1

Contents
NONEL USER’S GUIDE USER’S GUIDE TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS INITIATION SYSTEMS
The NONEL system ......................................... 7 Snapline connector block ................................. 8 In-hole detonator .............................................. 9 Three different NONEL systems .................... 10 NONEL MS .................................................... 13 Firing plan for bench blasting ......................... 14 Firing plan for pipeline trench blasting .......... 15 Firing plan with detonating cord .................... 16 Underwater blasting ........................................ 17 Sub-level caving ............................................. 19 NONEL UNIDET ........................................... 20 Principle of initiation with NONEL UNIDET 21 Risk of overlapping ........................................ 23 UNIDET firing plan No. 1 .............................. 24 UNIDET firing plan No. 2 .............................. 25 UNIDET firing plan No. 3 .............................. 26 UNIDET firing plan No. 4 .............................. 27 UNIDET firing plan No. 5 .............................. 28 UNIDET firing plan No. 6 .............................. 29 UNIDET firing plan No. 7 .............................. 30 UNIDET firing plan No. 8 .............................. 31 UNIDET firing plan No. 9 .............................. 32 UNIDET firing plan No. 10 ............................ 33 UNIDET firing plan No. 11 ............................ 34 UNIDET firing plan No. 12 ............................ 35 UNIDET firing plan No. 13 ............................ 36 UNIDET firing plan No. 14 ............................ 37 UNIDET firing plan No. 15 ............................ 38 UNIDET firing plan No. 16 ............................ 39 UNIDET firing plan No. 17 ............................ 40 UNIDET firing plan No. 18 ............................ 40 NONEL LP ..................................................... 41 Firing plan LP1 ............................................... 42 Initiation by means of bunch connectors ........ 43 Firing plan LP2 ............................................... 44 Firing plan LP3 ............................................... 45 Firing plan LP4 ............................................... 45 Firing plan LP5 ............................................... 46 Initiation by means of detonating cord ........... 47 Initiation with the aid of Dynoline ................. 48 Initiation by electric detonator ........................ 51 Destroying detonators ..................................... 52 Destroying NONEL tubes............................... 52 Destroying detonating cord ............................ 52 Dealing with misfires ..................................... 53 Fact sheet for NONEL system ........................ 54 EC type certificate .......................................... 55
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TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS EXPLOSIVES

TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS ACCESSORIES

U S E R ’ S

G U I D E

This User’s Guide is intended as a complement to the NONEL System Description, in which the function of the entire NONEL system is described in detail. The main purpose of this booklet is to propose firing plans and give ideas on how they may be adapted to meet different demands in modern rock blasting.

Photography: Reinhold Carlson, et al. Illustrations: Thommy Gustavsson, Gösta Lithner Printed on environmentally-friendly paper, Inlaga Cyklus print 150 g; cover Chromocard 240 g. SOO/1998-08/Edition 1.

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4

User’s Guide
The NONEL initiation system was invented by Dyno Nobel and first marketed in 1973. It is a non-electric initiation system based on a signal line of low energy type. A shock wave is made to pass through the signal line, which consists of a plastic tube coated internally with a reactive substance. The shock wave is strong enough to initiate a delay element, but not strong enough to split the tube and initiate adjacent explosives. The velocity of the shock wave through the tube is approximately 2100 m/s. The difference between NONEL and other non-electric systems such as detonating cord is that the reaction in NONEL is enclosed in a tube. With detonating cord, the cord itself detonates, as the name implies.

Initiation front

With NONEL, the shock wave is enclosed in a plastic tube. With detonating cord, the cord itself detonates.

5

With the NONEL system, the explosive can be initiated effectively from the bottom, whereas detonating cord causes initiation in the top part of the hole in most cases. When used to initiate relatively insensitive explosives such as ANFO and certain slurries, detonating cord can cause dead-pressing of the explosive.

NONEL

Detonating cord

Top initiation with detonating cord often causes flyrock, since the stemming is destroyed as the detonation passes through it.

NONEL

Detonating cord

When initiating a round with NONEL, initiation on the surface takes place well before initiation of the explosives in the drill hole.

6

The NONEL system

The NONEL initiation system consists of in-hole detonators, surface connector units, starter tube and a blasting machine.

Function
The function of the in-hole detonator is to initiate the explosive in the drill hole. The function of the surface connector unit is to transmit the initiation signal to the in-hole detonator. The surface connector unit consists of a connector block that contains a mini-detonator with or without a delay element.

7

Snapline connector block

The NONEL SL connector block is intended to initiate 5 NONEL tubes. Thanks to the design of the block, the NONEL tubes are initiated in both directions.
Snapline connector blocks are intended for transmitting the initiation shock wave on the rock surface only and must not be used in the drill hole.

1 Hold the connector block in one hand

between the thumb and forefinger, with the opening (slot) facing upwards.

1

2

2 With your other hand, take the tubes that

are to be connected and snap them into the slot one by one.

3 Slide the block toward the drill hole and

tension the tubes moderately to tidy up the connection.

3

4

4 When all tubes (max. 5 pieces) are in

place, snap shut the cover with your thumb. Make sure the cover snaps into the locked position.

If the cover on the SL connector block needs to be opened after it has been snapped shut, simply take the free end of a NONEL tube, slip it underneath the lock of the cover and pull upwards. Knives or other sharp objects should not be used.

