore is being washed to reduce the gangue content(i.e. almunia and silica) thereby it increases the Fe content in the ore. Washing also improves the handling characteristics of the iron ore fines. The washing process involves scrubbing, wet screening and classification. The material is scrubbed in the scrubber, then fed to vibrating screen (single or double deck) where water is sprayed for good washing and screening. In wet screening, lump is separated from the fines and is carried to the washed lump ore stock pile by conveyors. The undersize (-10 mm size fine ore mixed with water) is fed to the classifier. Micro fine ore (-65 mesh) gets into classifier and the same is allowed to overflow having 18-20% of solid waste material. Rakes product (+65 mesh) with 14 to 17% moisture are fed to the dewaterises screen to reduce the moisture content by 4 to 5%. The washed fines with 10 to 11% moisture from the dewateriser are carried to the washed fines stockpile by conveyors. In the stockpile the water percolates to the bottom of the pile bringing down the moisture content to the around 6.9% in the washed fines. The collected moisture at the bottom is drained out from the stock.

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT
All SAIL plants have been provided with Central Engineering Shops to facilitate repair/reconditioning of component, sub assemblies and assemblies as well as a substantial part of their spare requirement. There are mainly two sections:

1. MECHANICAL SEVICES
Types of HEMMSs: 1. Dumpers: i. M/s BEML: 50T capacity ii. M/s KOMATSU: 100T capacity 2. Dozers(BEML) 3. Front End Loader(KOMATSU) Machine Shop: The shop usually consists of light and heavy Machining Section equipped with Lathes, Planners, Horizontal and Vertical Boring machines, Slotting machines, Grinders etc.

2. FIELD MACHINERY SECTION


Types of HEMMs: a) Hydraulic Excavator i. BEML: BE-1000 ii. KOMATSU: PC 2000-8 b) Drill IDM-30

4. MECHANICAL SERVICES
4.1 DUMPER SECTION Types of Dumpers in MIOM:
1. Make: BEML(Bharat Earth Movers Limited) Model : BH50M Engine: Cummins KTTA-19C Capacity: 50T 2. Make: KUMATSU Model: HD785-7 Engine: Komatsu SAA12V140E-3 Capacity: 100T

USES
Dumpers are used for transportation of bulk materials (Iron Ore). These dumpers are loaded at shovel pit and unloaded at hopper or waste dump yard.

4.1.1 BH50M REAR DUMPER:


4.1.1.1 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION

ENGINE The 210M HAULPAK is powered by a Cummins KTTA-19C diesel engine. The truck is capable of speeds up to 35 MPH(55.67 km/h). TRANSMISSION The engine drives a remote-mounted Alisson CLT-6062 transmission incorporporating a TC683 torque converter. The transmission has six speeds Forward and one Reverse and uses Allison transmission Electronics Control(ATEC) for complete automatic shift sequencing.

DYNAMIC RETARDING Dynamic retarding is actuated by depressing the operators retarder pedal which applies oil cooled, rear mounted, wet disc brakes only; the front brakes are not applied.

SERVICE BRAKE SYSTEM The service brakes are controlled by an all hydraulic actuation system. Depressing the service pedal actuates front dry disc brakes and rear wet disc brakes. POWER STEERING The HAULPAK Truck is equipped with an orbital power steering system mounted under the cab floor with noise and vibration isolators. Emergency power to safety steer the truck while stopping is provided by an accumulator. FINAL DRIVE Planetary Final Drive has full floating axle shafts and a plug-in differential carrier assembly.

Fig. 1 BH50M Dumper

4.1.1.2 SPECIFICATIONS ENGINE Cummins KTTA-19C Number of cylinders...6 Operating cycle 4-Stroke Rated Brake HP(SAE) 700 Hp(522 kW) @ 2100 RPM Flywheel HP (SAE) Maximum Torque ... 267 kgm (2618 N.m) @ 1400 RPM 648 HP (483 kW) @ 2100 RPM

4.1.1.3 TRANSMISSION ALLISON/HM-PPD CLT-6063 w/ATEC Torque Convertor..TC683 6 Speeds Forward2 REVERSE

4.1.1.4 FINAL DRIVE Ratios: Bevel Set (Differential).. Planetary Total Reduction.. Maximum Speed 3.85:1 5.70:1 21.93:1

35MPH(56.7km/h)

4.1.1.5 24VDC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Batteries.. Two 12 Volt Batteries in Series Capacity.. 200 Ampere-Hour Alternator .............. 24 Volt,75 Amperes output Starter.. DELCO-REMY Lighting.. 24 Volt-DC 4.1.1.6 CAPACITIES SERVICES CAPACITIES Engine Lube Oil: Cummines (Incl. Lube oil filters) Cooling System Fuel tank Hydraulic System Hydraulic Tank Transmission Final Drive 14.2 48 203 48 95 20 56 53.8 181.7 770 545.0 359.6 75.6 212.6 U.S. Gallons Liters

