SIT REP

NORWEGIAN FORCES
By Mark Romanow
PHOTOS COURTESY: NORWEGIAN DEFENCE

T

he prowess of the legendary Norsemen, or seaborne Viking Warriors, is exemplified by Norw ay’s prof e ss io nal ar m ed forces and a merchant fleet that ranks among the world’s top five.

The Kongelige Norske (Royal Norwegian [RNo] ) Armed Forces are under Peacetime [PT] control of the Chief of Defence [CHOD] who reports to Forsvarsdepartmenentet (Ministry of Defence) and part of NATO’s Regional Command North under COMJCNORTH in Stavanger. CHOD exercises national control of all units through the commanders of the tri-service sub-commands Forsvars Kommando Nord-Norge (Defence Command North-Norway) and Forsvars Kommando Sor-Norge (South).

Although Nord-Norge is expected to be phased out by 2005 under the sweeping cuts proposed by CHOD in ‘Defence Study 2000’, which will see numerous bases, units and non-core command structures reduced in number or eliminated, based on a zero real-growth budget from 2002-2021. Three Haeren (RNo Army) Brigades [Bde], not yet determined, would be cut as well as mos t of the Independent [Indep] Battalions [Bn], although 21 reaction force Companies [Co’s] plus host nation support units and a support structure would be maintained. The Sjoforsvaret (RNo Navy) would disband it’s Fast Patrol Boat [FPB] force and retire other vessels as noted in the equipment table while the Luftforsvaret (RNo Air Force) would reduce it’s active

F-16 fleet to 48, which may alleviate it’s combat pilot shortage. The Defence Policy Commission disagrees with certain ‘Study’ aspects and wants four fully equipped Bde’s maintained, plus retain the FPB force. The Commission also notes the 1999-2002 defence plan underestimated the projected structure cost by some 30% – NOK 30 bil. The next Defence Review to be presented to the storting (parliament) in spring 2001 will set revised structure and defence policy. While planning would switch from ‘An ti-Invasion’ Defe nce [AID] to Participation in International Operations [PIO] the main basis for national defence would remain rapid activation of Mobilization [Mob] units and reinforcement by NATO’s Immediate Reaction Forces [IRF] such as: NATO Composite Force, AMIRF, US Marine

RBS 17 Hellfire coastal defence missile launch in the fjords

VANGUARD

15

Issue 6, 2000

The defence of Nord-Norge. and VANGUARD 16 Issue 6. The HV’s principal tasks are to secure important infrastructure and bases. Bounded by Sweden and northern Finland as well as North. Svalbard grouping and Jan Mayen. and currently have some 1. Approximately 75% mountainous and 21% forested with population concentrated on coastal or inland plains. 2000 .481. as more than 55. has cut it’s Mob army from 180. the contribution to the NATO IRF(L) is being increased by 50% with the provision of Reinforcement forces inclu ding Sjoforsvaret and Luftforsvaret elements.162 (July 2000 est. Present funding levels s ugges t the current Mob Sea Bodo AB manpower target “is unrealistic if necessary annual training TROMS REGION is to be provided”. plus easing self-imposed restrictions o n NATO exercises in Norway.Expeditionary Bde with prepositioned equipment near Trondheim and the UK/NL amphibious force which regulary deploys to Norway for Arctic training.258 km of rugged indented coastline (1. Basic Facts: NORWAY Total Area 324. such as bridging equipment.000 min in 13 Bde’s to 89. carry out surveillance Trondheim of designated areas and safeØrland AB FINLAND guard important lines of comGulf of munication.) Norwegian and Lapps (20 K) 86% Evangelical Lutheran (state church) Norwegian plus Lapp and Finnish speaking minorities HeineVernet (HV) As part of the ‘Total Defence Concept’ where “all sectors of the community are under obligation to r ender assistance to the defence of FINNMARK REGION Norway” the HV (Home Guar d) forms backbone of Banak Tromso future defence plans under a RUSSIA TROMSO REGION greatly reduced defence strucNorwegian Narvik ture. Participation in Peace Suppor t Operations [PSO] will be maintained. for defending Centr al Norway Government Capital Terrain Population Ethnic Gr oups Religion Languages Haeren Since the end of the cold war the Haeren. The Land HV is NORWAY Bothnia placed under the command o f the Army’s Territor ial Regiments upon Mob with the SWEDEN above stated tasks.000 in six Bde’s str uctur ed for {Trondelag} and Bde 15 with a Mob task in Nord-Norge. Highly mobile Jeger (Ranger) Bn’s are planned to fight in dispersed units in enemy-held territory with a priority on reconnaissance and targeting assets of vital importance. 4.000 islands which form a protected coastal shipping channel.000 personnel have taken part in over 30 PSO since 1947.752 km from North Sea to North Cape) with numerous long deep fjords and some 50. having embraced the concept of manoeuvre warfare.220 sq. Under AID planAir HV is being restructured to form a ning the main forces are concentrated base defence organization tasked with under 6Div supported by forces from non-mobile aspects of defence of all Sor-Norge: Bde 12 having responsibility Luftforsvaret facilities.330 personnel deployed in Kosovo alone and will provide the KFOR leader ship in 2001. Only NATO member to have common border (196 km) with Russia.km (similar to Arizona) on west side of Scandinavian Peninsula incl. CV-9030N IFV supporting Norwegian troops during winter exercises. Norwegian and Barents Seas. Additionally. The Naval ESTONIA Oslo HV’s primary task is coastal surveillance and monitoring LATVIA under command of the two principal sub-commands. Constitutional Monarchy Olso Some 57.

