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© M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Session 1 : Introduction to

Digital Signal Processing

Session delivered by:

Chandan N.

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Session Objective

• To understand the basic concept of signals and digital signal

processing

• To review on the basic architectures

• To understand the concept of sampling

• To understand the effects of under sampling and over sampling

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Session Topics

• DSP Architecture evolution

• Types of Signals

• Discrete time Systems

• Sampling

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Three Markets Three Chips

• General purpose

– wide range of applications

– performance matters

• Microcontroller

– one small app runs forever

– possible real-time constraints

• Digital Signal Processing

– complicated processing of signals

– real-time constraints

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Hardware Differences

• Microprocessor - processor datapath, register file, ALU,

caches

• Microcontroller – microprocessor plus other peripherals, on-

chip memory

• Digital Signal Processor – microprocessor with ALUs

optimized for digital signal processing (MAC)

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Introduction to DSP Processors

Hardware

Algorithms

Image processing

Digital systems

Logical design

Control systems

Digital signal processing

DSP VLSI

Analog circuits

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DSP Introduction

• Digital Signal Processing: application of mathematical

operations to digitally represented signals

• Signals represented digitally as sequences of samples

• Digital signals obtained from physical signals via tranducers

(e.g., microphones) and analog-to-digital converters (ADC)

• Digital signals converted back to physical signals via digital-to-

analog converters (DAC)

• Digital Signal Processor (DSP):

electronic system that processes digital signals

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Definitions

• In DSP, digital signals often represent signals from physical

systems, which are in relation to physical time

– DSP systems are related to physical time

• Systems where the correctness of the system behavior depends

not only an the logical results of the computations, but also on

the physical instant at which these results are produced, are real-

time systems

• Real-time DSP system is a DSP system, where signal mapping

is performed in real-time and the real-time constraint is

determined by the repetition period of the algorithm

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What is DSP

• Changing or analyzing information that is measured as discrete

sequences of numbers

• The representation, transformation, and manipulation of signals

and the information they contain

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Unique Features of DSP

• Signals come from the real world

– Need to react in real time

– Need to measure signals and convert them to digital

numbers

• Signals are discrete

– Information in between discrete samples is lost

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Processing Real Signals

• Most of the signals in our environment are analog such as

sound, temperature and light

• To processes these signals with a computer, we must:

1. Convert the analog signals into electrical signals, e.g., using

a transducer such as a microphone to convert sound into

electrical signal

2. Digitize these signals, or convert them from analog to

digital, using an ADC (Analog to Digital Converter)

• In digital form, signal can be manipulated

• Processed signal may need to be converted back to an analog

signal before being passed to an actuator (e.g., a loudspeaker)

– Digital to analog conversion can be done by a DAC (Digital

to Analog Converter)

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Typical DSP Components

• Input lowpass filter (anti-aliasing filter)

• Analog to digital converter (ADC)

• Digital computer or digital signal processor

• Digital to analog converter (DAC)

• Output lowpass filter (anti-imaging filter)

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DSP System Components

• Analog input signal is filtered to be a band-limited signal by an input

lowpass filter

• Signal is then sampled and quantized by an ADC

• Digital signal is processed by a digital circuit, often a computer or a

digital signal processor

• Processed digital signal is then converted back to an analog signal by a

DAC

• The resulting step waveform is converted to a smooth signal by a

reconstruction filter called an anti-imaging filter

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Advantage of DSP

• Versatility

– Digital systems can be reprogrammed for other applications

– Digital systems can be ported to different hardware

• Repeatability and stability

– Digital systems can be easily duplicated

– Digital systems do not depend on strict component tolerances

– Digital system responses do not drift with temperature

• Simplicity

– Some things can be done more easily digitally than with analog systems

(e.g., linear phase filters)

– Security can be introduced by encryption/scrambling

– Digital signals easily stored on magnetic media without deterioration

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Disadvantages of DSP

• DSP techniques are limited to signals with relatively low bandwidths

• The point at which DSP becomes too expensive will depend on the

application and the current state of conversion and digital processing

technology

– Currently DSP systems are used for signals up to video bandwidths

(about 10 MHz)

