Endangered Ecosystem

Name : Siti Farahnasihah binti Abdullah Class : 408



and they are also important for their aesthetic appeal. One of the most worrying factors today is the massive destruction of the rainforests of the world. they act as filters of carbon dioxide. as well as being one of th e major contributory factors of the Holocene mass extinction that is on going. parallels can clearly be observed in the deforestation that is occurring in most developing countries. due to the depletion of their natural habitat. throughout the earlier part of the medieval age. But later. However. Trees are vitally important to the environment. Europeans used to live amongst vast areas of forested land. the trees on our planet are being depleted at a very fast rate. Today. which is affecting the biodiversity adversely. They are important for the climate of the Earth. it was in the mid-1800s that forests began to be destroyed at an unprecedented rate. According to some estimates.Deforestation  Trees are one of the most important aspects of the planet we live in. As a matter of fact. wild game too began disappearing. more than 50 percent of the tree cover has disappeared due to human activity. which the Europeans largely depended upon for their nutritional requirements. animals. they began deforestation at such a high rate that they started to run out of wood for cooking and heating. they are habitats and shelters to millions of species. and of course for us humans. Also. . Although humans have been practicing deforestation since ages.

2) Disruption of the Water Cycle: Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. Large tracts of land will be rendered permanently impoverished due to soil erosion. 2) To Grow Crops:Forests are also cut down in order to clear land for growing crops. 4) Flooding and Drought: One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. and paper products. 4) Used for Fuel: Trees are cut down in developing countries to be used as firewood or turned into charcoal. Because of this. Due to massive deforestation. When these trees are cut down it results in the climate getting drier in that area. the soil will be totally devoid of essential nutrients. due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. furniture. it results in exposing the soil to the sun. which flow with the rainwater into waterways. about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. resulting in the land becoming useless. Even though tropical rainforests make up just 6 percent of the surface area of the Earth. infertile. However. Ultimately. this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted. it washes away the rest of the nutrients. The outcome of which is the extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale. They draw up water via their roots. remains inside the plants. In addition. when there is rainfall.What are the Causes of Deforestation? 1) Used for Urban and Construction Purposes: The cutting down of trees for lumber that is used for building materials. for instance. what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direction association with carbon . When forests are cut down. merely replanting trees may not help in solving the problems caused by deforestation. for by the time the trees mature. which are used for cooking and heating purposes. Forests are also cleared in order to accommodate expanding urban areas. Climate Change: It is well known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests. cultivation in this land will also become impossible. What are the Effects of Deforestation? 1) Erosion of Soil: When forest areas are cleared. 3) To Create Grazing Land: Forests are cut down in order create land for grazing cattle. about 80-90 percent of the entire species of the world exist here. 3) Loss of Biodiversity: The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented. which is then released into the atmosphere. making it very dry and eventually.

. many of the trees are burnt or they are allowed to rot.dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. since they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. When deforestation occurs. Trees act as a major storage depot for carbon. fats. which results in releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide. in turn. which is then used to produce carbohydrates. and proteins that make up trees. This. leads to greater concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.


their potency increases significantly. A very common one is asthma. although it is still harmful when not in a 'cocktail'. but these three are the main effects of burning of fossil fuels. which used to be a component of petrol quite some time back inhibits mental development. and many people have been fighting this all over the world. including me. This effect is known as 'Cocktail Effect'. Like a cocktail is more appealing than just simple beverage (although. Greenhouse Effect is necessary for life. it is causing a rise in temperature on the Earth's surface (Global Warming). actually there are so many reasons that one could come up with. Lead. but because the quantity of greenhouse gases has increased significantly. some may disagree) these gases in combination are much more harmful than they are alone. almost all the countries have banned petrol with lead and unleaded petrol and diesel have taken it's place. 2) Many of these gases have adverse effects on human health and may cause pulmonary or non-pulmonary diseases. 3) Sometimes. Sulphur dioxide exhibits this property. . These are only a few of the effects of burning fossil fuels. the gases alone are not very harmful but when they are mixed. and contribute towards Greenhouse Effect.Burning of Fossil Fuels The effects of these pollutants are: 1) They are usually greenhouse gases. which again has many other effects. Thankfully.

