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B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

**HEAT TRANSFER IN BIOPROCESSES
**

(Biotechnology)

Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks

Use of Heat and Mass Transfer data book is permitted in the examination hall

Max. Marks: 70

***** 1 Derive an expression for the rate of heat transfer through a composite concentric pipe, consisting of three heterogeneous layers having thermal conductivity; K1, K2 and K3 respectively. A 0.1 in thick duraluminium annular fin with an external diameter of 3 in is attached to a tube having an external diameter of 2 in. The tube wall temperature is 150 F and the tube is surrounded by a fluid of 100 F with a heat transfer coefficient of 75 Btu/h ft2 F. Calculate the fin efficiency and the rate of heat transfer from the fin. Prove by dimensional analysis that the rate of heat transfer is a function of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. A single pass shell and tube heat exchanger is used to heat a dilute salt solution used in large scale protein chromatography. 25.5 m3 h-1 solution passes through 41 parallel tubes inside the heat exchanger, the internal diameter of the tube is 1.5 cm and the tube length is 4 m. The viscosity of the bulk salt solution is 10-3 kg m-1s-1, the density is 1010 kg m-3, the average heat capacity is 4 kJ kg-1 -1 and thermal conductivity is 0.64 Wm-1 -1. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient. With a neat boiling curve, explain the regimes of boiling. Highlight on the significance. Why is mean temperature difference estimated in the heat exchanger design? Which flow arrangement gives maximum efficiency in shell sand tube heat exchanger and Why? What is an evaporator? Detail on the different types of feeding systems followed in a multiple effect evaporator. Differentiate falling film and climbing up evaporator mechanisms. Detail on the analogy between heat and momentum transfer. Explain how the same can be extended to mass transfer.

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Code: 9A23501

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B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

**HEAT TRANSFER IN BIOPROCESSES
**

(Biotechnology)

Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks

Use of Heat and Mass Transfer data book is permitted in the examination hall

Max. Marks: 70

1

***** A plane brick wall, 25 cm thick, is faced with 5 cm thick concrete layer. If the temperature of the exposed brick face is 70 and that of the concrete is 25 , find out the heat lost per hour through a wall of 15 m by 10 m. Also, determine the interface temperature. Thermal conductivity of the brick and concrete are 0.7 W/m.K and 0.95 W/m.K respectively. Derive an expression for the steady state heat transfer by conduction for a plane wall. Assume that at steady state there can be neither accumulation nor depletion of heat within the wall. Prove by dimensional analysis that Nusselts number is a function of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. What is heat transfer coefficient? Explain its significance, and derive a correlation for evaluating the heat transfer coefficient. Explain the terms: (a) Pool boiling or sub cooled boiling. (b) Drop wise condensation. Draw the schematic of 1-1, shell and tube heat exchanger. Mention its construction, working details. List out the types of flow pattern followed in the same. Detail on the following (a) Steam economy in evaporators. (b) Steam capacity in evaporators. A fermenter used for antibiotic production must be kept at 27 . After considering the oxygen demand of the organism and the heat dissipation from the stirrer, the maximum heat transfer rate required is estimated at 550 KW. Cooling water is available at 10 ; the exit temperature of the cooling water is calculated using an energy balance as 25 . The heat transfer coefficient for the cooling water is calculated as 14000 Wm-2 C-1. It is proposed to install a helical cooling coil inside the fermenter; the outside diameter of the cooling coil pipe is 8 cm, the pipe thickness is 5 mm and the thermal conductivity of steel is 60 Wm-1 C-1. An average internal fouling factor of 8500 Wm-2 C-1 is expected, the fermenter side surface of the coil is kept relatively clean. What length of cooling coil is required?

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Code: 9A23501

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B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

**HEAT TRANSFER IN BIOPROCESSES
**

(Biotechnology)

Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks

Use of Heat and Mass Transfer data book is permitted in the examination hall

Max. Marks: 70

1

***** What is thermal conductivity? How does thermal conductivity vary with temperature for solid metallic substances and gases? A wall of an oven consists of three layers of brick. The inside is built of 8 in. of brick fire brick, k= 0.68 Btu/(hr) (ft2) ( F/ft), surrounded by 4 in. of insulating brick, k = 0.15, and an outside layer of 6 in. of building brick, k = 0.40. The oven operates at 1600 F and it is anticipated that the outer side of the wall can be maintained at 125 F by the circulation of air. How much heat will be lost per square foot of surface and what are the temperatures at the interface of the layers? Determine the dimensions of the following quantities. (a) Heat transfer coefficient. (b) Mass velocity. (c) Heat capacity. (d) Viscosity. (e) Thermal conductivity. A suitable fermenter of diameter 5 m contains an internal helical coil for heat transfer. The fermenter is mixed using a turbine impeller 1.8 m diameter operated at 60 rpm. The fermentation broth has the following properties. μb = 5 X 10-3 Pas; ρ = 1000 kg m-3; Cp = 4.2 kJ kg-1 C-1; Kfb= 0.70 Wm-1 C-1; Neglecting viscosity changes at the wall of the coil, calculate the heat transfer coefficient. Explain the terms: (a) Nucleate boiling. (b) Film condensation. What are heat exchangers? Classify them. With the help of a neat sketch, explain the working and construction of a 1-2 exchanger. Draw the schematic of multiple effect evaporator mentioning all its parts and its feeding conditions. (a) Detail on the relationships between heat and mass transfer. (b) General consideration for design of continuous sterilizer. *****

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Code: 9A23501

4

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

**HEAT TRANSFER IN BIOPROCESSES
**

(Biotechnology)

Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks

Use of Heat and Mass Transfer data book is permitted in the examination hall

Max. Marks: 70

1

***** Derive an expression for the rate of heat transfer through a composite plane wall consisting of two heterogeneous layers having thermal conductivity; K1, K2 and K3 respectively. A furnace wall is constructed of firebrick 15 cm thick. The temperature inside the wall is 700 ; the outside temperature is 80 . If the thermal conductivity of the brick is 0.3 Wm-1K-1, what is the rate of heat loss through 1.5 m2 of wall surfaces? Check the dimensional consistency of the following empirical equation for a heat transfer coefficient. hi = G0.8 k0.67 Cp0.33 D-0.2 μ-0.47 Where, hi : heat transfer coefficient, G : mass velocity, K : thermal conductivity, Cp : specific heat, D : diameter and μ : absolute viscosity. Heat is transferred from one fluid to second fluid across a metal wall. The film coefficients are 1.2 and 1.7 kWm-2K-1. The metal is 6 mm thick and has a thermal conductivity of 19 Wm-1K-1. On one side of the wall there is a scale deposit with a fouling factor estimated at 830 Wm-2K-1. What is the overall heat transfer coefficient? Derive an expression for determining the film condensation coefficient for vertical surface for a unit thickness. Describe the terms: (a) LMTD. (b) Double pipe heat exchanger. (c) Pin fin heat exchangers. Explain with a neat schematic diagram of feeding mechanisms followed in a multiple effect evaporator. List out the application of heat transfer in bioprocessing. Highlight in terms of industrial applications. *****

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