8

In-hole detonator

Cutaway section of NPED detonator

The in-hole detonator is of No. 8 strength (according to Prior test No.10) to ensure reliable initiation of primers and detonator-sensitive explosives. It is a NPED* detonator (i.e. Non-Primary Explosives Detonator), which means that it does not contain a primary explosive. The NPED detonator is considerably less sensitive to impact and shock compared with detonators that contain primary explosive. The sensitive lead azide (the primary explosive) has been replaced with pentyl, which is enclosed in a steel sleeve.
The in-hole detonator is intended for initiation of the explosive in the hole only and must not be used on the rock surface. (The only exception is when an electric detonator is used to initiate a NONEL round - see page 51).

*US patent No. 4.727.808

9

Three different NONEL systems
Three NONEL-based initiation systems are available:
NONEL MS NONEL UNIDET NONEL LP

NONEL MS and NONEL UNIDET are used for bench blasting. Their delay times are therefore designed to suit the conditions that prevail in bench blasting. When blasting several rows on a bench, it is important that the rock in the first row is given enough time to move forwards before the next row starts to move. Since rock swells by approximately 50% in volume when broken up by explosives, room must be made for this expansion within a very short period of time. Studies have shown that, ideally, the rock in a row should move forwards by 1/3 of the burden before the next row is allowed to detonate. Since the required delay time between rows can vary between 10 ms per metre of burden in hard rock to 30 ms/m in soft rock, a value of 15 ms/m can generally be used as a guideline.

B = burden

10

NONEL MS

is a conventional delay initiation system with a delay time of 25 ms between each interval. Such short delay times are a legacy from the past, when small-diameter holes were drilled with small burdens. Series 11 and 12 integral drill-steels require a burden of between 1 and 1.5 metres, for which a delay of 25 ms between rows is a good normal value.
NONEL UNIDET

is an initiation system that employs a uniform delay time in the in-hole detonators and variable delay times in the connector units on the surface. The delay time in the drill hole is usually 500 ms (but other options can be used). This is then supplemented by delay times in the surface connector units, which give the desired initiation sequence. Surface delays from 17 to 176 ms are available, which gives great flexibility in adapting the initiation sequence to suit the burden and rock characteristics.
NONEL LP

is an initiation system intended for underground use. The delay times between intervals in the system are generally longer in order to give enough time for blasted rock to be properly displaced in the confined space and single free face typical in tunnelling. In most tunnels today, the parallel-hole cut is employed to first break out a central cavity in the face, into which the rock surrounding the cut can be displaced. The cut usually incorporates one or more large-diameter relief holes, which are not charged. The rock broken by the hole(s) closest to the relief hole(s) must be thrown out of the face before the next closest hole(s) are detonated. Since blasted rock is thrown out of the face at a velocity of 40-60 metres per second, displacement will take between 60 and 100 milliseconds for a hole 4 metres in depth. A delay time of at least 100 ms between intervals in the cut is therefore essential in order to prevent the rock from jamming up in the cut and impairing the blasting result.

11

Once the cut has been thrown out of the face to make room for further rock displacement, a different detonator/explosive effect is required, since limited throwback of the round is now desirable. The shotholes surrounding the cut are therefore given longer delays (500 ms) between intervals, with the aim of producing a neatly confined muck pile that is easy to load.

When blasting the contour, a primary requirement is that the detonators should have good precision in order to ensure simultaneity in smoothblasting.

12

NONEL MS

NONEL MS is of conventional construction with 25 ms delays between intervals. The initiation sequence is built up by means of the unique delay times of each interval. Initiation is effected on the surface by means of connector blocks with instantaneous initiation. The system has 18 intervals numbered from 3 to 20. The series begins with No. 3 for the purpose of delaying the first interval by 75 ms in order to avoid the risk of tube cut-offs. NONEL tube, with its shock wave transmission velocity of 2100 m/s, has an inherent delay of 0.5 ms/m. In larger rounds therefore, it is conceivable that all detonators will not receive their initiation signals by the time rock displacement begins from the first hole. By delaying the first interval by 75 ms, a total of 150 m of tube is permissible in the connector units on the surface without the risk of tubes to some parts of the round being damaged by early rock displacement or flyrock.
Signal conductors to detonators with nominally lower delay period numbers must not be more than 8 metres longer than signal conductors to detonators with the next higher delay period number.

NONEL MS is used mainly in smaller bench blasting operations on the surface and underground, as well as in underwater blasting and sublevel caving.

13

Firing plan for bench blasting
7 6 6 6 7

6

6

5

5

5

5

6

5

4

4

4

4

5

4

3

3

3

3

4

Each surface connector unit initiates 4 in-hole detonators, as well as the next surface connector unit. For the shortest possible delay in surface initiation, initiation takes place via a trunk line from which side lines branch off. However, with this arrangement it should be remembered that, if a surface connector unit in one of the front rows fails to detonate, it would have a negative influence on the blasting result in the rear part of the round.

14

Firing plan for pipeline trench blasting

13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 5 4 7 9

13 12 11 10

8

6

Connection is made in the direction of initiation. Failure of one surface connector unit does not affect the result significantly. The round can be reconnected and fired with good results. A disadvantage of the NONEL MS system in pipeline trench blasting is the limited length of trench that can be blasted in each round.

