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PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE DESIGN

(Mechatronics)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

**Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
**

***** 1 (a) (b)

Max. Marks: 70

Define the factor of safety and explain the reason for using it in machine design. At a critical section in a shaft, the following stresses are induced bending stress = 60 MPa and torsional shear stress = 40 MPa. Determine the factor of safety according to: (i) Maximum normal stress theory. (ii) Maximum shear stress theory. (iii) Maximum principle strain theory. The proportional limits are a simple tension test is forced to be 300 MPa. Take Poisson’s ratio as 0.3. Discuss various methods of reducing stress concentrations. A machine component is subjected to fluctuating stress that varies from 40 to 100 N/mm2. The corrected endurance limit stress for machine component 270 N/mm2. The ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the material are 600 and 450 N/mm2 respectively. Find the factor of safety using: (i) Soderberg line and (ii) Goodman line. What are the assumptions made in the design of welded joints? Two plates of 7 mm thick are connected by a triple riveted lap joint of zig-zag pattern. Calculate the rivet diameters, rivet pitch and distance between rows of rivets for the joint. Also state the mode of failure of the joint. The safe working stresses are as follows. . Explain the reasons for preferring hollow shafts over solid shafts. A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment of 3000 N-m and a torque of 10,000 N-m. The shaft is made of 45C8 steel having ultimate tensile stress of 700 MPa. Assuming a factor of safety as 6, determine the diameter of the shaft.

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Code: 9A14503

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It is required to design a helical compression spring subjected to a maximum force of 1250 N. The deflection of the spring corresponding to the maximum force should be approximately 30 mm. The spring index can be taken as 6. The spring is made of patented and cold draw steel wire. The ultimate tensile strength and modules of rigidity of the spring material are 1090 and 81.370 N/mm2 respectively. The permissible shear stress for the spring wire should be taken as 50% of the ultimate tensile strength. Design the spring and calculate: Wire diameter. Mean coil diameter. Number of active coils. Total number of coils. Free length of the spring. Pitch of the coil. What are the advantages are disadvantages of the flat belt drives? Find the width of the belt necessary to transmit 10 kW to a pulley 30 mm diameter, if the pulley makes 1600 rpm and the coefficient of frictions between the belt and pulley is 0.22. Assume the angle of contact as 2100 and the maximum tension in the belt is not to exceed 8 N/mm width. The following particulars of a single reduction spur gear are given: Gear ratio = 10:1, distance between centers = 660 mm approximately, pinion transmits 500 kW at 1800 rpm; involute teeth of standard properties (addendum = m) with pressure angle of 22.50. Permissible normal pressure between teeth = 175 N per mm of width. Find: The nearest standard module if no interference is to occur. The number of teeth on each wheel. The necessary width of the pinion and The load on the bearings of the wheels due to power transmitted. How do you express the life of a bearing? What is an average (or) medium life? Design a journal bearing for a centrifugal pump from the following data: Load on the journal = 20,000 N, speed of the journal = 900 r.p.m, type of oil is SAE 10, for which the absolute viscosity at 550C is 0.017 kg/m-s, ambient temperature of oil = 15.50C, maximum bearing pressure for the pump = 1.5 N/mm2. Calculate also mass of the lubricating oil required for artificial cooling, if rise of temperature of oil be limited to 100C, heat dissipation coefficient = 1232 W/m2 0C. *****

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Code: 9A14503

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PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE DESIGN

(Mechatronics)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

**Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
**

***** 1 (a) (b)

Max. Marks: 70

What are the factors to be considered for the selection of materials for the design of machine elements? Discuss. Define and explain the following theories of failure. (i) Maximum principle stress theory. (ii) Maximum shear stress theory. (iii) Maximum strain theory. Write Soderberg’s equation and state its application to different types of loadings. A bar of circular cross section is subjected to alternating tensile force varying from a minimum of 200 kN to a maximum of 500 kN. It is to be manufactured of a material with an ultimate tensile strength of 900 MPa and an endurance limit of 700 MPa. Determine the diameter of bar using safety factor of 3.5 related ultimate tensile strength and 4 related to endurance limit and a stress concentrations factor of 1.65 for fatigue load. Use Goodman straight line as basis for design. What do you understand by the term welded joint? How it differs from riveted jointed? A double riveted lap joint with zig-zag riveting is to be designed for 13 mm thick plates. Assume = 80 MPa, =120 MPa and = 60 MPa. State how the joint will fail and find the efficiency of the joint. Define the terms: (i) Equivalent bending moment. (ii) Equivalent twisting moment. A line shaft is driven by means of a motor placed vertically below it. The pulley on the line shaft is 1.5 meter in diameter and belt has tensions 5.4 kN and 1.8 kN on the tight side and slack side of the belt respectively. Both those tensions may be assumed to be vertical. If the pulley be overhang from the shaft, the distance of the center line of the pulley from the center line of the bearing being 400 mm, find the diameter of the shaft. Assume maximum allowable shear stress of 42 MPa. Contd. in Page 2