But over fertilizing with high-quality fertilizers can also lead to root burn due to an overabundance of soluble salts in the soil. Although the environmental impact is considerably larger from the overuse of fertilizers on farms -.it's also a problem from fertilizer use in home gardens.simply due to the amount they use -. over fertilizing rabbiteye blueberries results in lower quality fruit. The University of Georgia reports that too much fertilizer on turfgrass can increase the likelihood that the grass will develop brown patch. It is not organic and some plant roots are sensitive to it. too much fertilizer can negatively affect their health. Additionally. using up oxygen that fish and other animals need. wilted and are often unable to flower. The increased vigor of the foliage can attract unwanted insects. the roots may not be able to carry any water to the plant. 3) Diminished Plant Health: While the addition of nutrients found in fertilizer increases plant growth. according to the University of Georgia Extension. ammonia released by fertilizer is harmful to fish.Overuse of Fertilizers in Intensive Farming 1) Root Burn : Root burn is a condition in which the roots of plants suffer damage from the overuse of fertilizers. more lush leaves because of over fertilization may attract more pests. The misuse of fertilizer often has negative effects on fish and other aquatic animals. Algae feed off of the nutrients in fertilizers. causing pollution. Plants that suffer from root burn become stunted. a type of fungus . The salts essentially burn the roots. and even sometimes the foliage. For example. which is a source of nitrogen. In severe cases of root burn. 2) Environmental Issues: Excessive fertilizer that washes into storm drains eventually makes its way into bodies of water. low-quality fertilizers often contain Urea. such as rivers and lakes. According to Optimara/Holtkamp Greenhouses. While Washington State University reports that over fertilizing sunflowers can cause weak stems and fewer flowers. according to licensed arborist Dennis Panu. such as aphids. which feed on the leaves. 4) Pests and Diseases: Plants that produce greener.

. Some of the trash we dispose of is toxic if consumed by animals. Improper dumping pollutes their natural habitats and can lead to the death of fish. They‘d probably have some interesting stories to tell. Other ways people can be injured from trash include stepping on nails and cutting yourself on sharp. cups and plastic bags do a good job attracting mosquitoes. Did you know that mosquitoes are the most dangerous creature on earth? They are responsible for more than 300 million cases of malaria each year. birds and small animals. 4) Drainage: When you get the chance. and between 1 and 3 million deaths due to malaria. 5) Ugly Scenario: Improper domestic waste management is evident in most areas because of the unsightly appearance of trash. 2) Human Injury: Broken glass on sidewalks and roads has long been a significant hazard for children. 3) Diseases: Certain types of solid waste like broken bottles. 6) Wastage of Land Space: Large scale illegal dumping can create a space where nobody wants to live or use for a constructive purpose like farming. it can cause blockages to the city‘s drainage and sewage system. and if these toxic wastes end up in water bodies. ditches or sewers. They give mosquitoes the perfect breeding ground whenever it rains. In places where this is a major problem there is little to no tourism because of the ugliness. ask a civil engineer about the importance of proper drainage and flood management in populated areas. it becomes dangerous to aquatic life. A study in Philadelphia revealed that 15% of children under the age of 18 treated in a hospital emergency room for lacerations were injured by broken glass.Dumping of Domestic Waste and Industrial Waste 1) Wildlife: Perhaps one of the greatest concerns to environmentalists today is that of our wildlife. When solid wastes are dumped into gutters. rusty metal.


0 Pollution .2.

2.1 Air Pollution .

Hydro-carbons (HC) . Lung Disease. Industry (eg. Lead pollution from vehicle emissions is declining due to the introduction of unleaded fuels and reductions in lead levels in leaded fuel. Heart Disease. Note that hydrocarbons can enter the environment both as evaporative emissions from vehicle fuel systems. . Increased mortality. buildings and other materials. Lead retards learning in children and the development of their nervous system. It is also released from industrial processes and waste incineration Ozone also damages plants.chemical compounds composed of Hydrogen and Carbon atoms Exposure can cause headaches or nausea. Lead effects almost every organ in the body. Asthma Attacks. Exposure to high levels of NO2 may lead to:   Lung damage. A range of health effects may result depending on the extent of exposure. factories). Most fuel combustion processes result in the release of hydro carbons to the environment. Young children are particularly susceptible.Air Particle Index Source      Internal combustion engines (eg. lining of the respiratory tract. When inhaled Carbon Monoxide enters the bloodstream and disrupts the supply of oxygen to the body‘s tissues. Some may also damage plants. whether it is inhaled or ingested. Increased hospital admissions for asthma and respiratory problems.The Pollutants. and causes eye irritation. Sources and Effects Pollutant Particles (API) . Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)   Motor Vehicles are the biggest contributors. and Other health problems. Cigarette smoke. or Respiratory Disease. It has also been linked to:   Ozone (O3) Formed by various complex chemical reactions involving the exposure of the oxides of nitrogen and some hydro-carbons. Lead (Pb) Is largely derived from the combustion of lead additives in motor fuels as well as lead smelting. Human Health Effects Long term exposure is linked to:      Lung Cancer. Other combustion processes. while some compounds may cause cancer. Ozone effects the    lining of the lungs. They are also a component of the smoke from wood fires. and Bushfires. cars and trucks). Burning wood. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Motor vehicle exhaust and burning of materials such as coal. oil and wood. The largest fuel sources are natural gas and petrol. Other atmospheric sources of lead include waste incineration and renovation of old houses (from leaded paint). Ozone is the main ingredient of photochemical smog in summer and early autumn. or in exhaust emissions.