Sjoforsvaret The Sjoforsvaret is in the midst of converting fr om a force dependent on NATO for protecting the Sea Lines of Communication and structured for AID.000 – 77. have the same Anti- FORMATIONS { } = Location x4 <2 or 0> District Commands w/ 14 Territorial Regt’s (HV). +1 on Mob / Falcon 20) Utility / SAR Helicopters (Bell 412SP Arapaho / Sea King Mk43) NASAMS Btty’s [on Mob .2 w/approx 1/4 strength PT cadres] (54 launchers -12 to NASAMS II w/6 ARCS) AD Btty’s [on Mob] (64 Bofors L/70 40mm AAG’s / 80 RBS-70 Mk2) Shipborne patrol & SAR (Lynx Mk86. 1 in Reserve & 1*. MP Bn.000 Land HV.80 (SISU XA-200. are blue water capable as with the planned frigates. Jeger Bn.1 PT Train Co] {Finnmark}. Telemark B n will remain the core of the IRF. [All Mob units] Note: Bde’s usually incl. CA & CG). hampering operations by using snipers to keep enemy armoured vehicles buttoned-up. 1. <> = planned) NOK 25. Its small size and agility make it ideally suited for operations in northern inshore waters. 15 Motorized {1 Finnmark} plus Permanent PT . Haeren: 18.-186). <FRIDTJOF NANSEN> from 2005) FPB’s (HAUK + SKJOLD <+6> by 2004 (Skjold uncertain)) Coastal Submarines (6 ULA.78 M-109 & 6 MLRS). incl.ASW) Maritime surveillance (P3C-III Orion) / Radar Stations / ARCS HAUK class Fast Patrol Boat of the Modern Norwegian Navy at speed. Tracked . 4<*> KOBBEN.37 billion (plus supplemental allocations of NOK 1.696 personnel (15. also in Canadian service.900 Naval HV. <4> VIKING) MCM SES (ALTA mine-clearance / OKSOY mine-hunters) VIDAR mine-layers (1 to act as Logistic Auxiliary till 2008 replacement) CG OPV (3 NORDKAPP + <SVALBARD> from 2002) CF (3 120mm & 6 75mm) / Torpedo Btty’s / Minefields Missile Btty’s (RBS 17 Hellfire) / Combat Boat 90 (carries Hellfire teams) Coastal Radars / Landing Craft * / 81mm Mortars RBS-70 Mk2 SAM. The upgraded NORDKAPP Offshore Patrol Vessels [OPV]. Territorial Regt. <48> active from 2005-2012) Transport / EW Support (C-130H.52 Leo1A5 & 52 CV-9030.000 strong Nordcaps Bde utilizing Finnish APC’s was formed for PSO under UN and EU auspices. AD Bn (RBS-70 & Rh-202. including a unit based on the purchase of 2nd hand Leopard 2A4’s. Bal. Med Bn. AD Btty & Support Units. 2 Fortress {prepared positions in Troms}.500 personnel (incl. <6-10> NHP from 2005 . x22 Indep Field Bn’s [majority upon Mob]: 3 Jeger [w/ Bv-206 & Polaris 6x6 ATV . x12 Indep Co’s. Log Regt. Bde 15 (Mech) {Ofoten}. Telemark Bn (NATO IRF – Bv-206 & SISU). x3 Indep Bde’s: South (Armd) {SE Norway}.000 111/59* 104/424 750 127/12 48/12 <12> 400/466 440 Note: Tanks (Leopard 1A5NO/1A1NO*. conflict prevention and PIO. to patrol of territorial waters.000 4 <5> 14<*> + 1 10 <6> 5 <4> /4 2* <1> 4 + <1> 9<*> /3/3 9 / 36 13 /5 / 110 Note: Frigates (OSLO.86 bil for PSO’s) CURRENT FORCE LEVELS: HV: 600 personnel PT 37. x1 Division (6Div) {Troms} w/ 3 Bde’s <2>: 6 Bde (Armd w/2 Bn’s . PT Soer-Vananger Garrison (4 Co’s incl. 100 storage)/20mm AAG (Rh-202 & FK 20-2) 81mm Mortars (incl.HM King’s Guard {Oslo}. x10 Misc. 5. in conjunction with the ice capable SVALBARD with similar weapons systems. 5 Medical. and Anti-Tank Bn w/ NM-142). 6 Div has approx. Intelligence & Security. Indep Bn’s: Art. 200 CE) – Mob 83. LUFTFORSVARET: 8. . many of which are performed by leased ships. 227.Mob 22.000 Cs) – Mob 89. Art Regt (w/3 Bn’s [1 PT training] & MLRS Btty [PT] .800 officers and CE plus 2. Rh-202 & 81mm Mortars for Coastal Fortification defence. Support units. (incl. 5 Bde & Bde North (both Inf w/ 3 Bn’s – Bv-206 & SISU). CE plus 10. Note: Bde 5 Mob unit. HV) {Russian border}.000* PT incl.200 personnel (Incl.000 Air HV. thus making Norway an exceptionally difficult country to attack from the sea.000 (incl. and the wide range of Raufoss ammunition used by Norway are indicative of it’s well supported defence industry. <56> Leo2A4 from 2001) AIFV (CV-9030N) / Eryx ATGW APC’s: Wheeled 6 x6 for PSO . excluding Civilian Employees [CE] <up to 6. 3 Eng. Sjoforsvaret: 8.000> from 2005. <NASAMS II>).400 Cs) with 2/3rd combat ships manned PT . 4.500 personnel (incl.670 (M113A1 – incl. 1/4 strength PT Cadre. The indigenous Kvaerner Armoured Launching Turret [ALT] for Tow Missiles.700 Cs) – Mob 33. CE plus 2.000* staff and CE cut by 2005> – After Mob Approx.100 Conscripts [Cs]). Bde 12 (Mech) {Trondelag}. 28 M-106A1 & 12 on Bv-206BK) Also large no’s of Bv-202/206 un-armoured tracked ATV’s. It is also responsible for Kystvakt (Coast Guard [CG]) duties. including SAR with the resource situation dictating the CG will have priority while naval presence is reduced.000 58 5+1/ 2 18 <12> / 12 6 <3> 10 / 10 6 4 / 11 / 27 Fighter (MLU F-16A/B in 4 squadrons. Exemplifying Nordic cooperation a 4. 53* NM-135 & 97 NM-142 w/ALT) Self Propelled Artillery (M-109A3GN)/227mm MLRS 155mm Towed Artillery/ARTHUR Artillery Hunting Radars on Bv-206 NASAMS II from 2004 on Bv-206 (plus Giraffe 50AT mobile radars) RBS-70 Mk2 SAM (incl. <Mob 60. 5.DEFENCE BUDGET 2001 (* = to be deleted.

