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1

(Mechanical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14 HEAT TRANSFER Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 70

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks Use of heat transfer data book and steam tables is permitted in the examination hall. *****

1 (a) A brick wall of thermal conductivity 1.0 W/m.K is of 300 mm thickness, lined on the inner face with plaster of thermal conductivity 0.4 W/m.K and thickness 20 mm. If a temperature difference of 70 K is maintained between the two outer faces, what is the heat flow per unit area of the wall? Explain in brief with example the three modes of heat transfer and explain their governing laws. Determine the rate of heat flow through a spherical boiler wall which is 2 m in diameter and 2 m thick steel (k = 58 W/mK). The outside surface of boiler wall is covered with asbestos (k = 0.116 W/mK) 5 mm thick. The temperature of o outer surface and that of fluid inside are 50 C and 300 respectively. Take inner film resistance as 0.0023 K/W. What is lumped mass system? When is it applicable? Explain the method to find the heat transfer in a lumped mass body. -5 2 A thick bronze plat with the thermal diffusivity 0.86 x 10 m /s has thermal conductivity 26 W/mK is initially at a uniform temperature of 250 . Suddenly the surface is exposed to a coolant at 25 . Assuming the heat transfer coefficient 150 2 W/m K, determine the temperature 5 cm from the surface 10 min after the exposure. Water at 10 flows over a flat plate at 90 measuring 1 m x 1 m with a velocity of 2 m/s. Then find length of plate over which the flow is laminar and the rate of heat transfer over the entire plate. Explain the following dimensionless number and their physical significance: 8 m. (i) Reynolds number. (ii) Prandtl number. (iii) Nusselt number. Estimate the heat transfer from a 40 W incandescent bulb at 127 C to 27 C quiescent air. Approximate the bulb as a 50 mm diameter sphere. What percentage of the power is lost by free convection? What is the boundary layer thickness? What do you mean by laminar and turbulent boundary layers? What is laminar sublayer? Explain the flow regimes in two phase flow through a tube. What is the difference between slug flow regime and annular flow regime? Saturated steam at atmospheric pressure condenses on a horizontal copper tube of 25 mm inner diameter and 29 mm outer diameter through which water flows at the rate of 30 kg/min entering at 32 and leave at 72 . Calculate: (i) the condensing heat transfer coefficient. (ii) the inside heat transfer coefficient and (iii) the length of the tube. A shell and tube type steam condenser, employed in a large steam power plant, effects a heat exchange rate of 2200 MW. The condenser of a single pass shell and 32,000 tubes, each exceeding two passes. The water at the rate of 3.2 4 X 10 kg/sec passes through the tubes which are of thin wall and of diameter 30 m the steam condenser on the outer 2 surface on the tubes. The heat transfer coefficient on the steam side may be taken as 11500 W/m K. Steam condenses o o at 50 C while water enters the condenser at 20 C. Using LMTD correction factor method and NTU method, calculate the following: (i) outlet temperature of cooling water.(ii) length of tube per pass, take following properties of water: Cp = -6 2 4.18 kJ/ kgK ,u = 855 X 10 N-sec/m K = 0.613 W/mK, Pr = 5.83. What is the Stefan –Boltzmann law? Explain the concept of total emissive power of a surface. A double walled flask may be idealized be idealized to be equivalent to two infinite parallel plates. The emissivities of wall are 0.3 and 0.7 respectively. The space between them is evacuated A shied of polished aluminium of € = 0.05 is inserted between them. Find the reduction in hest transfer rate due to insertion of radiation shield.

o o

(b) 2

3 (a) (b)

4 (a) (b)

5 (a) (b)

6 (a) (b)

7

8 (a) (b)

*****

Code: 9A03505

2

(Mechanical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14 HEAT TRANSFER Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 70

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks Use of heat transfer data book and steam tables is permitted in the examination hall. *****