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A helical compression spring made of oil tempered carbon steel, is subjected to a load which varies from 400 N to 1000 N. The spring index is 6 and the design factor of safety is 1.25. If the yield stress in shear is 770 MPa and endurance stress in shear is 350 MPa. Find Size of the spring wire. Diameter of the spring. Number of turns of the spring and Free length of spring. The compression of the spring at the maximum load is 30 mm. The modulus of rigidity for the spring material may be taken as 80 kN/mm2. Discuss briefly the various types of belts used for the transmission power. A crossed belt drive is to transmit 10 kW at 1200 rpm of the smaller pulley which is 250 mm in diameter. The velocity ratio is 2 and center distance is 1.2 m. It is desired to use a 6 mm thick leather belt with coefficient of friction equal to 0.25. If the permissible stress for the belt material is 2 N/mm2, determine the width of the belt. Take the mass density of the belt material as 1000 kg/m3. Write a short note on gear drive giving its merits and demerits. A bronze spur pinion rotating at 600 rpm drives a cast iron spear gear at a transmission ratio of 4:1. The allowable static stress for the bronze pinion and cast iron gear are 84 MPa 105 MPa respectively. The pinion has 16 standard 20 full depth involutes teeth of module 8 mm. The face width of both the gears is 90 mm. Find the power that can be transmitted from standpoint of strength. What are the rolling contact bearings? Discuss their advantages over sliding contact bearings. The load as the journal bearing is 150 kN due to turbine shaft 300 mm diameter running at 1800 rpm. Determine: (i) Length of the bearing if the allowable bearing press is 1.6 N/mm2. (ii) Amount of heat to be removed by the lubricant per minute if the bearing temperature is 600C and viscosity of the oil at 600C is 0.02 kg/m-s and the bearing clearance is 0.25 mm. *****

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Code: 9A14503

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PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE DESIGN

(Mechatronics)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

**Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
**

***** 1 (a)

Max. Marks: 70

(b)

Define the following properties of a material. (i) Ductility. (ii) Toughness. (iii) Hardness and (iv) Creep. The load on a bolt consists of an axial pull of 10 kN together with a transverse shear force of 5 kN. Find the diameter of bolt required according to: (i) Maximum principle stress theory. (ii) Maximum shear stress theory. (iii) Maximum principle strain theory. (iv) Maximum strain energy theory. Take permissible tensile stress at elastic limit = 100 MPa and Poison’s ratio = 0.3. What is meant by endurance strength of a material? How do the size and surface conditions of a component and type of load affect such strength? A steel rod is subjected to a reversed axial load of 180 kN. Find the diameter of the rod for a factor of safety of 2. Neglect column action. The material has an ultimate tensile strength of 1070 MPa and yield strength of 910 MPa. The endurance limit in reversed bending may be assumed to be one-half of the ultimate tensile strength. Other correction factors may be taken as follows: For axial loading = 0.7, for machined surface = 0.8, for size = 0.85, for stress concentration = 1.0. Show by neat sketch the various ways in which a riveted joint may fail. Determine the length of weld run for plate of size 120 mm wide and 15 mm thick to be welded to another plate by means of: (i) A single transverse weld and (ii) Double parallel fillet welds when the joint is subjected to variable loads. Contd. in Page 2

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What types of stresses are developed in shafts? How the shaft is designed when it is subjected to bending moment only? A machine shaft running at 600 rpm is supported on bearings 700 mm apart. 20 kW power is supplied to the shaft through a 500 mm diameter pulley, located at 250 mm to the right of the right bearing. The power is transmitted from the shaft through a spur gear of 200 mm diameter, which is located at 250 mm to the right of the left bearing. The belt drive is at an angle of 600 above the horizontal. The pulley weight is 700 N. The ratio of belt tensions is 2.5. The gear has 14