Replace energy-hungry incandescent lights with compact florescent light bulbs. 28. 6. Don‘t use your wood stove or fireplace on days with unhealthy air. Microwave or use a toaster oven for small meals. At home 12. 15. Recycle paper. look for energy star appliances. metals and organic materials. 24. 10. Use washable dishes. plastic. 18. 14. 25. particularly on days with unhealthy air. Use a propane or natural gas barbecue rather than a charcoal one. 5. 22. look for the most efficient.Solutions On the road 1. 3. Maintain your vehicle and keep your tires properly inflated. 11. Walk or ride a bike when possible. 2. 26. 8. Use an EPA-approved wood burning stove or fireplace insert. Ask your energy supplier for a home audit and inquire about alternative energy solutions like solar or wind. Wash laundry in cold water and line dry. 21. Don‘t heat your home with a gas stove. . Add insulation to your home. 17. Take public transportation.23. 19. When in the market for a new car. 16. Opt for a fan instead of air conditioning. 4. Report smoking vehicles to 1-800-END-SMOG. 7. 27. lowest-polluting vehicle or even a zero-emission electric car. Travel lightly and remove any unnecessary items that may weigh down your vehicle. When ready to replace. Turn the lights off when you leave a room. accelerate gradually and obey the speed limit. 29. utensils and fabric napkins rather than disposable dinnerware. Use a programmable thermostat and set it to 78°F in the summer and 68°F in the winter. Support the Smog Check Program. Use a surge protector for multiple appliances and turn it off when products are not in use. Have your gas appliances and heater regularly inspected and maintained. Limit idling your vehicle to no more than 30 seconds. 20. Install low-flow shower heads. When driving. 13. 9. Drive less. Organize and condense errands into one trip.

Use durable reusable grocery bags and keep them in your car so you‘re never caught off guard. Paint with a brush instead of a sprayer. and fax machines.30. Use a rake or broom instead of a leaf blower. Bring your lunch to work to avoid mid-day outings. 38. Eat locally. 32. 44. Let your elected representatives know you support action for cleaner air. 50. 36. Carpool. Eliminate use of toxic chemicals at home. Store all solvents in airtight containers. Insulate your water heater and any accessible hot water pipes. 31. Dress for the weather and adjust layers before adjusting the thermostat. Plant a tree! They filter the air and provide shade. Start a recycling program. 41. computers. 33. 34. Turn off office equipment. Harness the power of the sun: open the blinds and turn off the lights. shop at farmers markets and buy organic products. opt for natural substitutes. Print and photocopy on both sides of paper. printers. 47. Telecommute. after hours. 39. Buy products from sustainable sources such as bamboo and hemp. At Work 43. 45. 40. 46. 49. 37. 35. Use water-based cleaning products that are labeled ‗zero VOC‘. 48. Choose products that use recycled materials. Use an electric or push lawn mower. . 42.

nickel. and crude oil processing produce this gas. and in chemical industries (fertilizer production). utility plants). the smelting of metal sulfate ore. Natural processes such as bacterial action in soil. utility factories. produces pure metal.4 percent of sulfur dioxide is produced by industrial combustion. sea spray. 69. and forms smog. Overall. Sulfur dioxide can also be emitted into the atmosphere by natural disasters or means. This gas attacks the membranes of the respiratory organs and increases the likelihood of respiratory illness.7 percent is caused by transportation Oxides of Nitrogen: Oxides of nitrogen is a term used to describe any compound of nitrogen with any amount of oxygen atoms. prudent gas released as a by-product of combusted fossil fuels containing sulfur. This ten percent of all sulfur dioxide emission comes from volcanoes. This causes the release of sulfur dioxide. A variety of industrial processes. In iron and steel production. Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are all oxides of nitrogen. Only 3. plankton. Nitrogen oxide can spread far from the location it was originated by acid rain. It also contributes to ozone damage. and lightning make up five percent of nitrogen oxide emission. and 32 percent belongs to industrial combustion Nitrogen Oxide: Nitrogen oxide is a dangerous gas by itself. . and copper are commonly obtained by this process. volcanic action. and rotting vegetation. Transportation makes up 43 percent. forest fires. These gases are by-products of firing processes of extreme high temperatures (automobiles. Metals such as zinc.The Formation of Acid Rain The Sources Sulphur Dioxide: Sulfur dioxide is a colourless. such as the production of iron and steel.

