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the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth. The receiver deciphers the text by performing an inverse substitution. Substitution ciphers can be compared with transposition ciphers. In a transposition cipher, the units of the plaintext are rearranged in a different and usually quite complex order, but the units themselves are left unchanged. By contrast, in a substitution cipher, the units of the plaintext are retained in the same sequence in the ciphertext, but the units themselves are altered. There are a number of different types of substitution cipher. If the cipher operates on single letters, it is termed a simple substitution cipher; a cipher that operates on larger groups of letters is termed polygraphic. A monoalphabetic cipher uses fixed substitution over the entire message, whereas a polyalphabetic cipher uses a number of substitutions at different times in the message, where a unit from the plaintext is mapped to one of several possibilities in the ciphertext and vice-versa.

Contents

1 Simple substitution o 1.1 Examples o 1.2 Security for simple substitution ciphers 2 Homophonic substitution 3 Polyalphabetic substitution 4 Polygraphic substitution 5 Mechanical substitution ciphers 6 The one-time pad 7 Substitution in modern cryptography 8 Substitution ciphers in popular culture 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Simple substitution Substitution over a single letter—simple substitution—can be demonstrated by writing out the alphabet in some order to represent the substitution. This is termed asubstitution alphabet. The cipher alphabet may be shifted or reversed (creating theCaesar and Atbash ciphers, respectively) or scrambled in a more complex fashion, in which case it is called a mixed alphabet or deranged alphabet. Traditionally, mixed alphabets are created by first writing out a keyword, removing repeated letters in it, then writing all the remaining letters in the alphabet.

it may be padded at the end with "nulls". the ciphertext is written out in blocks of fixed length. VA ZOA RFPBLUAOAR! Traditionally. These can be any characters that decrypt to obvious nonsense. Plain digits: Ciphertext alphabet: 1234567890 MAKEPROFIT [1] Example: MAT would be used to represent 120. These blocks are called "groups". [edit] Security for simple substitution ciphers . so the receiver can easily spot them and discard them. we are discovered! enciphers to SIAA ZQ LKBA.e. in the pigpen cipher. the ciphertext consists of a set of symbols derived from a grid. and sometimes a "group count" (i. In lists and catalogues for sales people sometimes a very simple encryption is used to replace numeric digits by letters. however — at the very least. The ciphertext alphabet is sometimes different from the plaintext alphabet. this is done to help avoid transmission errors and to disguise word boundaries from the plaintext. for example.Examples Using this system. For example: Such features make little difference to the security of a scheme. the keyword "zebras" gives us the following alphabets: A message of flee at once.. omitting punctuation and spaces. the number of groups) is given as an additional check. Five letter groups are traditional. any set of strange symbols can be transcribed back into an A-Z alphabet and dealt with as normal. dating from when messages used to be transmitted by telegraph: SIAAZ QLKBA VAZOA RFPBL UAOAR If the length of the message happens not to be divisible by five.

but this is not often done. as with cryptogrampuzzles in the newspaper. A stronger way of constructing a mixed alphabet is to perform a columnar transposition on the ordinary alphabet using the keyword. for example. In other cases. being easily broken. underlying words can also be determined from the pattern of their letters. this cipher is not very strong. typically about 50 letters are needed. Many people solve such ciphers for recreation. and words with those two as the root are the only common English words with the patternABBCADB.4. and much longer plaintexts will then be required by the user.6 letters of ciphertext are required to crack a mixed alphabet simple substitution. In practice. 27.A disadvantage of this method of derangement is that the last letters of the alphabet (which are mostly low frequency) tend to stay at the end. or about 88 bits). the cryptanalyst can deduce the probable meaning of the most common symbols by analyzing the frequency distribution of the ciphertext—frequency analysis. attract. . which can be tentatively filled in. osseous. Provided the message is of reasonable length (see below). In some cases. although some messages can be broken with fewer if unusual patterns are found. progressively expanding the (partial) solution (see frequency analysis for a demonstration of this). the plaintext can be contrived to have a nearly flat frequency distribution. This allows formation of partial words. Although the number of possible keys is very large (26! ≈ 288. According to the unicity distance of English.

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