– The cost of high-speed ADCs and DACs and the amount of digital

circuitry required to implement very high-speed designs (>100 MHz)

makes them impractical for many applications

– As conversion and digital technology improve, the bandwidths for

which DSP is economical continue to increase

• The need for an ADC and DAC makes DSP not economical for simple

applications (e.g., a simple filter)

• Higher power consumption and size of a DSP implementation can make

it unsuitable for simple very low-power or small size applications

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Applications of DSP

• Noise Filtering

• Coding

– 64 kbps-narrowband, 64 kbps-wideband

– 32 kbps-narrowband, 32 kbps-wideband

– 16 kbps-narrowband, 16 kbps-wideband

• Compression

– 64 kbpsMu-Law PCM

– 32 kbps CCITT G.721 ADPCM

– 16 kbps LD-CELP

– 8 kbps CELP

– 4.8 kbps CELP for STU-3

– 2.4 kbps LPC-10E for STU-3

• Recognition

• Synthesis

• Sampling Rate changes

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Applications of DSP

• Image Processing: enhancement, coding, compression, pattern recognition

• Multimedia: transmission of sound, still images, motion pictures, digital TV,

video conferencing

• Music: recording, playback and manipulation (mixing, special effects),

synthesis

• Communication: encoding and decoding of digital communication signals,

detection, equalization, filtering, direction finding, echo cancellation

• Radar and Sonar: target detection, position and velocity estimation, tracking

• Biomedical Engineering: analysis of biomedical signals, diagnosis, patient

monitoring, preventive health care, artificial organs

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Real Time DSP System

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Real Time DSP System

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Why Go Digital?

• Digital signal processing techniques are now so powerful that

sometimes it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, for analogue

signal processing to achieve similar performance.

• Examples:

– FIR filter with linear phase.

– Adaptive filters.

• Analogue signal processing is achieved by using analogue components

such as:

– Resistors.

– Capacitors.

– Inductors.

• The inherent tolerances associated with these components,

temperature, voltage changes and mechanical vibrations can

dramatically affect the effectiveness of the analogue circuitry

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Why Go Digital?

• With DSP it is easy to:

– Change applications.

– Correct applications.

– Update applications.

• Additionally DSP reduces:

– Noise susceptibility.

– Chip count.

– Development time.

– Cost.

– Power consumption.

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Why NOT Go Digital?

• High frequency signals cannot be processed digitally

because of two reasons:

– Analog to Digital Converters, ADC cannot work fast

enough.

– The application can be too complex to be performed

in Real-time

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• Use a DSP processor when the following are required:

– Cost saving.

– Smaller size.

– Low power consumption.

– Processing of many “high” frequency signals in real-

time.

• Use a GPP processor when the following are required:

– Large memory.

– Advanced operating systems.

Need For DSP Processors

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Typical DSP Algorithms

Algorithm Equation

Finite Impulse Response Filter

∑

=

− =

M

k

k

k n x a n y

0

) ( ) (

Infinite Impulse Response Filter

∑ ∑

= =

− + − =

N

k

k

M

k

k

k n y b k n x a n y

1 0

) ( ) ( ) (

Convolution

∑

=

− =

N

k

k n h k x n y

0

) ( ) ( ) (

Discrete Fourier Transform

∑

−

=

− =

1

0

] ) / 2 ( exp[ ) ( ) (

N

n

nk N j n x k X π

Discrete Cosine Transform ( ) ( )

∑

−

=

(

¸

(

¸

+ =

1

0

1 2

2

cos ). ( ). (

N

x

x u

N

x f u c u F

π

• The Sum of Products (SOP) is the key element in most

DSP algorithms:

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Hardware vs. Microcode Multiplication

• DSP processors are optimised to perform multiplication and

addition operations.

• Multiplication and addition are done in hardware and in one

cycle.

• Example: 4-bit multiply (unsigned).

1011

x 1110

1011

x 1110

Har dwar e Mi cr ocode

10011010 0000

1011.

1011. .

1011. . .

10011010

Cycl e 1

Cycl e 2

Cycl e 3

Cycl e 4

Cycl e 5

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Floating vs. Fixed Point processors

• Applications which require:

– High precision.