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involute teeth and meshes with another gear

located directly above the shaft. Determine the shaft diameter, assuming permissible shear stress as 45 MPa. 5 (a) (b) What type of stresses is induced in helical extension spring? It is required to design a helical compression spring subjected to a maximum force of 7.5 kN. The mean coil diameter should be 150 mm for space consideration. The spring rate 75 N/mm. The spring is made of oil-hardened and tempered steel wire with ultimate tensile strength of 1250 N/mm2. The permissible shear stress for the spring wire is 30 % of the ultimate tensile strength (G = 81370 N/mm2). Calculate: (i) Wire diameter and (ii) Number of active coils. An open belt drive is transmitting 15 kW of power. The diameter of the bigger pulley is ‘D’ and diameter of smaller pulley is ‘d’. The bigger pulley rotate at 480 rpm and smaller pulley rotates at 1480 rpm. The center distance between the pulleys is twice the diameter of the bigger pulley. The belt should operate at a velocity of 20 m/sec approximately and the stresses in the belt should not exceed 2.25 N/mm2. The density of leather is 0.95 g/cc and coefficient of friction is 0.35. The thickness of the belt is 5 mm. Calculate: (i) The diameter of pulleys. (ii) The length and width of the belt and (iii) The belt tensions. A pair of helical gears are to transmit 12 kW. The teeth are 200 stub in diameteral plane and have a helix angle of 450. The number of teeth on the pinion is 20 and it runs at 10,000 rpm. The teeth on the gear is 80. If the gears are made of cast steel having static strength of 100 MPa, determine the required face width from the strength point of view. (a) (b) What is meant by hydrodynamic lubrication? A shaft rotating at constant speed is subjected to variable load. The bearings supporting the shaft are subjected to stationary equivalent radial load of 3 kN for 10 percent of time, 2 kN for 20 percent of time, 1 kN for 30 percent of time and no load for remaining time of revolutions at 95 percent cycle. If the total life expected for the bearing is reliability, calculate dynamic load rating of the ball bearing. ***** Page 2 of 2

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Code: 9A14503

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PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE DESIGN

(Mechatronics)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

**Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
**

***** 1 (a) (b) 2 (a) (b)

Max. Marks: 70

What are the various properties of a material which can be considered while selecting for a machine element. Define load, stress and strain. Discuss the various types of stresses and strain. What is meant by stress concentration? How do you take into consideration in case of a component design? A steel rod is subjected to a reversed axial load of 180 kN. Find the diameter of the rod for a factor of safety of 2. Neglect column action. The material has an ultimate tensile strength of 1070 MPa and yield strength of 910 MPa. The endurance limit in reversed bending may be assumed to be one-half of the ultimate tensile strength. Other corrections factors may be taken as follows. For axial loading = 0.7, for machined surface = 0.8, for size = 0.85, for stress concentrations = 1.0. Enumerate different types of riveted joints and rivets. A plate 100 mm wide and 12.5 mm thick is to be welded to another plate by means of parallel fillet welds. The plates are subjected to a load of 50 kN. Find the length of the weld so that the maximum stress does not exceed 56 MPa. Consider the joint first under static loading and then under fatigue loading. How the shaft is designed when it is subjected to both bending moment and twisting moment? A steel spindle transmits 4 kW at 800 rpm. The angular deflection should not exceed 0.25 per meter of the spindle. If the modulus of rigidity for the material of the spindle is 84 GPa, find the diameter of the spindle and shear stress induced in the spindle. Explain the following terms of the spring. (i) Free length. (ii) Solid height. (iii) Spring rate. (iv) Stress factor. A rail wagon of mass 20 tonnes is moving with a velocity of 2 m/sec. If is brought to rests by two buffers with springs of 300 mm diameter. The maximum deflection of springs is 250 mm. The allowable shear stress in the spring material is 600 MPa. Design the spring for the buffers. Contd. in Page 2

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Distinguish between open and cross belt drives. Design a rubber belt to drive a dynamo generating 20 kW at 2050 rpm and fitted with a pulley 200 mm diameter. Assume dynamo efficiency to be 85%. Allowable stress for belt = 2.1 MPa. Density of rubber = 1000 kg/m3 Angle of contact for dynamo pulley = 1650 Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley = 0.3. A pair of helical gears are to transmit 15 kW. The teeth are 200 stub in diameteral plan and have a helix angle of 450. The pinion runs at 10,000 rpm and has 80 mm pitch diameter. The gear has 320 mm pitch diameter. If the gears are made of cast steel having allowable static strength of 100 MPa; determine a suitable module and face width from static strength considerations and check the gears for wear given = 618 MPa.

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Explain the following terms as applied to journal bearings. (i) Bearing characteristic number. (ii) Bearing modulus. A journal bearing 100 mm in diameter and 150 mm long carries a radial load of 7 kN at 1200 rpm. The diameteral clearance is 0.075 mm. Find the viscosity of the oil being used at the operating temperature, if 1.2 kW power is wasted in friction.

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