Participation in the Nordic Viking submarine replacement project will continue although replacement of the ULA’s has been put on hold indefinitely. As part of the Sjoforsvaret’s change to a maneouvre-oriented operational concept for coastal defence the Coastal Artillery [ CA] will concentr ate it’s efforts on the rapidly deployable mobile missile batteries utilizing the Stridsbat 90 raiding craft. which are well rounded given the provision of an Aegis combat system. 2000 . Leopard 1A5NO fires main armament (additional 73 chasis acquired for conversion purposes). with expendable indigenous Minesniper ROV’s under evaluation. Kongsberg. camouflaged armoured cupola’s. Stingray lightweight torpedos and twin 76mm guns from the Oslo’s will be transferred to the new escorts that will probably be fitted ‘for but not with’ a close-in weapon system. center-line fuel tank and AIM-9L/N Sidewinders for self-defence. although lack of funds could lead to the entire FPB fleet being eliminated which would lead to shortage of AID forces suited for Nord-Norge. but lack an Air Defence [AD] capability. will participate in STANAVFORCHAN on a regular basis whilst providing a rapidly deployable force to deal with mine threats.F-16 on anti-shipping patrol with Penguin Mk3 missiles. The indigenous Surface Effect Ship [SES] Mine Counter Measures [MCM] force. To save costs the improved communications. in association with Aerospatiale. to cover increased costs. Mk 41 VLS with ESSM and indigenous Nytt SjomalsMissil [NSM] (New ASM).06 bil 2000 NOK for the frigate program. while phasing out the Coastal Forts [CF]. is developing the medium range NSM with high agility and an ability to select targets in confined waters after navigating through fijordic topography and low observability features. the surviving OSLO’s (recently upgraded with an improved Air Warning System) are capable of participating in STANAFORLANT and PSO. Until the new ASW frigates enter service. AN/SPY-1F radar. The NSM is also planned to equip the stealthy SKJOLD SES in conjunction with the SENIT combat- management system. The increase in funding to 14. Submarine-Warfare [ASW] capability and a better Anti-Ship Missile [ASM] capability than the OSLO’s. The Remotely controlled minefields and Torpedo Btty’s may be kept as they were recently upgraded with the indigenous IDA command system which ties them together with electro-optical sensors protected by hydraulically elevated. VANGUARD 18 Issue 6. has severely impacted other equipment programs. currently being retrofitted on the HAUK’s under a NOK 850 mil contract.