1 (a) (b) What are different modes of heat transfer? Explain them with suitable examples. 2 A 2000 heater element of are 0.04 m is protected on the backside with insulation 50 mm thick of thermal conductivity 1.4 W/mK and the front side by a plate 100 mm thick with thermal conductivity of 45 W/mK. The 2 backside is exposed to air at 5 with convection coefficient of 10 W/m K and the front is exposed to air at 15 with 2 convection coefficient of 250 W/m K. Then determine: (i) the temperature of the heater element. (ii) the heat flow into the room. A wall 2 cm thick is to be constructed from material which has an average thermal conductivity of 1.3 W/mK. The wall is to be insulated with material having an average thermal conductivity of 0.35 W/mK, so that the heat loss per square meter will not exceed 1830 W. Assuming that the inner and outer surface temperatures of the insulated wall are 1300°C and 30°C, calculate the thickness of insulation required. Define thermal diffusivity and discuss the effect of thermal diffusivity on the rate of heat propagation. A hot cylinder ingot 50 mm diameter and 200 mm long is taken out from the furnace at 800 C and dipped in water o o till its temperature fall to 500 c. Then it is directly exposed to air till its temperature falls to 100 C. Find the total time o o o required for the ingot reach the temperature from 800 to 100 C. Take the following: K = 60 W/m C, C = 200J/kg C, 3 2 2o p = 800kg/m , heat transfer coefficient in water = 200 W/kg m , heat transfer coefficient in air = 20 W/kg m C, temperature of air = 30 . Air at 30 is flowing over 2 cm long plate maintained at 70 at a velocity of 50 m/s. Determine heat transfer rate from the plate. What is the difference between Biot number and Nueselt number? Explain them along with the applications. What is hydraulic diameter? When it is used? 0 A plate of size 20 cm x 30 cm is used as water heater in process plant. The temperature of water is 20 C while the heater plate is maintained at 120 . Determine the heat transfer rate by free convection when 20 cm side is kept vertical. What is the effect of turbulence on condensation heat transfer coefficient? Why is turbulent flow of condensate hardly ever reached on horizontal tube? Saturated water at 100 flows through a 20 mm diameter copper tube with a average velocity of 2 m/s. The tube wall is maintained at 111 , then calculate the heat flux assuming nucleate boiling with the density of vapour 0.6 3 kg/m . Water, flowing in a steel pipe of diameter 0.02 m, is to be cooled from 40 to 30 . The velocity of water in the steel pipe is 1.5 m/s. The inside surface temperature of the steel pipe is maintained at 25 . The physical properties of 3 water at mean bulk temperature of the fluid are: specific heat = 4.174 kJ/kgK, density = 995 kg/m , thermal -4 conductivity = 0.623 W/mK, viscosity = 7.65 x 10 Pa.s. Calculate: (i) The convective heat transfer coefficient for water. (ii) The length of the tube required. Explain the following laws relevant to radiation heat transfer: Kirchhoff’s law. Wien’s displacement law. Planck’s law. Lambert Law.

o

2 (a)

(b) 3

4 (a) (b) 5 (a) (b)

6 (a) (b)

7

8 (a) (b) (c) (d)

*****

Code: 9A03505

3

(Mechanical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14 HEAT TRANSFER Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 70

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks Use of heat transfer data book and steam tables is permitted in the examination hall. *****

1 A plane wall 80 mm thick (K=0.15 W/m ) is insulated on one side while the other is exposed to environment at 4 3 90 .The rate of heat generation within the wall is 12 X 10 W/m . If the convective heat transfer coefficient 2 between the wall and the environment is 560 W/m , determine the maximum temperature to which the wall will be subjected. A wire of 6.5 mm diameter at a temperature of 60 is to be insulated by a material having k = 0.174 W/m 2 Convection heat transfer coefficient (ho) = 8.722 W/m . The ambient temperature is 20 . For maximum heat loss, what is the minimum thickness of insulation and heat loss per meter length? Also find percentage increase in heat dissipation. Sheets of brass and steel, each of thickness 1 cm, are placed in contact. The outer surface of brass is kept at 100 and the outer surface of steel is kept at 0 . What is the temperature of the common interface? The thermal conductivities of brass and steel are in the ratio of 2:1. How long will it take to form a thickness of 4 cm of ice on the surface of a lake when the air temperature is -6 ? K 3 of ice = 1.675 W/mK and its density = 920 kg/m . Take the latent heat of fusion of ice as 335 kJ/kg. Consider flow of water over a flat plate with a velocity of 2 m/s. The length of the plate is 5 m. The properties of 3 water are ρ = 1000 kg/m , µ = 0.0007975 Pa.s. Determine the following: Hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness at x = 0.1 m and 1 m. Shear stress at x = 0.1 m and 1 m. . Thermal boundary layer thickness at x = 0.1 m and 1 m (Pr = 5). Comment on these values. A long 20 cm diameter cylindrical shaft made of stainless steel 304 comes out of an oven at a uniform temperature of 600°C. The shaft is then allowed to cool in an environment chamber at 200°C with an average heat transfer 2 coefficient of 80 W/m °C. Determine the temperature at the center of the shaft 45 min after the start of the cooling process. Also, determine the heat transfer per unit length of the shaft during this time period. (k = 14.9 W/m-K, Cp 3 = 477 J/kgK, ρ = 7900 kg/m ). What are different factors influence the nucleate boiling? Explain them. 0 A vertical plate 500 mm high and maintained at 30 C is exposed to saturated steam at atmospheric pressure. Calculate the following: (i) the rate of heat transfer and (ii) the condensate rate per hour per meter of the plate width for film condensation. Hot gases enter a finned tube heat exchanger at 300 and leave at 100 . It is used to heat water at a flow rate of 1 kg/s from 35 to 125 . The specific heat of exhaust hot gas is 1000 J/kgK and the overall heat transfer 2 coefficient based on the gas side is Uh = 100 W/m K. Determine the required gas surface area using the NTU method. What is reciprocity theorem and derive the equation for the estimation view factors. An industrial furnace in the form of a black body emits radiation at 3000 K. calculate: (i) Monochromatic emissive power at 1 um wavelength. (ii) Wave length at which the emission is maximum. (iii) Maximum emissive power.