In the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. farmers can replace them by adding nutrient-rich fertilizer. over 1. organisms that cause disease can infect the tree through its injured leaves. such as insect infestations. It can also dissolve toxic substances. All of Norway‘s major rivers have been damaged by acid rain. local waters grow suddenly more acidic when the snow melts in the spring. such as aluminum and mercury. when necessary. Once weakened. acid rain dissolves and washes away nutrients needed by plants. In the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. can absorb and neutralize large amounts of acid. Agriculture Most farm crops are less affected by acid rain than are forests. . such as those in the Midwestern United States. a quarter of the lakes and ponds are acidic.Effects of Acid Rain Soil In soil. If many such spots form. the water in some lakes now has a pH value of less than 5 as a result of acid rain. acid rain slows the growth of plants. causing brown dead spots. Surface of Water Acid rain falls into and drains into streams. buffer acid only briefly. and cold temperatures. Acid rain has been blamed for the decline of spruce forests on the highest ridges of theAppalachian Mountains in the eastern United States. Mountain farms are more at risk—the thin soils in these higher elevations cannot neutralize so much acid. If excessive amounts of nutrients have been leached out of the soil. others. Spruce and fir forests at higher elevations. Most natural waters are close to chemically neutral. lakes. Also. where the trees literally touch the acid clouds. Where there is snow cover in winter. Trees By removing useful nutrients from the soil. which are naturally present in some soils. neither acidic nor alkaline: their pH is between 6 and 8. a tree loses some of its ability to make food through photosynthesis. half of the trees are damaged from acid rain and other forms of pollution. It also attacks trees more directly by eating holes in the waxy coating of leaves and needles. The deep soils of many farm regions. and many have lost their brook trout and other fish. and marshes. This means they are at least ten times more acidic than they should be. In the Black Forest of southwestern Germany. drought. seem to be most at risk. Some soils are quite alkaline and can neutralize acid deposition indefinitely. especially thin mountain soils derived from granite or gneiss. In the middle Appalachian Mountains. adding crushed limestone to the soil to neutralize acid.300 streams are afflicted. severely reducing salmon and trout populations. especially trees. trees are more vulnerable to other stresses. freeing these toxins to pollute water or to poison plants that absorb them. Farmers can prevent acid rain damage by monitoring the condition of the soil and.

Scientists have found that populations of snails living in or near water polluted by acid rain are declining in some regions. In the air. The eggs these birds lay have weakened shells because the birds are receiving less calcium from snail shells. Human Health The acidification of surface waters causes little direct harm to people. and thus tend to slow down global warming. frog populations may also decline.0. Freshwater clams and mayfly young.Plants and Animals The effects of acid rain on wildlife can be far-reaching. an entire ecosystem may become endangered.000 lakes have been polluted by mercury released from soils damaged by acid rain. are thought to be especially damaging to the lungs. If a population of one plant or animal is adversely affected by acid rain. tragic. However. In The Netherlands songbirds are finding fewer snails to eat. and residents have been warned to avoid eating fish caught in these lakes. Land animals dependent on aquatic organisms are also affected. toxic substances leached from soil can pollute local water supplies. are deteriorating due to acid pollution.5. some less so. metal. automobiles. Scientists believe that acid pollution may have delayed the onset of warming by several decades in the middle of the 20th century. In Sweden. especially for people who already have asthma. Acid Rain and Global Warming Acid pollution has one surprising effect that may be beneficial. as many as 10. begin dying when the water pH reaches 6. Below a pH of 4. and the Taj Mahal in Agra. It is safe to swim in even the most acidified lakes. bronchitis. Ultimately. . Frogs can generally survive more acidic water. Solid particles of sulfates. or any other material exposed to weather for long periods. acids join with other chemicals to produce urban smog. The corrosive damage can be expensive and. statues. unable to support any wildlife. Both the Parthenon in Athens. Human Made Structures Acid rain and the dry deposition of acidic particles damage buildings. which can irritate the lungs and make breathing difficult. animals that feed on that organism may also suffer.0. water is nearly sterile. a class of minerals derived from sulfur dioxide. Fish eggs of most species stop hatching at a pH of 5. or other respiratory diseases. Some species that live in water are very sensitive to acidity. Sulfates in the upper atmosphere reflect some sunlight out into space. for instance. Greece. and other structures made of stone. but if their supply of mayflies is destroyed by acid rain. India. in cities with very historic buildings.

