The Series of Essay


This would be done with no precise applications towards any processes or products in mind. t refers to research motivated by a scientist!s or person!s curiosity or keen interest in a scientific "uestion. to expand one!s knowledge.ESSAY ONE Basic research would basically refer to systematic study which is aimed at fuller knowledge or a deeper understanding of the essential aspects of phenomena as well as of observable facts. t is the type of "uestion which determines the nature of the research. increase sales. applied research has as its goal in business to improve production. On the other hand. Applied research is solutions designed from basic research information. f. At the same time basic research could possibly comprise activities with maybe broad applications in mind. Today modern business uses research techni"ues and the latest technology to achieve these goals. #$ow can this save money&% 'uriosity lies at the heart of all business and it is this curiosity. applied research identifies a systematic study undertaken to obtain knowledge or understanding which is necessary in order to establish the possible means by which a known and exact need may be met. Applied research may be thought of as intended to solve practical problems. Basic research whether in business research or any other field has as its basic goal. as an idea to investigate. which causes business to constantly ask "uestions that re"uire research. we increase production. ) . control losses. we also increase the cost of payroll by hiring additional production employees. aimed at the solution of business problems within the company. might be a "uestion for business. (egardless of the type of business. One person has at any given time can defines his or her research goal. Basic research aims to enhance the understanding of problems that commonly occur across a range of organisations while an applied research is done with the intention of applying results to specific problems in the especially in business. restore efficiency and establish solid financial investment in the future. The terms fundamental or pure research have also been applied to basic research. improvements in business management and practice aimed at improving the human condition. The goal of applied research is change for the better. and a "uestion to answer. #$ow can we increase production and save money at the same time%. Basic "uestions such as.

Tuckman. *. As conclusion.)---.' Beri .Basic research has understanding as only goal. *sing innovative technology and modern developmental processes paved the way for industry development in today!s modern world. investigation into what others are doing and using what is known to discover new and better ways to solve the unknown answers in business is an ongoing process. Basic research does only promise a contribution to "uestion. we can draw a borderline between basic and applied research by sorting "uestions into those with or without knowledge as to be achieved. .. Conducting Educational Research .. Marketing Research. historically basic research has led to the application of basic research to improve and develop our modern world of business industries world wide... but it can give the most unexpected applications. nc.)---. . 0ew 5ork2 6ohn 7iley 8 4ons. B.. . 0ew 1elhi2 Tata 3c+raw $ill 4ekaran. .ort 7orth. / .1999. not to anything else. REFERENCE '. Research Methods for Business. T<2 $arcourt Brace 'ollege =ublishers./rd ed. +ood concepts of basic or applied research in the context of business policy must be inspiring for the individual in any research group. Therefore as researcher. As any business theory is based upon an idea or mental plan for creating a successful business.:th ed..

expert opinions and analysis. but can be useful for other purposes. analysis and distribution of information for the purpose of knowledge development and decision making. financial performance data. customer demographics. n the business world. There are plenty of little steps along the way of research process. According to 4ekaran. this information can be critical in diagnosing the problem for further exploration and should be leveraged when available and appropriate. the problem will have been recogni>ed by at least one level of management. and learning. careful in"uiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand or verify existing knowledge for some specified purpose. and other information that has been collected about the customer. but the general purpose of gaining intelligence for decision making remains constant throughout. searching. collection. discovery. 4ometimes. research process includes the systematic identification. Identifying the Pr !"e# This step is always the first of the research process. The most common tools are internal and external secondary research. At this point. research is a process of thoroughly studying and analy>ing the situational factors surrounding a problem in order to seek out solutions to it. Therefore research process is a systematic. and internal discussions will have taken place. They are2 1. further definition of the issue or problem is needed. purchase patterns. legal proceedings. and competitive intelligence firms. A . 4econdary research intelligence consists of information that was collected for another purpose. The amount of internal secondary information that can be applied is typically limited. ?xamples of internal secondary research for a marketing research consist of sales revenues. The reasons and times at which the company or organi>ation might consider performing research varies. ?xternal secondary research is typically far more available. synthesis. sales forecasts. corporate executive interviews. Often referred to as data mining.ESSAY 2 The research process should be understood as one of ongoing planning.. reflection. * . 3ost external secondary information is produced via research conducted for other purposes. product research or 47OT analysis. t can be in the form of marketing research. revision.)--1. ?ach of those steps fits into one of the six ma@or steps of the research process.