15

Firing plan with detonating cord
7 6 6 6 6 7

6

5

5

5

5

6

5

4

4

4

4

5

4

3

3

3

3

4

NONEL MS rounds can be initiated with detonating cord, provided that noise and airborne shock waves are permissible at the worksite. Detonating cord with a charge weight of between 3.6 and 5.0 g/m is recommended. Ideally, the NONEL tube should be connected to the detonating cord by means of a MULTICLIP.

16

Underwater blasting

5 4 3

4 3

4 3...

4...

For underwater blasting, a reinforced version of NONEL MS is recommended, as well as two detonators in each hole. The tubes from the detonators are connected to Snapline 0 connector blocks on the water surface. The Snapline connector blocks should be mounted on floats of polystyrene or a similar material. Two initiation paths are recommended in underwater blasting in order to ensure the reliability of initiation.

17

5 4 3

4 3

4 3...

4...

Underwater rounds can also be initiated by detonating cord. A maximum of 20 NONEL tubes can be gathered into a bunch, and detonating cord tied in a clove hitch around the bunch. Bunches should be placed at least half a metre away from each other in order to reduce the risk of tube cut-off.

18

Sub-level caving

3 5 6 7 11 12 10 4 9 8

3

4

5 6 9 10 7 11 12

8

NONEL MS is well suited for use in sub-level caving, which could be described as a kind of upside-down bench blasting.

19

NONEL UNIDET

NONEL UNIDET is based on the use of in-hole detonators with uniform delay. All in-hole detonators in the round have the same delay time and the initiation sequence is determined on the surface by means of surface connector units with built-in delays. The delay time in the inhole detonator is usually chosen as 500 ms, which normally enables all in-hole detonators to be initiated on the surface before any rock displacement begins.

20

Principle of initiation with NONEL UNIDET

Base delay

500 ms

500

500

500...

All holes in the round are usually charged with detonators with the same delay – in this case 500 ms.

Surface delay

0 ms

25

50

75...

Final delay

500 ms

525

550

575...

The initiation sequence is determined on the surface by means of Snapline connector blocks.

21

Snapline connector blocks are available with different delays and are colour coded to indicate the delay time.
Green Yellow Red White Blue Black Orange 0 ms (nominally 1.75 ms) 17 ms 25 ms 42 ms 67 ms 109 ms 176 ms

0 ms 42 84 126 168 210 252 294 336 378 420 462

504 etc. etc.

500 ms 542 584...

...920 962 1004...

With Snapline connector blocks, surface activation takes place well before rock displacement begins.

22

Risk of overlapping. Maximum round sizes for different firing plans using NONEL UNIDET.
According to Swedish Standard SS 4990707 “Initiation systems with non-electric signal lines of low energy type”, section 19.4 “Theoretical verification”, the maximum round size for different firing plans must be stated. If the stated number of holes is exceeded, a risk of overlapping unacceptable under SS 4990707 arises. Dyno Nobel advises against the use of firing plans that do not meet the demands of SS 4990707. The calculations are based on nominal delay times and maximum standard deviations submitted by the manufacturer. They are intended to show where a theoretical risk of overlapping will arise in the most unfavourable case. A risk of overlapping is considered to exist if there is a possibility of a hole in one of the back rows detonating before a hole in one of the front rows. The risk of overlapping is stated for each firing plan. The recommendations given are applicable provided that all inhole detonators have the same active tube length. The term “active tube length” refers to the length of tube between the in-hole detonator and the point on the tube at which the surface connector unit is connected. The time increment that the delay times receive (on the basis of the velocity of the detonation wave in NONEL tubes) has a negative influence on the number of holes in a row only when the active tube length reduces with the row depth, i.e. when the active tube length in any row is shorter than that in a previous row. For this reason, the greatest permissible length differential is 5 metres.
Length differentials of 0 and 5 metres have been taken into consideration in the calculation of the risks of overlapping. N.B.

The delay times between rows must always be equal to or greater than the delay times between the holes in the rows.

23

UNIDET firing plan No. 1
150 125 100 75 50 25 0 125 125 125 125 125

100

100

100

100 75 50 25

100

75 50 25

75 50 25 25

75 50

75 50 25

0

0

0

0

Row-by-row connection of a NONEL UNIDET round: 25 ms delay between rows and no delay between holes. The holes at both edges of the round are delayed by 25 ms to give a better breaking angle and reduce the risk of overbreak. Only 3 components are needed: NONEL UNIDET detonator, Snapline 0 and Snapline 25 connector blocks.
Risk of overlapping: 0 metres length differential in active tube length Number of holes per row that can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. Delay time between rows of holes Milliseconds 17 Max. No. of holes per row X 25 292 42 1000 67 1000 109 1000 176 1000

X = Not recommended

5 metres length differential in active tube length Number of holes per row that can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. Delay time between rows of holes Milliseconds 17 Max. No. of holes per row X 25 178 42 1000 67 1000 109 1000 176 1000

X = Not recommended

The stated limitations in the number of holes per row assume symmetric connection, i.e. that the rows are connected in the centre of the round. In the case of rounds connected asymmetrically, only half the stated number is permissible.