2

3 (a)

(b)

4 (a) (b) (c)

5

6 (a) (b)

7

8 (a) (b)

*****

Code: 9A03505

4

(Mechanical Engineering)

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks Use of heat transfer data book and steam tables is permitted in the examination hall. *****

1 (a) (b) Distinguish between conduction, convection and radiation modes of heat transfer. A composite slab consists of 250 mm fire clay brick (k=1.09 W/mK) inside, 100 mm fired earth brick (0.26 W/mK) and outer layer of common brick (0.6 W/mK) of thickness 50 mm. If inside surface is at 1200 and outside surface is at 100 , find: (i) heat flux. (ii) the temperature of the junctions and (iii) the temperature at 200 mm from the outer surface of the wall. Derive steady state general heat conduction equation without heat generation in spherical systems. A standard 5 cm steel pipe (50 W/mK) carrying steam is insulated with 7.5 cm layer of glass wool. The outer surface temperature of the pipe is 200 and that of the covering is 65 . Estimate the heat loss from pipe. In what medium is the lumped mass system analysis more likely to applicable in water or air? Why? A thermocouple, the junction of which can b approximated as a 1 mm diameter sphere is used to measure the 3 temperature of a gas stream. The properties of the junction are ρ = 8500 kg/m , Cp = 320 J/kgK and k = 35 W/mK. 2 The heat transfer coefficient between the junction and the gas is 210 W/m K. Determine how long it will take for the thermocouple to read 99% of the initial temperature difference. Air at a velocity of 3 m/s and at 29 flows over a flat plate along its length. The length, width and thickness of the plate are 100 cm and 50 cm respectively. The top surface of the plate is maintained at 100 . Calculate the heat loss by the plate and steady state conditions. The thermal conductivity of the plate may taken as 23 W/mK. Explain the Biot number and Fourier and their significance. Air at a velocity of 3 m/sec and 20 flows over a flat plate along its length. The length, width and thickness of the plate are 100 cm, 50 cm and 2 cm respectively. The top surface of the plate is maintained at 100 . Calculate the heat loss by the plate and bottom temperature of the plate for the steady state condition. Conductivity of the plate may be taken at 23 W/mK. Discuss the importance of hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers. What is Roshenow’s correlation in nucleate boiling? On what does the coefficient Csf depend? Explain different parameters influence the above correlation. The outer surface of a vertical cylinder drum of 300 mm diameter is exposed to saturated steam at 2 bar for condensation. If the surface temperature of the drum is maintained at 85 , Calculate: (i) the length of the drum. (ii) the thickness of the condensate layer to condense 70 kg/h of steam. Derive an expression to evaluate the mean temperature difference in a single pass counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger. A heat exchanger heats 25,000 kg/hr of water entering at 30 while cooling 20,000 kg/hr of water from 100 to 80 . Determine the area necessary for (i) parallel flow arrangement, (ii) counter flow arrangement. Overall heat 2 transfer coefficient may be assumed as 1,600 W/m K. Derive the expression for the heat exchange between two black surfaces by radiation. Consider the two large parallel plates one at 1000 K with the emissivity 0.8 and the other is at 300 K having an emissivity of 0.6. A radiation shield is place between them. The shield has emissivity as 0.1 on the side facing hot plate and 0.3 on the side facing the cold plate. Calculate the percentage reduction in radiation heat transfer as a result of radiation shield.

2 (a) (b)

3 (a) (b)

4 (a)

(b) 5 (a)

(b) 6 (a) (b)

7 (a) (b)

8 (a) (b)

*****

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