often called survey fielding. researcher can move onto developing the research approach. Cess complex survey data analysis can be handled with any of a number of office suite : . understanding the environment and its influencing factors. "uestion measurement and scale selection. "ualitative research. time and expertise. which will generally be around a defined set of ob@ectives. and formulating hypotheses. (. ). data collection will re"uire more oversight. 1eveloping the approach should consist of honestly assessing the research skills. *. There are a variety of data collection methodologies to consider.2. (egardless of the data collection methodology chosen. Re$e%r&h De$ign %nd Str%tegy (esearch design and strategy is the most encompassing of all steps in the research process. re"uiring the greatest amount of thought. 4ince the intelligence eventually gained from the research is so closely related to the selected research design. maintenance time and cost. is the point at which the finali>ed survey instrument is used in gathering information among the chosen sample segments. Re$e%r&h D%t% C ""e&ti n The research data collection . this is the single most import step in the research process and the step most vulnerable to common marketing research errors. 7hen "uota groups andBor sample subgroups are being screened for. methodology selection. the data collection process often takes half of the total time needed to complete a research pro@ect. Any research data collection typically begins with field testing the final "uestionnaire with a small portion of the sample taken to make sure it is gathering information correctly. sample design 8 si>e and determining data analysis to be used. Re$e%r&h A''r %&h Once the problem is better defined. developing an analysis model. Any clear ob@ectives will lend researcher to better marketing research approach development. "uestionnaire design. S+r. (esearch design and strategy includes secondary information analysis.ey D%t% An%"y$i$ Any survey data analysis will depend on how the survey "uestionnaire was constructed. Then data collection can be fairly automatic throughout the remainder of the research data collection process.

present it in an organi>ed manner to the decision makers of the business.. D . As conclusion. whether the findings answer and @ustify the rationale or base for conducting the research which benefiting the company and the organi>ation. while more complex "uestionnaire data analysis re"uires dedicated research analysis programs. theoretical framework. the more time and cost it will take to execute. Types of statistical survey data analysis that might be performed are simple fre"uency distributions. Once research information is collected and analy>ed. n addition. the proposed se"uence or step in research process helps answer the "uestion.multidimensional scaling. perceptual mapping . The more complex the needed level of statistical data analysis is. -. cross tab analysis. The data gathered was created to help guide the business decisions. cluster analysis. structural e"uation modeling and data Re$e%r&h Re' rt$ Any critical information and knowledge that comes from the research findings will be limited by how the research reports are presented to decision makers. factor analysis. so it needs to be readily accessible and understandable to the decision makers.driver analysis. ?"ually important is to establish links between research type of approach. multiple regression . and process involve during research and results of a research finding. building a framework process for a research is very important.

. . 0ew 5ork2 6ohn 7iley 8 4ons.REFERENCE '.. . *../rd ed. Boston.199A.)---. 4ekaran. nc.' Beri .. B..ort 7orth. Research Methods for Business.)---. Conducting Educational Research ..1999. . . T<2 $arcourt Brace 'ollege =ublishers. 7. Marketing Research. 0ew 1elhi2 Tata 3c+raw $ill $udson.:th ed. E .. . 3A2Allyn and Bacon. =. 8 0urius. Controversial Issues in Social Work Research. Tuckman.

Therefore. An inFdepth interview is a "ualitative research techni"ue that allows person to person discussion. A typical theoretical framework with the help of both literature survey and inFdepth interview approach provides a schematic description of relationships between and among independent. 7ith computeri>ed databases now readily available and accessible the literature search is much speedier and easier. The literature survey can be in any area of the business. The inFdepth interview uses a flexible interview approach. Actually. master!s theses. 4o the literature survey is important for gathering the secondary data for the research which might be proved very helpful in the research. maga>ines. to talk at length about the topic of interest. a theoretical framework is the conceptual model of how one theori>es or makes logical sense of the G . government publications and financial reports to find information on their research topic.ESSAY ( Citerature survey is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from secondary sources data in the areas of specific interest to the researcher. . both the literature survey and inFdepth interview methods are contributing one another in term of developing a theoretical framework.or example. t can lead to increased insight into people!s thoughts. t is the techni"ue to gather ideas and to gather information. feelings. newspapers. conference proceedings. (eviewing the literature on the topic area at this time helps the researcher to focus further interviews more meaningfully on certain aspects found to be important is the published studies even if these had not surfaced during the earlier "uestioning. dependent. of the study identifies literature review categories and directs research ob@ectives. t aims to ask "uestions to explain the reasons underlying a problem or practice in a target group.or respondent. This type of interview is often unstructured and therefore permits the interviewer to encourage an informant . and extraneous variables so that a researcher can easily comprehend the theori>ed relationships. control. The literature survey can be conducted for several reasons. doctoral dissertations. and behavior on important issues. @ournals. Theoretical framework visually tells the big picture . the library is a rich storage base for secondary data and researchers used to spend several weeks and sometimes months going through books. moderator. The researcher could start the literature survey even as the information from the unstructured and structured interviews is being gathered.research.