24

UNIDET firing plan No. 2
375 350 325 350 325 300 275 175 150 150 125 125 100 150 125

125 100

100 75

75 50

100 75

300 275 250

250

75

50

25

50

225

50

25

0

25

Plow-shaped initiation with 25 ms delay between rows and 25 ms delay between the holes in the rows. Needs few components. Snapline 0 connector block can be replaced with a Snapline 25 in order to rationalize stock holding, i.e. NONEL UNIDET detonators and Snapline 25 connector blocks only. This firing plan gives good fragmentation through the collision effect as the round is thrown forwards.
Risk of overlapping: 0 metres length differential in active tube length Number of holes per row that can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. Delay time between rows of holes Milliseconds 17 Max. No. of holes per row X 25 22 42 34 67 52 109 106 176 172

X = Not recommended

5 metres length differential in active tube length Number of holes per row that can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. Delay time between rows of holes Milliseconds 17 Max. No. of holes per row X 25 14 42 30 67 48 109 100 176 168

X = Not recommended

The stated limitations in the number of holes per row assume symmetric connection, i.e. that the rows are connected in the centre of the round. In the case of rounds connected asymmetrically, only half the stated number is permissible. The values in the tables assume that the same delay time is used between rows as between the individual holes in the rows.

25

UNIDET firing plan No. 3
500 475 425 300 250 275 225 250 200 275 225

450 400 350 300

375 325

200 150

175 125

150 100

175 125

275 225

100 50

75 25 0

50 25

75

250

Another firing plan with few components. Through diagonal connection, a 50 ms delay is obtained between rows, with a delay of 25 ms between the holes in the rows. This firing plan gives a wide hole-spacing effect, which has a favourable effect on fragmentation. As in the previous firing plan, the number of components can be rationalized to two – the NONEL UNIDET in-hole detonator and Snapline 25 connector block – if the round is initiated by means of a Snapline 25 connector block.
Risk of overlapping: 0 metres length differential in active tube length Number of holes per row that can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. Connector block used Delay time between rows Milliseconds Max. No. of holes per row SL17 34 56 SL25 50 140 SL42 84 126 SL67 134 224 SL109 218 434 SL176 352 696

5 metres length differential in active tube length Number of holes per row that can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. Connector block used Delay time between rows Milliseconds Max. No. of holes per row SL17 34 46 SL25 50 124 SL42 84 118 SL67 134 214 SL109 218 422 SL176 352 686

The stated limitations in the number of holes per row assume symmetric connection, i.e. that the rows are connected in the centre of the round. In the case of rounds connected asymmetrically, only half the stated number is permissible.

26

UNIDET firing plan No. 4
312 270 228 186 144 102 295 253 211 169 127 85 278 236 194 152 110 68 93 51 261 219 177 135 76 34 244 202 160 118 59 17 0 227 185 143 101 210

168 126 84

42

Firing plan with 42 ms delay between rows and 17 ms between the holes in the rows. Connection is made row-by-row toward the rear of the round. Good wide hole-spacing effect.
Risk of overlapping: 0 metres length differential in active tube length Maximum number of holes per row in round with different combinations of surface connector units. Delay between holes in the same row Milliseconds 17 25 42 67 109 176 Delay between hole rows Milliseconds 17 25 42 X 11 45 X 11 45 X X 17 X X X X X X X X X

67 103 103 38 26 X X

109 289 289 107 73 53 X

176 771 771 284 193 140 86

X = Not recommended

5 metres length differential in active tube length Maximum number of holes per row in round with different combinations of surface connector units. Delay between holes in the same row Milliseconds 17 25 42 67 109 176 Delay between hole rows Milliseconds 17 25 42 X 7 39 X 7 39 X X 15 X X X X X X X X X

67 94 94 35 24 X X

109 275 275 101 69 50 X

176 748 748 275 187 136 84

X = Not recommended

The stated limitations in the number of holes per row assume asymmetric connection, i.e. that the rows are connected at one edge of the round. In the case of rounds connected symmetrically, i.e. from the centre outward in both directions, twice as many holes per row can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. 27

UNIDET firing plan No. 5

194

177

160

143

126

143

160

152

135

118

101

84

101

118

110

93

76

59

42

59

76

68

51

34

17

0

17

34...

42 ms delay between rows and 17 ms between the holes in the rows. Plow-shaped initiation with good wide hole-spacing effect.
Risk of overlapping: SL 17 should not be used between rows, or the risk of overlapping will exceed what is permissible under Swedish Standard SS 4990707. In all other combinations where the delay time between the holes in the rows is shorter than the delay time between rows, the risk of overlapping does not contravene Swedish Standard SS 4990707.

28

UNIDET firing plan No. 6

378

361

344

327

344

361

269

252

235

218

235

252

160

143

126 0

109

126

143

51

34

17

17

34

Firing plan with 109 ms delay between rows and 17 ms between the holes in the rows. Suitable for rounds with holes of relatively large diameter and commensurately large burden. Holes connected row-by-row toward the rear of the round.
Risk of overlapping: SL 17 should not be used between rows, or the risk of overlapping will exceed what is permissible under Swedish Standard SS 4990707. In all other combinations where the delay time between the holes in the rows is shorter than the delay time between rows, the risk of overlapping does not contravene Swedish Standard SS 4990707.