– Wide dynamic range.

– High signal-to-noise ratio.

– Ease of use.

Need a floating point processor.

• Drawback of floating point processors:

– Higher power consumption.

– Can be higher cost.

– Can be slower than fixed-point counterparts and larger

in size.

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Floating vs. Fixed Point Processors

• It is the application that dictates which device and platform to

use in order to achieve optimum performance at a low cost.

• For educational purposes, use the floating-point device

(C6711) as it can support both fixed and floating point

operations.

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General Purpose DSP vs. DSP in ASIC

• Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are

semiconductors designed for dedicated functions.

• The advantages and disadvantages of using ASICs are

listed below:

Advantages

• High throughput

• Lower silicon area

• Lower power consumption

• Improved reliability

• Reduction in system noise

• Low overall system cost

Disadvantages

• High investment cost

• Less flexibility

• Long time from design to

market

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Texas Instruments’ TMS320 Family

• Different families and sub-families exist to

support different markets.

Lowest Cost

Control Systems

Motor Control

Storage

Digital Ctrl Systems

C2000 C5000

Efficiency

Best MIPS per

Watt / Dollar / Size

Wireless phones

Internet audio players

Digital still cameras

Modems

Telephony

VoIP

C6000

Multi Channel and Multi

Function App's

Comm Infrastructure

Wireless Base-stations

DSL

Imaging

Multi-media Servers

Video

Performance &

Best Ease-of-Use

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DSP Architectures Evolution

Objective: fast computation of Z =X * Y

(one instruction and two operands)

Methods:

•Von Neumann

•Harvard Architecture

•Super Harvard Architecture

•Modified Harvard Architecture

Cost

Speed

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DSP Architectures Evolution:

Von Neumann

Data and instructions are stored in the same single bank.

One access to memory (1 piece of data or instruction) is

performed during each instruction cycle.

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DSP Architectures Evolution:

Harvard Architecture

Data and instructions are stored in two different memory

banks. One access to each of the banks is performed

simultaneously during each instruction cycle.

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DSP Architectures Evolution:

Super Harvard Architecture

Data can be stored in the instructions block also. One access to

each of the banks is performed simultaneously to fetch

instruction+data or data+data. An instruction cache mechanism

is involved in the second option.

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DSP Architectures Evolution:

Modified Harvard Architecture

One single-ported instruction block and one dual-ported data block

enable single-cycle Access of 2 Pieces of Data and 1 Instruction.

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DSP Speed

• MIPS million instructions per second

• MOPS million (mathematical) operation per second

• MFLOPS million floating-point operation per second

• MMACS million MACs per second

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DSP Development Flow

• Simulation target (without a physical processor) enables you to

build, edit, and debug your program, even before a processor is

manufactured.

• Your PC connects to the EZ-KIT Lite evaluation system via a

cable, enabling you to monitor processor behavior.

• J TAG emulator enables application software to be downloaded

and debugged from within VisualDSP++or CCS

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DSP Development Flow

• Mathematical algorithm

• MATLAB code for Simulation/Validation

• RT format MATLAB code +Validation with the former stage

• DSP Simulation +Validation with the former stage

• DSP Evaluation +Validation with the former stage

• DSP Emulation +Validation with the former stage

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C or Assembler

Assembler

Pros:

• Maximal efficiency

Cons:

• Required core architecture knowledge

• Complicated for reading

• Complicated for writing

• Long development time

• Expensive development HR

C

Pros:

• Core architecture knowledge is not

required

• Easy for reading

• Easy for writing

• Short development time

• Cheap development HR

• Maximal efficiency

Cons:

• Limited efficiency (depends on the

optimizer)

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C or Assembler

• Intensive code parts – Assembler

• Bureaucracy – C/C++

• Algorithms analysis by assembler expert.

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C and C++ Language Programming

• Motivation: Portability, maintainability, time to market

• Full ANSI Language

– plus: // C++style comments

– other general programmability extensions

• Full-featured library

– full standard math function support

– additional DSP functions

– basic I/O: printf, simple file I/O

• Extensions tailored for DSP

• Highly effective optimizer

• Fully integrated into programming environment

– edit, build support

– runtime system in place

– source-language debugging

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Types of Signals

• Analog Signals (Continuous-Time Signals): Signals that are

continuous in both the dependant and independent variable

(e.g., amplitude and time). Most environmental signals are

continuous-time signals.