because the employees cannot articulate them or are unaware of their impact or because the variables seem so obvious to interviews that they are not specifically stated. . Controversial Issues in Social Work Research. 6.199A. t is done through interrelationships among the variables that are deemed to be integral to the dynamics of the situation being investigated.rancisco. !++roaches to Social Research. 'A2 4age =ublications $udson. '. . 9 . =.. t is possible that some of the critical variables are never brought out in the interviews. '. . The purpose of both in depth interview and literature survey is to ensure that no important variable that has in the past been found repeatedly to have had an impact on the problem is ignored. n depth interview should suffice to develop a theoretical framework but literature survey does completed the flows from the documentation of previous research in the problem by integrating logical beliefs with published research. As conclusion. 'A2 6osseyFBass =ublishers. Boston.. Thousand Oaks.7. (. the relationship between the literature survey and the in depth interview provides a solid foundation for developing the theoretical framework.'. The variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly identified and labelled. 'A2 4age =ublications $art. 4.199A.A. 8 0urius.199G. (eichardt. but influence the problem critically then research done without considering them would be an exercise in futility. 0ew 5ork. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing !"ong #ive $raditions.199G. f there are variables that are not identified during the interviews...relationships among the several factors that have been identified as important to the problem. 8 (allis. 052 Oxford *niversity =ress. 4ingleton. . .1999. REFERENCE 'reswell. 7. B. Theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research pro@ect is based on. 8 4traits. Doing a %iterature Revie& Releasing the Social Science Research I"agination.. taking into consideration the boundaries and constraints governing both the situation. 3A2 Allyn and Bacon. 4an . Thousand Oaks. $he Qualitative'Quantitative De(ate )e& *ers+ectives.

. it would obviously not be acceptable as it does not allow respondents to give negative answers.or example. .c. The research methodology should make clear the reasons why the researcher chose a particular method or procedure. very good or . it shows how the researchers obtained their results and explain how the result is obtained. The researcher must be able and know that the data was collected or generated in a way that is consistent with accepted practice in the field of study. The basic research design must be appropriate to the ob@ectives of the study. they will need to obtain different results if they use a multiple choice "uestionnaire than through conducting series of interviews. and the conclusions that can be drawn from it. Therefore the methodology should also discuss the problems that were anticipated and explain the steps taken to prevent them from occurring. $ow was the data collected or generated& b) $ow was the data analy>ed& n research. and the problems that did occur and the ways their impact was minimi>ed.b. Often there are different methods that the researcher can use to investigate a research problem. C ## n Pr !"e#$ 1- . Hnowing how the data was collected helps the researcher to evaluate the validity and reliability of the results. they need to know that it offered the respondents a reasonable range of answers to choose from such as . the method is obviously unsuited to the ob@ectives. n other words. 2. if the researchers are investigating peoples! perceptions of the efficiency of public administration in 3alaysia. P+r' $e The research design issues answers these two main "uestions2 a.a. if the researchers are using a "uestionnaire for example to investigating peoples! perceptions the standard of public administration in 3alaysia. it is vital to know how the data was obtained because the method affects the results. excellent.UESTION ) Basic method and research design issues mainly consist of 1.. f the researcher performs a case study of one respondent in order to investigate users! perceptions of the efficiency of public administration in 3alaysia.or instance. good. .

"uestion and data matching. communities. businesses or institutions is observed. They are a) rrelevant detail b) *nnecessary explanation of basic procedures c) =roblem blindness 3ost of the researchers encounter some problems when collecting or generating the data from the context of study. development. 'ase 4tudy 'ase study provides the background. t is advisable to do not ignore significant problems or pretend they did not occur. Often sometime through recording on how the researchers overcame obstacles can form an interesting part of the methodology. A study context can be in the form of physical setting. t shows how the results were achieved through explanation of how data was collected or generated and explanation of how data was analy>ed explanation of methodological problems and their solutions or effects The basic research designs consist of2 a) Analysis Analysis is classes of data are collected and studies conducted to discern patterns and formulate principles that might guide future action b. plus a realistic view of using the methods of research chosen. treatment conditions and sub@ects thoughts about the study. pretest sensiti>ation. 4ome time it can be some issue on how it is handled for example "uestion on how the "uality of instrument. A good researcher must be able to choose the suitable research design to achieve the purpose of researching. Different Ty'e$ f Re$e%r&h De$ign There are different types of basic research designs.There are commons problems or issues with a basic research design. (. groups. t also means that the researchers can also give a rationale for certain decisions. recorded and analy>ed for stages of patterns in relation to internal and external influences. c. independence of observations or person or people responsible of collecting the data. 'omparison 11 . current conditions and environmental interactions of one or more individuals.