4.1.1.7 HOIST SYSTEM Tandem Pump Capacity: Shaft End.....................................................................................94 gpm (355 l/min) @ 2100 RPM Cover End80 gpm (303 l/min) @ 2100 RPM Relief Valve Pressure Setting 2750 psi (18.9Mpa)

Hoist Cylinders. 2- Stage Hydraulic Cylinders FiltrationFull-Flow, remote-Mounted Filter 4.1.1.8 STEERING Turning Circle Pump Capacity 69 ft.(21.0m) 22.7 gpm(85.9lpm)

System pressure... 2750 psi(19.0 Mpa)

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4.1.2 KUMATSU HD785-7 DUMPER:

Fig. 2 Kumatsu HD 785-7 Dumper

4.1.2.1 SPECIFICATIONS
WEIGHT Empty: 72,300 kg Max. load: 91,000 kg Gross: 163,300 kg Weight Distribution: Empty: (front) 33,980(47%) kg (Rear) 38,320 (53%) kg Gross: (front) 51,440(31.5%)kg (Rear)111,860(68.5%) kg

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4.1.2.2 PERFORMANCE
Dump Body Capacity: Struck: 40 m3 and Heaped(2:1): 60 m3 Max. travel speed: 65 km/h Gradeability (sin ): 35% Min. turning radius: 10.1 m Dumping angle: 48 Adaptation to highland(high altitude): 2,350 m

4.1.2.3 ENGINE
Model: KOMATSU SAA12V14OE-3 Type: 4-cycle, water cooled, V type in-line 12 cylinder, direct injection, with turbocharger and after cooler No. of cylinders- Bore x stroke: 12-140 16 mm Piston Displacement: 30.5{30,500} l{cc} Rated output: 895/1,900{1,200/1,900} kW/rpm{HP/rpm} Max. torque: 5.076/1,350{518/1,350} Nm/rpm{kgm/rpm} Fuel Consumption: 206{154} g/kWh{g/HPh} Stating Motor: 24V, 90A Battery: 12V,200Ah 4 units

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4.1.2.4 POWER TRAIN


Torque Converter: Structure: 3-element, 1-stage, 2-phase Lock-up clutch: Hydraulically actuated, wet-type, multiple-disc clutch Transmission: Type: TORQFLOW planetary gear[Fully hydraulically actuated, force-feed type pump] Reduction gear: Type: Spiral bevel gear, splash lubrication Reduction ratio: 3.357 Differential type: Straight bevel gear, splash lubrication automatic, electrically-

Final Drive: Type: Planetary gear, splash lubrication Reduction ratio: 6.333

4.1.2.5 STEERING SYSTEM


Type: Fully Hydraulic steering system

4.1.2.6 BRAKE SYSTEM


Service Brake: Front wheel: Oil cooled multiple disc brake, Hydraulically Controlled Rear Wheel: Oil cooled multiple disc brake, Hydraulically Controlled Parking Brake: Multiple disc wet type disc brake, Hydraulically released spring type

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4.2FRONT END LOADER


4.2.1 INTRODUCTION
This machine is intended mainly for the following operations. 1. 2. 3. 4. Digging operations Levelling operations Pushing operations Loading operations

4.2.2 FEATURES
1. Console and steering post with neat foot area and no protrusions, giving the same comfortable feelings an automobile. 2. Fully hydraulic sharp, effective brake control with no need to drain water or any need to worry about freezing or rust. 3. Maintenance-free, wet type disc parking brake(also acts as emergency brake) 4. One-touch panel control and air conditioner with new refrigerant installed.

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HL 770-9A FRONT END LOADER

Fig. 3 HL 770-9 FRONT END LOADER

4.2.3 SPECIFICATIONS
4.2.3.1 PERFORMANCE Bucket Capacity: 3.9 m3 Rated load: 7000 kg Travel Speed: Forward 1st: 7.0 km/h 2nd: 12.5 km/h 3rd: 22.2 km/h 4th: 35.3 km/h Reverse 1st: 7.2 km/h 2nd: 13.2 km/h

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3rd: 23.1 km/h 4th: 36.6 km/h Maximum rim pull: 19420 kg Minimum turning radius: Outside of bucket: 6960mm Centre of outside tyre: 5820 mm

4.2.4 WEIGHT Operating weight (including 1 operator: 80 kg(176 lb)): 21640 kg

4.2.5 ENGINE Model: Komatsu SA6D125E-2 diesel engine Flywheel horsepower: 194 kW (236 HP)/2250 rpm Max. Torque: 1048.6 Nm (107 kgm)/1400 rpm Starting motor: 24 V, 7.5 kW Alternator: 24 V, 50 A Battery: 12 V, 150 Ah 2 pieces (145F51)

