Design of Progressive Cavity Pump Wells

Desheng Zhou, SPE, H. Jasmine Yuan, SPE, IHS INC.

Introduction
• About PCP
– Special type of rotary positive displacement pump – Flow through the pump is almost axial

• Advantages of PCPs
– Lower investment – Broader applications to fluid mixtures – Less maintenance – Higher efficiency

Introduction … • PCPs in Petroleum Industry – – – – – Single lobe pump Non-pulsating smooth flow Fluid viscosity will not degrade pump head Normally no scale deposition Low inertia of rotating parts • Previous studies focused on – Working mechanism – Pumping behavior .

Introduction … • Purpose of this study – Design of PCP in production system • Rotational speed design • Production rate design • Fluid viscosity effect .

A PCP Rotor A B d C e Rotor Center Rotor Axis A’ B’ C’ AA’ BB’ CC’ .

A PCP Stator Ps A S B C D A S’ d 4e A B C D .

A Rotor in Stator Rotor Cross Center Rotor Axis Stator Center Line 4e + + + .

Basic Correlations Cross-sectional areas of the rotor and the stator A rotor 1 = πd 2 4 Astator 1 2 = πd + 4ed 4 Fluid flow area at any place A f = 4ed .

Basic Correlations … Cavity moving speed along stator center line v = nPs n Ps rotational speed length of a cavity is the pitch length of the stator Flow rate in a PCP qt = A f v = 4ednPs .

Basic Correlations … Taking into account of the slip rate. actual discharge rate qa = qt − qs = 4ednPs − qs Volumetric efficiency of a PCP qa qs = 1− Ev = qt qt .

Basic PCP Design Correlation to calculate required rotational speed and total flow rate at pump intake qtl = n Qt qtl = nQ t qtl – Total flow rate at pump intake Qt – Theoretical displacement per revolution .

Production Rate Design qa = nQt − qs Where: Qs qs n qa - Theoretical displacement slip rate rotational speed actual flow rate .

ft H . B/D Qtn1/n0 Speed n0 = 100 RPM Qt Slip Lift Capacity.Rotational Speed Design q Speed n1 = 200 RPM Flow Capacity.

Rotational Speed Design … d pwh Pump Depth pi A pwf B pd p 0 qd q .

Rotational Speed Design 100(qa + qs ) n= Qt q = C0 + C1H + C2 H 2 + C3 H 3 + C4 H 4 + C5 H 5 2 3 4 5 = − + + + + qs (C1 H C2 H C3 H C 4 H C5 H ) .

Rotational Speed Design … q Qtn Flow Capacity. ft . B/D qa 100 RPM A Qt qs Ha H Lift Capacity.

Production Rate Design … Algorithm to Solve Total Flow Rate: • • Assume the initial slip qs(1) is zero. The flow rate for the inflow is the sum of the qa(1) and the separated gas at pump intake. The outflow is in the annular between sucker rods and tubing for wellhead driving or in tubing for bottom driving. Use the calculated total flow rate qa(1) to calculate the inflow from reservoir to the pump intake and the outflow from wellhead to pump discharge. Use Eq. 9 to calculate the total flow rate qa(1) at the PCP's intake for a given rotational speed n and theoretical flow rate Qt at 100 RPM. • .

If the head is greater than the lift capacity. Check the required head H(1) with the lift capacity of the pump. Calculate the volumetric slip rate qs(2) at the head H(1) from pump performance curves. and change the differential pressure to head H(1) by using the average fluid density through the pump. A longer PCP should be selected and start from step one. stop the calculation.Production Rate Design … • Obtain the differential pressure across the pump from the calculated inflow and outflow pressure profile. Otherwise. • • • . Use the slip qs(2) and repeat the process from step two until the difference of qs(n)-qs(n-1) is less than an acceptable value.

ft Ha S Qt qa qt q Flow Rate.Production Rate Design … H n0 =100 RPM 2n0 n 3n0 Well System Curve Head. B/D .

Production Rate Design … p pwf Pressure.psia Outflow Δpi Inflow qi Flow Rate. B/D q .

Viscosity Effect .on slip Viscosity effect on slip qs _ µ qs-µ qs µ- = - 32 µ qs Slip of viscous fluid Slip of water Viscous fluid viscosity in SSU qa = nQt − q s _ µ .

on slip … • Obtain pump’s theoretical capacity Qt at zero head • For a series of given heads. and H(i). and q(i) • Calculate the volumetric slips of water by qs(i) = Qt – q(i) at any head H(i). . q(2). H(2). obtain corresponding flow rates q(1).Viscosity Effect . H(1).

µ. • Calculate corrected flow rates. • Calculate the corrected slip rates qsµ(i) for the fluid. qc(i) = Qt – qs-µ(i). • Construct the corrected performance curve using H(i) and qc(i).on slip … • Calculate in-situ fluid viscosity of the fluid.Viscosity Effect . .

Cavity Filling … Ps ls π(d+4e) .Viscosity Effect .

Viscosity Effect .Cavity Filling … Ac t w .

Viscosity Effect .Cavity Filling Critical Pump Intake Pressure for Fluid Filling the Cavity (Newtonian Fluid) ls 1 µ (nQt − q s _ µ ) pin = 3 8.04 E 6 dt Where: l s = ( Ps2 + (π (d + 4e)) 2 )1 / 2 4ePs t= πl s .

Cavity Filling … Critical Speed for Fluid Completely Filling the cavity 8.Viscosity Effect .04 E 6dt pin + q s _ µ ) / Qt n=( ls µ 3 .

Conclusions • Algorithms and procedures to design pump rotational speed and production rate from well inflow and outflow performances are presented. • Simplified models to calculate the critical pump intake pressures are developed for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. . • A method to account for the effect of viscosity on pump volumetric slip is proposed.