beliefs and observations of specific groups are identified. k. e. h. ?valuation ?valuation is an act of research to determine whether a program or pro@ect followed the prescribed procedures and achieved the stated outcomes. ?xperiment An experiment is conducted when one or more variables are manipulated and the results analy>ed. f. @. Trend analysis Trend analysis is a tool to predict or forecasting the future direction of events.'omparison happens when two or more existing situations are studied to determine their similarities and differences. d. 1) . reported and interpreted. 4urveyF"uestionnaire 4urveyF"uestionnaire is a tool to discover behaviors. i. 'orrelationFprediction 'orrelationFprediction is a situation when statistically significant correlation coefficients between and among a number of factors are sought and interpreted. tested and evaluated g. 1esignFdemonstration 1esignFdemonstration is a new system or programs are constructed. 4tatus 4tatus is a representative or selected sample of one or more phenomena is examined to determine its special characteristics. Theory construction Theory construction is an attempt to find or describe principles that explain how things work the way they do.

destroys the internal validity of the experiment and making it difficult. Any good researchers must be able to look for the purpose of each part of the methodology before deciding its usage or function. (esearchers may vary an independent variable through environmental. or invasive manipulations. 0othing other than the independent variable may differ systematically among conditions. The A+thenti&ity f /%ri%!"e$ n a wellFdesigned research. To assure that their independent variables are strong enough to produce the hypothesi>ed effects. then they are not the particular results of the study are generali>ed. n withinFsub@ects or repeated measures designs. n betweenFsub@ects designs. instructional. thereby ensuring their e"uivalence. Attempts to minimi>e the error variance in an experiment may lower the study!s external validity the degree to which the results can be generali>ed. if not impossible. ?rror variance is produced by unsystematic differences among participants within experimental conditions. and controls extraneous variables that may influence the behavior of research. confounding occurs.). The logic of the experimental method re"uires that the various experimental and control groups be e"uivalent before the levels of the independent variable are introduced. it makes detecting effects of the independent variable more difficult. 7ithinFsub@ects designs are more powerful and economical than betweenFsub@ects designs. most experiments are designed to test hypotheses about the causes of behavior. but order effects and carryover effects are sometimes a problem. 7hen something other than the independent variable differs among conditions. t can be rationale or reasons for doing 1/ . all respondents serve in all experimental conditions. researcherIs often pilot test their independent variables and use manipulation checks in the experiment itself. the researcher varies at least one independent variable to assess its effects on respondents! behavior. assigns participants to the experimental conditions in a way that assures their initial e"uivalence. n addition to independent variables manipulated by the researcher. $owever. +ood researchers will try to minimi>e error variance. experiments sometimes include sub@ect variables that reflect characteristics of the respondents. researchers use simple or matched randomly assignment. to draw conclusions about the effects of the independent variable. nitial e"uivalence of the various conditions is accomplished in one of three ways. f the hypotheses are supported. Although error variance does not undermine the validity of an experiment.

.199D.Eth ?dition. Quantitative and Mi-ed Methods !++roaches. assumption. 3. 3oore and +eorge =. Through this then the researchers are be able to serve the basic issues of research design and the role of statistics in research with clear classification of variables. 'reswell.reeman and 'ompany +all. 0ew 5ork2 4age =ublications 6ohn 7. . A good research must be able to differentiate series of "uestion such as where did sub@ects come from&. structure of the research or the order in which information will be given. Researching Social %ife. As conclusion. what kinds of samples&. were in final analysis& and how motivated were sub@ects&. purpose. . Research Design Qualitative.$. Condon2 4age =ublications 1avid 4. 3. application on how something is used. 7hite =lains. 3. "uantification of variables or scales of measurement and finally the validity of interpretations of research studies. 0. 3c'abe.. Educational Research !n introduction. ed.something. and parameters or variables that are measured.)--/. =. Qualitative Data !nalysis !n E-+anded Source(ook. REFERENCE Bridget 4omek and 'athy Cewin. and A. description or e"uipment used. +ilbert.)--D. 0ew 5ork2 7. +all. 0ew 5ork2 4age =ublications 1A .199A.)--D. Research Methods in the Social Sciences. Introduction to the *ractice of Statistics. 6... a basic research design is a tool which assists the researcher in defining a research topic. . . Condon2 4age =ublications 3iles. . 7. B. how many of intended sub@ects actually supplied data&.. (. . Borg. 1. $uberman . by which describing the method by which the research topic will be explored and analy>ing the sources which will be utili>ed.)--/. 0ew 5ork2 Congman.