Double Seivenpiper FSS with Plane Wave Radiation On and Off Normal

Simulation Using CST Studio Suite Microwave Studio® at Sonnet Software, Inc. Dr. James R Willhite

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©2009 Sonnet Software, Inc. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware.com

The figure to the left shows a unit cell of the infinite array.3mm for a 6 GHz FSS 2 ©2009 Sonnet Software. Unit cell is 5x5x3. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware.com . Inc.Frequency Selective Surface This is a study of a frequency selective surface (FSS) built as 2 back-to-back Seivenpiper surfaces. The surface was then studied using the frequency domain solver for off-normal beams. The FSS was initially designed for a normally incident plane wave in Microwave Studio using the time domain (transient) solver because of the speed of such simulations.

On either side of the FSS there are floating plates which are the top plates of capacitors. The via posts act as inductors and the ground plate gives a return path between the bottom plates. Inc.Cross Section of FSS top plates “ground” plate inductive via posts bottom plates 3 The FSS was built as back-to-back Seivenpiper arrays. The bottom plates for the left half were rotate 45 . Inside are plates serving as the bottom plate of the capacitor. These bottom plates are shifted to have their centers on the edge of the unit cell and therefore to couple the top plates of adjacent cells. ©2009 Sonnet Software.com . There is a dielectric stack-up with square metal plates and vias. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. Both of these layers (left and right) are connected to a central “ground” plate by vias.

the model size is reduced to ¼-th the original. mirror planes at both x-z and y-z. Inc. If these are used with electric and magnetic boundaries to the workspace. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware.Symmetry & Boundaries The model was built with geometric symmetry. A high quality simulation of the transmission through this FSS can then be done in less than 8 minutes with a rather slow. This then was the technique chosen for the initial optimization.com . 5 year old desktop and requires less than 80M of RAM using the transient solver in MWS. 4 ©2009 Sonnet Software.

Model Parameters The FSS was built with parameters controlling the geometry. ©2009 Sonnet Software. These were used to optimize the structure for the transmission characteristics we desired. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware.com 5 . Inc.

Plane Wave Excitation Ports were placed at the zmin and zmax boundaries of the workspace and with the boundaries shown previously the port modes are TEM. 6 ©2009 Sonnet Software. Inc.com . one polarization of plane wave. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. By doing a standard Sparameter simulation we get the transmission of this wave.

com . Inc. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. 7 ©2009 Sonnet Software.Port Signals A sharp Gaussian pulse of the TEM mode of the port was applied in the time domain (orange signal) and the reflection and transmission monitored (oscillatory signals).

the results shown above were obtained: a transmission pass band centered near 6GHz. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware.com .Scattering Parameters of FSS reflection transmission After adjusting the parameters of the model. 8 ©2009 Sonnet Software. Inc.

(315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. Inc. To study radiation coming in at an angle we must use the frequency domain solver.com . 9 ©2009 Sonnet Software.Boundaries for Frequency Domain Solver Because periodic boundaries with nonzero phase shift have not been developed for time domain simulations. simulation of an infinite array in the time domain is limited to a normally incident beam.

com .Phase for Unit Cell Boundaries The boundaries for unit cells can be set to have non-zero phase shifts. We used parameters to define the beam direction. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. Inc. 10 ©2009 Sonnet Software. These point the beam off the normal to the FSS surface.

11 ©2009 Sonnet Software.Floquet Mode Boundary In the frequency domain solver for MWS. By default CST places 18 modes at each port and these modes absorb (and excite) radiation leaving the surface of the array. The Floquet ports have modes similar to waveguides. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. The lowest 2 modes will be the 2 linear polarizations of the plane wave. These are highly efficient at absorbing radiation even coming far off normal.com . We can again get the transmission properties of the FSS but now off normal if desired. if unit cell boundaries are placed on an array (x and y boundaries) any open boundary in z becomes a Floquet port. Inc.

12 ©2009 Sonnet Software. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. Inc.Adapted Tetrahedral Mesh During the initial phase of a simulation using the frequency domain solver.com . This shows the adapted mesh for the double Seivenpiper surface. the tetrahedral mesh is adapted until the Sparameters have converged at a set frequency.

43dB and the reflection is -6. The coupling values of -50dB at 6GHz show the noise floor of the calculation at that frequency. Because of the symmetry of the geometry and the incident plane wave there should be no coupling of one polarization to the other.com .S-Parameters at Normal Incidence Using the frequency domain solver we can see the results for both linear polarizations of the incident plane wave. This simulation required 3 hours with the frequency domain solver compared with 8 minutes for the time domain solver 13 ©2009 Sonnet Software. the transmission through the FSS is -1. Inc. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware.2dB. At 6GHz.

the higher order Floquet modes are attenuated and group into a few sets with similar transmission characteristics.Attenuation of Higher Order Modes at Normal Incidence With the phase of the boundary set for a normal incidence. Inc. 14 ©2009 Sonnet Software.com . (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware.

Inc. If the attenuation drops to zero for a set of modes. these become grating lobes for the array.com .Higher Order Modes at φ = 0 and θ = 60 If the boundary phases are scanned away from zero. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. usually something to avoid. the attenuation of the higher order Floquet modes changes. 15 ©2009 Sonnet Software.

16 ©2009 Sonnet Software.Transmission vs. Inc. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware.com . Beam Direction in H-plane The incident beam direction was scanned away from normal and the transmission characteristics recorded. This shows the transmission as the beam is scanned in the H-plane. The pass band moves up in frequency and the “valley” becomes deeper.

17 ©2009 Sonnet Software. The change is transmission is less than with the other scanner direction. Inc.com .Transmission vs. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. Beam Direction in E-plane This figure shows the transmission as the beam is scanned in the E-plane.

Inc.5 GHz H-plane E-plane These figures show the mean transmission (linear) over the band 5.com . The H-plane scan rolls off from 0.87 at normal to 0.5 to 6.66 at 60 .5 to 6. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware.Mean Transmission from 5.85 over the entire scan. The mean transmission stays above 0. 18 ©2009 Sonnet Software. For the E-plane scan the change is much less.5 GHz as the beam is scanned off normal.

com . • The frequency domain solver can be used to study beams off the normal to the array using Floquet mode ports. Inc. • The transient solver can be used for rapid simulations and optimization. It is limited to normal incidence of the beam.Summary • Microwave Studio is well suited to design and study the transmission characteristics of FSS as infinite arrays using either the time domain solver or the frequency domain solver. (315)453-3096 mwssupport@sonnetsoftware. 19 ©2009 Sonnet Software.