29

UNIDET firing plan No. 7
755 713 671 629 587 545 587 436 478 327 369 218 260 109 151 42 629...

646

604

562

520

478

520...

537 428

495 386

453 344

411 302

369 260

411... 302...

319

277

235

193

151

193... 84...

210 168

126

84

42

0

U 500

U 500

Firing plan with a delay of 109 ms between rows and 42 ms between the holes in the rows. Suitable for rounds with holes of relatively large diameter and commensurately large burden. Holes are connected row-byrow toward the rear. Two detonators are used in each hole, which is recommended when the rock is cracked or fissured and bulk explosives are used. In this case, the top detonator has been connected to a connector block that is initiated 42 ms later than the block that initiates the bottom detonator. This is designed to prevent, as far as possible, the top detonator from initiating before the bottom one.
Risk of overlapping: SL 17 should not be used between rows, or the risk of overlapping will exceed what is permissible under Swedish Standard SS 4990707. In all other combinations where the delay time between the holes in the rows is shorter than the delay time between rows, the risk of overlapping does not contravene Swedish Standard SS 4990707.

30

UNIDET firing plan No. 8
430 346 262 203 144 85 413 329 245 186 396 312 228 169 379 295 211 152 362 278 194 135 345 261 177 118 370 286 202 143 387 303 219 160 101

127 68

110 51

93 34

76 17 0

59 25

84 42

By means of diagonal connection, the delay between rows can be well adapted to local conditions. In this case, diagonal connection gives a delay of 17 + 42 ms = 59 ms between rows and a delay of 17 ms between the holes in the rows. The Snapline 67 connector block is used in the last two rows to increase the delay in these rows to 84 ms, which often gives better breakage and throw.
Risk of overlapping: 0 metres length differential in active tube length Max. 32 rows of holes can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. 5 metres length differential in active tube length Max. 29 rows of holes can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707.

31

UNIDET firing plan No. 9

59

118

177

236

295

354...

0

17

76

135

194

253

Simple zigzag connection with 101 ms delay between rows and 59 ms between the holes in the rows. At the beginning of the loop, however, the delay times are shorter, i.e. 59 ms and 17 ms. A good plan if only two rows are to be fired.
Risk of overlapping: NONE

32

UNIDET firing plan No. 10
431 295 236 177 312 253 194 329 270 211 346 287 228 363 304 245 380 321 262 397 338 279 414 355 296 237 178 136

118 0 59 17

135 76 34

152 93 51

169 110 68

186 127 85

203 144 102

220 161 119

U 500

U 500

Connected with two detonators in each hole. Can be a good safety precaution if there is water in the holes or if there are other reasons to be concerned about the possibility of interruptions in the explosives column. In this plan there is a 59 ms delay between rows and 17 ms between the holes in the rows. The upper detonator is connected diagonally to the block for the next hole, which gives it a 17 ms delay. This normally ensures initiation of the bottom detonator first.
Risk of overlapping: 0 metres length differential in active tube length A maximum of 30 rows of holes can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard 4990707. 5 metres length differential in active tube length A maximum of 27 rows of holes can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard 4990707.

33

UNIDET firing plan No. 11
1290 1114 938 1048 872 696 1006 830 654 964 788 612 922 746 570 880 704 528 905 729 553 947... 771... 595...

762

520

478

436

394

352

377

419...

596 420

344 168

302 126

260 84

218 42 0

176

201 25

243... 67...

U 500 U 500

A 176 ms delay between rows, with a 42 ms delay between the holes in the rows in one direction and 25 ms in the other. Gives each hole a unique delay time. Good wide hole-spacing effect. This plan is very reliable, since each hole is initiated by two detonators connected to separate connector blocks.
Risk of overlapping: SL 17 should not be used between rows, or the risk of overlapping will exceed what is permissible under Swedish Standard SS 4990707. In all other combinations where the delay time between the holes in the rows is shorter than the delay time between rows, the risk of overlapping does not contravene Swedish Standard SS 4990707.

34

UNIDET firing plan No. 12
376 351 326 301 276 301 326

259

234

209

184

209

234

167

142

117

92

117

142

75

50

25

0

25

50

U 500

U 500

Extra reliability through double initiation lines. 25 + 67 = 92 ms delay between rows and 25 ms between the holes in the rows. There are two detonators in each hole, which can be a good precaution in cracked or fissured rock and when using bulk explosives. To avoid top initiation as far as possible, the upper detonator is connected to a block that detonates later than the block to which the bottom detonator is connected.
Risk of overlapping: In both symmetric and asymmetric connection, an unlimited number of holes and rows can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707.

35

UNIDET firing plan No. 13

59

118

177

236

295

0

17

76

135

194

253

U 450

U 475

U 500

Three-deck charge in each hole for sites where there are restrictions on vibration. Each sub-charge has its own delay time. There is a 101 ms delay between rows and 59 ms between the holes in the rows (with the exception of holes 1 and 2 in the first row).
Risk of overlapping: Complies with Swedish Standard SS 4990707.