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4.2.6 ENGINE DEFECTS AND REMEDY

Table-1

Problem Main causes Remedy Engine oil pressure caution 1. Engine oil pan oil level 1. Add oil to specified pilot lamp lights up is low(sucking in air) level, see CHECK 2. Clogged oil filter BEFORE STARTING catridge 2. Replace catridge 3. Defective tightening of 3. (Check, repair) oil pipe joint oil 4. (Replace sensor) leakagefrom damaged pan 4. Defective engine oil pressure sensor Steam is admitted from top 1. Cooling water level 1. Add cooling water, part of radiator (pressure low, water leakage repair valve) 2. Loosen fan belt 2. Check, replace fan belt 3. Dirt or rust tension accumulated in cooling 3. Change cooling water, system clean inside of cooling 4. Clogged radiator fin or system Water temperature gauge is in damaged fin 4. Clean or repair red range 5. Defective thermostat 5. (Replace thermostat) Cooling temperature monitor 6. Loose water tank cap 6. (Tighten cap or replace lights up (high altitude packing) operation) 7. (Replace water level 7. Defective water level sensor) sensor Water temperature gauge is in 1. Defective thermostat 1. Replace thermostat white range 2. Defective monitor 2. Replace Engine does not start when 1. Lack of fuel 1. Add fuel starting motor is turned 2. Air in fuel system 2. Replace place where 3. Defective fuel air is sucked in injection pump or fuel 3. (Replace pump or 4. Starting motor cranks nozzle) engine sluggishly 5. Preheating pilot lamp does not light up 6. Defective compression 1. Too much oil in oil pan 2. Improper fuel

Exhaust gas is white or blue

4. Adjust valve clearance 1. Add oil to specified level 2. Change to specified fuel

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4.3 DOZERS
Make: BEML Model: BD 355X Engine Model: S6D170-1 Flywheel HP: 410 Numbers: 5

4.3.1 POWER TRAIN OF DOZERS


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Engine Torque Convertor Universal Joint Torque flow Transmission Steering Brake Steering Clutch Sprocket Final Drive Track

4.3.2 USES
To create flat surface in zigzag plane which punches earth and rocks with a blade installed at machine front end.

Fig.4 BEML 355X Dozer

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4.3.3 SPECIFICATIONS
No. of cylinders- Bore X Stroke: 6-170 170 mm Total Piston Displacement: 23150 cc Firing Order: 1-5-3-6-2-4

4.3.4 DIMENSIONS
Overall length: 1873 mm Overall width: 1265 mm Overall height: 1922 mm

4.3.5 PERFORMANCE
Flywheel HP: 410/2000 HP/rpm Maximum torque: 176/1400 kg/rpm High idling: 2200 rpm Low idling: 650 rpm Maximum fuel consumption ratio: 164 g/HP Dry weight: 2700 kg Fuel pump: Bosch Pe-Pd type Governor: Bosch RSUV centrifugal all speed type Lubricating oil amount: 58(43) Coolant Amount: 163 Alternator: 24V, 45 A Starting Motor: 24V, 11kW 1

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Battery: 12V, 200 Ah 2 Turbo Charger: K K K/India

4.3.6 DEFECTS WITH THEIR REMARKS


Sl no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Inspection Engine speed Pressure valve performance Leakage in cooling water system Radiator blockage(wind speed) Compression pressure Blow by pressure Valve clearance Exhaust gas color Fault finding tool Multi-Tachometer Radiator Cap Tester Radiator Cap Tester

Table-2 Remarks Digital reading pressure sensing type 60 to 200000 rpm 0 to 2 kg/cm2 0 to 2 kg/cm2

Anemometer(Air speed 1 to 40 m/s gauge) Compression gauge kit 0 to 70 kg/cm2 Blow by checker Feeler gauge Handy smoke checker 0 to 50 mm H20 0.4, 1.00 mm Dirtiness 0 to 70 % with standard color

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5. FIELD MACHINERY SECTION 5.1. HYDRAULIC EXCAVATORS (SHOVEL)


Make: BEML Model: BE-1000 Capacity: 5.4 cubic meter Numbers:03

5.1.1 POWER TRAIN


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Swing motor(Front end) Centre swivel joint Swing motor(Rear end) Travel relief valve R.H 4-Spool control valve Final Drive R.H Travel motor Engine P.T.O No.2 pumps 10. Charging and P.T.O lubrication 11. Swing pump No. 1 pump 12. L.H.S- Spool control valve 13. Free swing connection valve 14. Swing control valve 15. Swing brake solenoid valve 16. Travel speed selector solenoid valve 17. Free swing solenoid valve 18. Swing machinery 19. Swing Circle