• Discrete Sequences (Discrete-Time Signals): Signals that are

continuous in the dependant variable (e.g., amplitude) but

discrete in the independent variable (e.g., time). They are

typically associated with sampling of continuous-time signals.

• Digital Signals: Signals that are discrete in both the dependant

and independent variable (e.g., amplitude and time) are digital

signals. These are created by quantizing and sampling

continuous-time signals or as data signals (e.g., stock market

price fluctuations).

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Types of Signal

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• Signals represented as sequences of numbers, called samples

• Sample value of a typical signal or sequence denoted as x[n] with n being

an integer in the range

• x[n] defined only for integer values of n and undefined for non-integer

values of n

• Discrete-time signal represented by {x[n]}

∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − n

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• Discrete-time signal may also be written as a

sequence of numbers inside braces:

• In the above,

• The arrow is placed under the sample at time

index n = 0

} , 9 . 2 , 7 . 3 , 2 . 0 , 1 . 1 , 2 . 2 , 2 . 0 , { ]} [ { − − =

↑

n x

, 2 . 0 ] 1 [ − = − x , 2 . 2 ] 0 [ = x , 1 . 1 ] 1 [ = x

Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

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• Graphical representation of a discrete-time signal with

real-valued samples:

Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• In some applications, a discrete-time sequence {x[n]} may

be generated by periodically sampling a continuous-time

signal at uniform intervals of time

) (t x

a

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• Here, n

th

sample is given by

• The spacing T between two consecutive samples is called the

sampling interval or sampling period

• Reciprocal of sampling interval T, denoted as , is called

the sampling frequency:

), ( ) ( ] [ nT x t x n x

a

nT t

a

= =

=

T

F

T

F

T

1

=

Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• Unit of sampling frequency is cycles per second, or Hertz

(Hz), if T is in seconds

• Whether or not the sequence {x[n]} has been obtained by

sampling, the quantity x[n] is called the n-th sample of the

sequence

• {x[n]} is a real sequence, if the n-th sample x[n] is real for

all values of n

• Otherwise, {x[n]} is a complex sequence

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• A complex sequence {x[n]} can be written as

where

and are the real and imaginary parts of x[n]

• The complex conjugate sequence of {x[n]} is given by

• Often the braces are ignored to denote a sequence if there is no ambiguity

] [n x

re

] [n x

im

]} [ { ]} [ { ]} [ { n x j n x n x

im re

+ =

]} [ { ]} [ { ]} [ * { n x j n x n x

im re

− =

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• Example - is a real sequence

• is a complex sequence

• We can write

where

} . {cos ]} [ { n n x 25 0 =

} { ]} [ {

. n j

e n y

3 0

=

} . sin . {cos ]} [ { n j n n y 3 0 3 0 + =

} . {sin } . {cos n j n 3 0 3 0 + =

} . {cos ]} [ { n n y

re

3 0 =

} . {sin ]} [ { n n y

im

3 0 =

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• Example -

is the complex conjugate sequence of {y[n]}

• That is,

} { } . {sin } . {cos ]} [ {

. n j

e n j n n w

3 0

3 0 3 0

−

= − =

]} [ * { ]} [ { n y n w =

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• Two types of discrete-time signals:

- Sampled-data signals in which samples are continuous-

valued

- Digital signals in which samples are discrete-valued

• Signals in a practical digital signal processing system are digital

signals obtained by quantizing the sample values either by

rounding or truncation

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• A discrete-time signal may be a finite-length or an infinite-

length sequence

• Finite-length (also called finite-duration or finite-extent)

sequence is defined only for a finite time interval:

where and with

• Length or duration of the above finite-length sequence is

2 1

N n N ≤ ≤

1

N < ∞ −

∞ <

2

N

2 1

N N ≤

1

1 2

+ − = N N N

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• Example: is a finite-length sequence