36

UNIDET firing plan No. 14
420 437 454 471 488 505 522 539

336 252 168 84 0 0

353 269 185

370 286 202

387 303 219

404 320 236

421 337 253

438 354 270

455 371 287

101 17

118 34

135 51

152 68

169 85

186 102

203 119

U 450

U 475

U 500

Firing plan for blasting with three-deck charge in each hole. There are two detonators in each charge. Two parallel initiation lines give a delay of 84 ms between rows, with 17 ms between the holes in the rows. Plan demonstrates that NONEL UNIDET, together with Snapline connector blocks, can be used in the most complicated of situations.

Risk of overlapping: 0 metres length differential in active tube length A maximum of 43 rows of holes can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard 4990707. 5 metres length differential in active tube length A maximum of 41 rows of holes can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard 4990707.

37

UNIDET firing plan No. 15
453 436 436 436 436 453

378

361 269 160 143

344 252 126 235 109 0

327 218 235 126

344

361

252 143

51

34

17

17

34

Smooth blasting with NONEL UNIDET. The smooth-blast row is detonated last in the round.
Risk of overlapping: 0 metres length differential in active tube length Number of holes that can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. No. of rows Max. No. of holes per row 4 14 11 12 16 10

The values assume symmetric connection, i.e. connection in the centre of the row and outward in both directions. 5 metres length differential in active tube length Number of holes that can be connected without contravening Swedish Standard SS 4990707. No. of rows Max. No. of holes per row 3 14 10 12 16 10

The values assume symmetric connection, i.e. connection in the centre of the row and outward in both directions.

38

UNIDET firing plan No. 16
0 0 0 0 0 0

395

378 286

361 269 252 143 126 235

344 252 143 34

361 269 160 51

378

177

160

68

51

34

17

0

Pre-splitting with NONEL UNIDET. Best results are obtained if detonating cord can be used (3.6 or 5.0 g/m) to initiate the pre-split row (bear in mind the airborne shock wave). N.B. The detonating cord should be located at least 20 cm away from the NONEL tubes in the round in order to avoid cut-offs of the tubes.
Risk of overlapping: No limitation in the round part. However, pre-split row will detonate first.

39

UNIDET firing plan No. 17
170

221 204

238

187 153

Simple connection of pipeline trench using only 3 components, which can be reduced to 2 if the Snapline 0 connector block is replaced with a Snapline 17.

119 102 68 51 17 0 34

136

85

UNIDET firing plan No. 18
500 475 500 542 517 542 584 559 584 626... 601... 626... U 475

U 500

Pipeline trench blasting with UNIDET U475 detonators in the centre holes and U500 in the outer holes. A delay of 42 ms between rows gives good breaking geometry in the round.

40

NONEL LP

NONEL LP has been developed for drift and tunnel blasting, where longer delay times are needed to give enough time for the rock to break free and be thrown away from the face.
The LP series detonators have the following nominal delay times: No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 25 ms 100 ms 200 ms 300 ms 400 ms 500 ms 600 ms 700 ms 800 ms 900 ms 1000 ms 1110 ms 1235 ms No. 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 1400 ms 1600 ms 1800 ms 2075 ms 2500 ms 3000 ms 3500 ms 4000 ms 4500 ms 5000 ms 5500 ms 6000 ms

41

Firing plan LP 1

45 45 30 45 35 50 20 25 16 30

45 45 30 45 35 50 20 25 30

40

40

40

18

12 10

14

18

25

40

8 4 5

3

7 2 9 16 20 40

40

16

9

1

6

10 50 18 14 12 18 25 50

55

50

50

50

50

50

50

55

The round is charged conventionally, with the lowest period number nearest the large-diameter relief hole and the highest out at the contour. Initiation can be effected by means of bunch connectors. Connect the NONEL tube from the bunch connectors to a Snapline 0 connector block or a NONEL STARTER. Note that LP detonator No. 0 has not been used in the firing plan. (It may, however, be advisable to keep it as a spare in case the relief hole is full of water. The water can then be blown out of the hole using a weak charge that detonates first.)
The length differential between the initiation points on the respective NONEL tubes and their in-hole detonators should not exceed 5 metres.

42

Initiation
Initiation by means of bunch connectors
The bunch connector is only intended for use hanging freely on the tunnel face.

Gather at least 5 but maximum 20 NONEL tubes into a bunch.

Bind the bunch together with tape as close as possible to the face of the tunnel. Apply another band of tape 40 cm out from the first binding.

Insert the bunch through a loop of 5 g/m detonating cord. Fit a Snapline 0 connector block to the loop and slide it up against the bunch of tubes.

Make sure the Snapline connector block and detonating cord are located at least 20 cm away from the tape point nearest the tunnel face. Press the Snapline connector block against the bunch of NONEL tubes and snap it shut by pressing the cover down into the locked position. Now connect the leads from the Snapline connector blocks on the respective bunch connectors into a Snapline 0 connector block and pull the bunch connectors away from the tunnel face. N.B. Make sure that none of the bunch connectors is located any closer than 20 cm to other NONEL tubes.

43

Firing plan LP 2

45 45 30 45 35 50 20 25 16 30

45 45 30 45 35 50 20 25 30

40

40

40

18

12 10

14

18

25

40

8 40 16 9 4 5

3

7 2 9 16 20 40

1

6

10 50 18 14 12 18 25 50

55

50

50

50

50

50

50

55

If there are restrictions on vibration at the worksite, the problem can be alleviated by delaying half the face by 42 ms (for instance), as in this case. The solution gives a greater spread and reduces the risk of charges detonating simultaneously. In this case, LP detonator No. 0 cannot be used, since a hole with a delay of only 25 ms would detonate before the detonators bunch-connected to the Snapline 42 connector blocks could be activated, thus incurring an obvious risk of cut-offs of the NONEL tubes.