5.1.2 USES
These machines do the loading work. These ae designed for the purpose of digging, lifting and moving materials. Shovel buckets made of heavy steel usually seem folded at the back to home a socket for the machine.
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BEML BE-1000 EXCAVTOR:

Fig. 5 BEML BE-1000 Excavtor

5.1.3 SPECIFICATIONS
Reservoir Engine oil pan P.T.O Swing machinery Case(each) Final drive case(each) Hydraulic system Carrier roller(1 piece) Track roller(1 piece) Idler roller(1 piece) Fuel tank Cooling system Kind of Fluid Capacity/LT 61 15 13 45 1200 1.3-1.4 0.70-0.78 0.70-0.78 1140 160

Table-3

Engine oil

Gear oil Diesel Water

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5.1.4 DEFECTS WITH THEIR REMEDIES


DEFECTS 1. Machine deviates excessively 2. No change in output when made switch separated 3. Swing does not work 4. Excessive hydraulic drift 5. 6. CAUSE TVS Valve defective Resistance defective REMEDY Replace Replace

Table-4

7. 8.

Solenoid valve defective Defective hydraulic switch Defective timer Defective solenoid valve Travel speed does not Defective solenoid valve switch Excessive deviation in Defective shutter valve travel during simultaneous operations Control levers are PPC valve defective extremely heavy Engine stalls or engine Servo valve defective speed drops during operation

Replace Replace

Replace Change

Replace Replace

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5. 2 DRILL
Model: IDM-30 Make:ATLAS CAPCO

5.2.1 USES
Drills are commonly used in working of metal construction. The drill are fitted with a cutting too attachment to drill the earth.

Fig. 6 Atlas capco Drill IDM-30

5.2.2 SPECIFICATIONS
Model: IDM 30 Engine power pack, IDM 30-E electric motor driven power pack Drill diameter: 152/165 mm dia hole Operation wt.: 28500 kg Pull down: High torque radial piston hydraulic motor feed through roller chain Pull down: High torque radial piston hydraulic motor feed through roller chain
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Pull down capacity: 13600 kg Feed speed (Max): 13 m per min Relation Torque: 28407 in lb.(max) Speed range: 0-100 rpm Tower construction: Rugged one channel frame construction handle 25 feet rod tower raised on lowered by a hydraulic cylinder Drill pipe change: An indexing type carousel houses three drill rods one hydraulic cylinder moves the carousel. Another cylinder is used to bring the drill pipe in loading position rotating on its own axis. Both the cylinder are controlled cabin. Angle drilling: Optional Range: 0-30 in steps of 5 Leveling Jacks: Four can type leveling jacks with 40 stroke two numbers on drill end and two numbers on rear end. Under carriage: Crawler type tracks equipped with replaceable triple grouser pads. Each track has 8 bottom rollers and 2 carrier rollers for standard machines. In case of long machines call tracks have 9 bottom rollers and 2 carrier rollers.

5.2.3 TYPES OF SYSTEM


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Power Pack Hydraulic system Pneumatic system Propulsion Feed Rotary head system

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5.2.4 DEFECTS WITH THEIR REMEDIES


DEFECTS CAUSE 1. Air discharge Engine capacity too low speed too low Blocked air cleaner High pressure air is escaping 2. Excessive Engine vibration speed too low 3. Oil seal leaks Improperly fitted seal 4. Oil flows back Fault into air filter unloader valve 5. Compressor Low oil over heats level REMEDY Check air cylinder, check engine filter

Table-5

Check restriction filter Check for leak

Check for leak

Check throttle operation Check free operation of unloader valve

Top oil level

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6.CONCLUSION
Meghahatuburu Iron Ore Mines has been designed for an output of 6 MT of washed lump and fines. Mining is being done by Shovel-Dumper combination, with complete mining being done by Shovel-Dumper combination and ROM being washed in ore beneficiation plant. Iron ore is being washed to reduce the gangue content(i.e. almunia and silica) thereby it increases the Fe content in the ore. Washing also improves the handling characteristics of the iron ore fines. SAIL Mine of MIOM have been provided with Central Engineering Shops to facilitate repair/reconditioning of component, sub assemblies and assemblies as well as a substantial part of their spare requirement. It also provide services to Heavy Earth Moving Machines which contain Dumper, Dozer, Motor Grader, Front End Loader, Crane, Excavator and Drill Machines.

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7.REFERENCES
1. Introduction to physical metallurgy By Sideny H. Avner 2. Machine Tools By Dr. R. Kesavan 3. www.sail.co.in 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 5. www.bemlindia.com 6. www.komatsu.com 7. india.cat.com

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