. After 2012 the F-16 MLU will be phased out and replaced by a new aircraft such as Eurofighter or JSF. a Passive Missile Approach Warning System (PMAWS) installed into a pylon-integrated dispenser system allowing carriage by any MLU F-16 with no reduction in weapons load.2 mil sq km of sea area over which Norway exercises authority.Mobile Hellfire missile team of the Coastal Artillery. and are now classified as ‘field bases’. controlled by the ARCS (3D Acquisition Radar Control Systems ) that coordinates all Luftforsvaret AAW systems. Each NASAMS launcher carries six canister mounted AMRAAM. All One of 13 Leguan 26m truck-mounted automatic launching bridges (additional 9 AVLB on Leopard 1 chasis). along with 16 EW jamming pods. and equip the new frigates. of which Norway is participating as an observer. Radar surveillance of Norwegian airspace is undertaken by a network of subterrannean installations. with a complete support package in containers. and are receiving. Budgetary pressures have resulted in the postponing of the planned purchase of twenty multi-role fighters. starting in 2005. based in Edmonton. equipped with a special pod which gathers data during NSM testings. until 2002 under the Eye of Tiger ( EoT) Project. .ca VANGUARD 19 Issue 6. housed in self-contained HAS’s. AD is provided by extensive holdings of Anti-Aircraft-Guns [AAG’s] in conju nction with the indigen ously designed Norwegian Advanced Surfaceto-Air Missile System [NASAMS] which utilizes an adapted I-HAWK launcher. with Eurofighter the preferred choice. will provide a credible ASW surveillance capability in the 2. similar to the NATO concept of IRF”. 2000 . b Mark Romanow is an independent Defence/Geopolitical Analyst. Seven F-5’s are being kept in service. The winner of the NSHP will replace the current fleet of CG. former Luftforsvaret Chief of Staff. support and base defense units have been reorganized into mobile units that allow fighter squadrons to deploy. although Banak in Finnmark was operationally merged with Bodo. to ‘bare’ airbases under a “national concept . The remaining combat strength centers around the F-16’s. whereby the scanner is rais ed above ground only when required. Luftforsvaret The Luftforsvaret recently completed a restructuring under ‘Project Phoenix’ that eliminated the northern control centre and reduced the base structure from three main and fourteen smaller air bases to four main and eight deployment bases with sharply reduced PT manning. Finland and Sweden to operate off the NORDKAPP and SVALBARD CG ships and new Frigates. Denmark and the Netherlands. in conjunction with one NATO E-3A AWACS forwar d deployed at Orland on a rotational basis. noted Luftforsvaret MGen Age Hamang. Per- Oscar Jacobsen. with each Battery [Btty] having the capability to have 54 independently targ eted AMRAAM in flight at a time – hence the local nickname of ‘NATO’s fastest six-shooter’. utility and SAR helicopters. with NOK 24 bil set aside to procure 48 aircraft as “air power is a prerequisite for the total defence of Norway” notes Maj.Gen. in conjunction with Denmark. which are receiv- ing a Mid Life Update [MLU] until 2001 as part of a multi-national program in conjunction with Belgium. squadrons. along with airports and twenty civil airstrips configured fo r dispers ed operations. Five air bases were closed. and the disbanding of the F-5 squadron. The MLU F-16’s are being extensively upgraded with new systems allowing full interoperability with ‘fire and forget’ AMRAAM’s being acquired. Besides the carriage of Canadian CRV-7 anti-ship rockets and the indigenous Penguin Mk3 ASM. The purchase of C-130J-30’s to replace the C-130H’s has also been postponed till late in the decade due to budgetary restrictions. The Orions were recently updated to approximate USN standard and in conjunction with helicopters to be acquired under the Nordic Standard Helicopter Program [NSHP]. He can be reached at: defencegeopol@sprint. precision air-toground weapons will be acquired to enable the fleet to undertake ground attack missions with the IRF dedicated 338 Skv given first priority.

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