44

Firing plan LP 3
+67 ms
30 30 35 35 40 40 20 20 20 14 25 50 55 50 14 16 50 12 12 14 10 9 10 45 45 8 7 8 14 12 10 9 9 10 12 14 20 20 8 7 8 45 10 9 10 45 12 12 14 50 14 14 16 50 25 50 55 18 18 12 14 10 10 12 12 12 14 18 18 35 18 30 16 25 25 16 25 25 25 16 25 16 18 30

+109 ms
30 30 35 35 35 40 40 20

5 2 4 3 5 45

4 2 1 3 4 45

5 4 5

± 0 ms

+176 ms

+42 ms

Firing plan LP 4
+67 ms +109 ms

± 0 ms

+176 ms

+42 ms

By using Snapline connector blocks with different delays, the risk of simultaneous detonation in sensitive environments can be reduced. In this case, 5 different Snapline blocks have been used to give a greater spread in detonation times. The lowest delay time in the cut is 100 ms (LP det. No. 1) in order to avoid cut-offs of the NONEL tubes.
45

Firing plan LP 5

+67 ms
3067 3067 3067 3567 3567 3567 1867 4067 1867 4067 2142 1467 2142 1267 1067 967 1009 1109 1467 1302 1067 1109 1309 1867 1302 1309 1667 2567 2667 2567 1667 2609 2609 1709 1709 1909 2609 3109

+109 ms
3109 3109 3609 3609 3609 1909 4109 1509 1909 4109 2184 1309 1509 2184 576 676 376 276 576 576 476 576 676 4676 4542 4542 5042 5042 5542 842 1042 1442 1642 5042 476 676 4676 676 376

2075 1400 2075 1400

1235 1235 1400

1000 900 1000

800 700 800

842 742

1042 942

1277 1277

1442 2117 1442 2542

5000 1600

5500 5000

5000

4500

4500

± 0 ms

+176 ms

+42 ms

Nominal times according to connection arrangement shown on preceding page.

46

Initiation by means of detonating cord

In bunch initiation using detonating cord, at least 5 but maximum 20 NONEL tubes are gathered into a bunch and taped together as close as possible to the tunnel face. A second tape binding is applied approximately 40 cm from the face. A clove hitch is then tied around the bunch using 3.6 or 5 g/m detonating cord, and tightened at least 20 cm away from the tape point nearest the tunnel face.

45 45 45 50 35 30 30

45 45 30 35 45 50

40

20 25

16

20

25 30

40

40

18

12 10 8 3 7 2 1 10 6

14

18

25

40

40

16

9

4 5

9

16

20

40

50

18

14

12

18

25

50

55

50

50

50

50

50

50

55

The bunches are then connected together with detonating cord and pulled away from the tunnel face. The detonating cord should be tensioned so that it does not lie too close (min. 20 cm) to the NONEL tubes, otherwise there is a risk of the shock wave from the detonating cord to cut off the NONEL tubes without initiating them.

47

Initiation with the aid of Dynoline

The simplest and safest way to initiate NONEL rounds is with the aid of Dynoline, which is NONEL tube supplied in rolls of 750 or 1500 metres. A suitable length of Dynoline is connected between the leader on the first Snapline connector block in the round and the DynoStart blasting machine that is used to initiate the round. (NONEL rounds can also be initiated by means of an electric detonator - see page 51).

48

The glue plug or sealing weld in the NONEL tube from the Snapline block must be cut off and the tube connected to the Dynoline by means of an outer tube 4 cm in length (cut from the outer tube supplied with the roll of Dynoline). The NONEL tube must be pressed into the outer tube by at least 1 cm. The Dynoline should then be drawn out to the chosen firing site.

When the round is ready for firing, connect the Dynoline to a blasting machine (type DynoStart) by inserting the tube into the chuck as far as it will go. Do not turn the chuck.

49

To initiate the round, press the “CHARGING” button until the lightemitting-diode (LED) lights constantly. Then, keeping the “CHARGING” button depressed, press the “FIRING” button.

50

Initiation by electric detonator

NONEL rounds can also be initiated by means of an electric detonator. In this case, the detonator is connected to the lead of the first Snapline connector block in the round (preferably a Snapline 0). The detonator must be connected firmly to the lead using insulation tape, and the bottom of the detonator must point in the direction in which lead on the connector block is required to initiate.
N.B.

To protect the NONEL tubes in the round from shrapnel from the electric detonator, the detonator must be well covered with soil or drill cuttings. Ideally, it should be located at least 5 metres away from the round. This can be achieved by connecting a suitable length of Dynoline to the lead on the Snapline connector block (see page 48 for instructions) and connecting the electric detonator to the opposite end of the Dynoline.
N.B.

When an electric detonator is connected to the round, you are subject to the same risks as in electric initiation as far as lightning, static electricity, stray currents, etc. are concerned. For this and other safety reasons, the detonator must NOT be connected to the Snapline connector block until the round has been connected up completely and firing is about to take place.