of length

is an infinite-length sequence

4 3

2

≤ ≤ − = n n n x , ] [

8 1 3 4 = + − − ) (

n n y 4 0. cos ] [ =

• A length-N sequence is often referred to as an N-point

sequence

• The length of a finite-length sequence can be increased by

zero-padding, i.e., by appending it with zeros

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• Example -

is a finite-length sequence of length 12 obtained by zero-

padding with 4 zero-valued samples

¹

´

¦

≤ ≤

≤ ≤ −

=

8 5 0

4 3

2

n

n n

n x

e

,

,

] [

4 3

2

≤ ≤ − = n n n x , ] [

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• A right-sided sequence x[n] has zero-valued samples for

• If a right-sided sequence is called a causal sequence

, 0

1

≥ N

1

N n <

n

N

1

A right-sided sequence

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Discrete-Time Signals:

Time-Domain Representation

• A left-sided sequence x[n] has zero-valued samples for

• If a left-sided sequence is called a anti-causal sequence

2

N n >

, 0

2

≤ N

2

N

n

A left-sided sequence

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Operations On Sequences

• A single-input, single-output discrete-time system operates on a

sequence, called the input sequence, according to some prescribed

rules and develops another sequence, called the output sequence, with

more desirable properties

x[n] y[n]

Input sequence

Output sequence

Discrete-time

system

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Operations On Sequences

• For example, the input may be a signal corrupted with

additive noise

• Discrete-time system is designed to generate an output by

removing the noise component from the input

• In most cases, the operation defining a particular discrete-

time system is composed of some basic operations

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Basic Operations

• Product (modulation) operation:

– Modulator

• An application is in forming a finite-length sequence from

an infinite-length sequence by multiplying the latter with a

finite-length sequence called an window sequence

• Process called windowing

×

x[n]

y[n]

w[n]

] [ ] [ ] [ n w n x n y ⋅ =

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Basic Operations

• Addition operation:

– Adder

• Multiplication operation

– Multiplier

] [ ] [ ] [ n w n x n y + =

A

x[n]

y[n]

] [ ] [ n x A n y ⋅ =

x[n]

y[n]

w[n]

+

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ESD2521

© M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Basic Operations

• Time-shifting operation:

where N is an integer

• If N > 0, it is delaying operation

– Unit delay

• If N < 0, it is an advance operation

] [ ] [ N n x n y − =

y[n]

x[n]

z

1 −

z

y[n]

x[n]

] [ ] [ 1 − = n x n y

] [ ] [ 1 + = n x n y

64

PEMP

ESD2521

© M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Basic Operations

• Time-reversal (folding) operation:

• Branching operation: Used to provide

multiple copies of a sequence

] [ ] [ n x n y − =

x[n]

x[n]

x[n]

65

PEMP

ESD2521

© M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Sampling Rate Alteration

• Employed to generate a new sequence y[n] with a sampling

rate higher or lower than that of the sampling rate of

a given sequence x[n]

• Sampling rate alteration ratio is

• If R >1, the process called interpolation

• If R <1, the process called decimation

T

F

'

T

F

T

T

F

F

R

'

=

66

PEMP

ESD2521

© M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Sampling Rate Alteration

• In up-sampling by an integer factor L >1,

equidistant zero-valued samples are inserted by the up-sampler

between each two consecutive samples of the input sequence x[n]:

1 − L

¹

´

¦

± ± =

=

otherwise , 0

, 2 , , 0 ], / [

] [

L L n L n x

n x

u

L

] [n x

] [n x

u

67

PEMP

ESD2521

© M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Sampling Rate Alteration

• An example of the up-sampling operation

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Output sequence up-sampled by 3

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Input Sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

68

PEMP

ESD2521

© M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Sampling Rate Alteration

• An example of the down-sampling

operation

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Output sequence down-sampled by 3

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Time index n

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Input Sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

69

PEMP

ESD2521

© M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Session Summary

• An Embedded system is a special-purpose computer that

interacts with the real world through sensing and/or actuation

• Embedded Systems are also extremely and diversely applied

in various areas Digital Signal Processing is an application of

mathematical operations to digitally represented signals

70

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