51

Destruction
Destroying detonators
Detonators that are damaged or too old must not be used. They must be destroyed.
Individual undamaged detonators can be destroyed by detonating them in conjunction with the firing of a round. Cut the tubes off the detonators and drop the detonators one-by-one into one or more of the drill holes. They will detonate when the round is fired.

Detonators can also be exploded by taping them to an explosive cartridge and then detonating the cartridge. If the cartridge is detonated in the open air, bear in mind the potential hazards posed by shrapnel and airborne shock waves.

If larger quantities of detonators need to be destroyed due to damage or age, please contact Dyno Nobel or your nearest Dyno Nobel representative.

Destroying NONEL tubes
With the aid of a DynoStart blasting machine, initiate and burn out the reactive substance in the tube and then send it to: 1. A recycling site 2. A garbage dump 3. An incineration site.

Destroying detonating cord
1. Connect the detonating cord to a detonator and fire the detonator. Bear in mind the risk of shrapnel and airborne shock waves. 2. Drop the detonating cord into a blast hole together with the explosives and let it detonate with the round.

52

Dealing with misfires
If undetonated holes are encountered after blasting, the following procedure can be followed:

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

B
Risk zone evacuated and guarded. Signal, fire, wait, check.

C

D

E

F

G

Completely OK

Misfire

Muck out

Whole round

Part of round

Report New starter Check B1 Report

Isolated misfires

Several misfires

Uninitiated tube

Undetonated charge

Assess entirety Treat as C4

Report New starter Check B1 Report Uncover New primer, new starter Check B1 Report Blow out New primer and starter Check B1 Report Notify, mark, guard if necessary Report Flush out and scale alongside Re-charge B1

Open charge

Stemming

Easy

Difficult

Can be saved for next round

Must be fired

Note:

The relevant safety regulations in each country must be observed.

53

Fact sheet for NONEL system
The NONEL system is not intended for use in gaseous environments such as underground coal mines or other locations in which explosive gases can occur. Nor is it intended for use where dust explosions can occur. The NONEL system is approved for use with the products described in this booklet only. Since the use of NONEL products together with other shock tube initiation systems has not been tested and approved, it cannot be recommended and does not come with any guarantees in respect of function.
Recommended temperature range in which NONEL can be used - Surface: -35° C to +50° C - Inside drill hole: -25° C to +70° C Recommended storage temperature: Maximum hydrostatic pressure (water): Tensile strength (tube): below +50° C

3 bar for 7 days 25 kg at +20° C for 2 minutes, which results in elongation to approx. 2.5 times original length 15 kg at +70° C for 2 minutes, which results in elongation to approx. 3 times original length

Elongation:

After elongation to 3 times original length, detonation velocity remains within specification, i.e. 2100 m/s ± 20%.

Tensile strength joint between detonator and tube:

4 kg for 2 minutes (up to +50° C)

NONEL detonators are vacuum-packed in aluminium-foil bags. They may be stored for 2 years from the date of manufacture in an unbroken bag. Products in broken bags should be used within 3 months. NONEL products should be stored in a well ventilated explosive magazine.

54

Assurance of product compliance with EC Directive 93/15/EEC (Explosives for civil use)
Manufacturer: Dyno Nobel Europe, Gyttorp, S-713 82 Nora, Sweden Tel: +46 587 85000 Fax: +46 587 25660 Dyno Nobel Europe is a division of DYNO, Dyno Nobel.

Manufacturer’s representative within EU/EES (with regard to verification of conformity with essential safety demands): Nitro Nobel AB, Gyttorp, S-713 82, Nora, Sweden Tel: +46 587 85000 Fax: +46 587 25660 Product: Trademark: Non-electric blast initiation system including non-electric detonators. NONEL® detonators

EC Directive applicable to the product: Explosives for civil use (93/15/EEC). Standards or technical norms that apply: • Swedish Standard SS 499 07 07, edition 1, 1990: Initiation systems with non-electric signal conductors of low energy type - General requirements and testing. • SP Method 1939:28, edition 1, 1995: Type testing and testing of conformity to type of electric detonators and initiation systems with non-electric signal conductors of low energy type - Marking. • SP Method 1939:29, edition 1, 1995: Type testing and testing of conformity to type of electric detonators and initiation systems with non-electric signal conductors of low energy type - Manufacturer’s product specification design basis information. • SP Method 1939:30, edition 1, 1995: Type testing and testing of conformity to type of electric detonators and initiation systems with non-electric signal conductors of low energy type - Manufacturer’s instructions for use. EC type-examination certificate (ref. 158401) issued by Notified Body (ID No. 0402) for explosives for civil use: SP - Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Box 857, S-501 15 BorÂs, Sweden. Tel: +46 33 165000; Fax: +46 33 135502. NONEL® detonators comply in full with the product for which the EC type-examination certificate has been issued. The manufacturer’s representative within EU/EES assures at its own risk that the product to which this assurance refers complies with the essential safety demands in EC Directive 93/15/EEC. However, since the product is not intended for use in dangerous environments (e.g. those in which explosive mine gases occur), it does not meet the essential safety demands specified in clause II.1.h, enclosure I, of EC Directive 93/15/EEC.

Nitro Nobel AB
(Legal entity) Date Signature Position

Jan Carreman

Managing Director 55