Some scientist think that at least of 50 % reduction is required. West Virginia. Transportation costs are much higher. Ohio. To actually reverse the trend. If a complete switch to low sulfur coal is made. many coal miners will lose jobs. High sulfur coal (2-4% sulfur) is currently mined in the Midwestern states of Illinois. the amount of acid rain will have to be reduced much further. and Kentucky. The rate of acidifying lakes has also slowed as well. In the Northeast there has been a steady decrease in the sulfate content of the air and rain. . These decreases are the result of the 1975 Clean Air Act and and the 1990 Amendments.Solutions for Acid Rain Progress in Controlling Emissions: Some progress has already been made in slowing the emission of sulfur oxides. Low sulfur coal (0-1% sulfur) is surface mined in the Western states of Wyoming and Montana. Indiana. Use Low Sulfur Coal: The amount of sulfur oxides emitted by a power plant can be reduced by burning coal with a very low percentage of sulfur present.

The exhaust gases are forced through a spray of water containing lime (calcium hydroxide).Use Scrubbers: Scrubbers remove 80-95 percent of the sulfur oxides. There are then problems in getting rid of the liquid sludge that is produced. The sulfur dioxide gas reacts with the lime to produce a solid of calcium sulfate. They increase the electric generating costs by 10-15 %. Graphic on left. Graphic below. The sulfur dioxide gas reacts with the lime to produce a solid of calcium sulfate. Graphic on lower left. Here it is pumped into a pond for temporary storage. Scrubbers are like "liquid" filters for the gases resulting from combustion. . Certain types do not remove nitrogen oxides. They are costly to retrofit to existing power plants.

The limestone combines with sulfur dioxide to produce a solid ash (mostly gypsum. The turbulent mixing of coal and air allows the combustion to occur at a lower temperature which reduces the formation of nitrogen oxides.Multistage Burner Limestone injection multiple burning is still in the development and testing stages.Fluidized Bed Combustion: In the system known as atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. Crushed limestone is injected into a boiler burning powdered coal at lower than normal temperatures. The combustion chamber has many boiler tubes which convert water into steam. This process removes 70 % of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides. This process removes 90 % of the sulfur oxides and 15-35 % of the nitrogen oxides. a turbulent bed of pulverized coal and limestone is suspended by an upward blast of air. The limestone captures the sulfur oxides by converting them to calcium sulfate which is a solid rather than a gas. . calcium sulfate). This process also burns the coal more efficiently by about 5 %. Limestone Injection .

2 Water Pollution .2.

we cook.The Pollutants Industrial waste Industries cause huge water pollution with their activities. it can cause illnesses such as asbestosis and many types of cancer. These come mainly from: 1) Sulphur – This is a non-metallic substance that is harmful for marine life. are often washed from the soils to nearby water bodies. . Think about how we use water in schools. When inhaled. It is also harmful for fish and marine birds. do laundry. 6)Sewage and waste water Everyday. 5) Oils – Oils forms a thick layer on the water surface because they do not dissolve in water. They can cause eutrophication. wash our cars. This can stop marine plants receiving enough light for photosynthesis. A classic example is the BP oil spill in 2012 with killed thousands of animal species. It is even more poisonous. 2) Asbestos – This pollutant has cancer-causing properties. 4) Nitrates & Phosphates– These are found in fertilizers. hospitals and public places. shower and do many things that use water. 3) Lead and Mecury – These are metallic elements and can cause environmental and health problems for humans and animals. flush the toilet. which can be very problematic to marine environments. It is usually very hard to clean it up from the environment once it get into it because it in non-biodegradable.

Fertilizers can increase the amounts of nitrates and phosphates in the water. where toxic substances can build up over a period of time. Four hundred million tons of soil are carried by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico each year. The resulting hot water can cause thermal pollution. Farms also frequently use large amounts of chemical fertilizers that are washed into the waterways and damage the water supply and the life within it. These substances are particularly dangerous to life in rivers. preventing aquatic plants from photosynthesizing. Excessive amounts of sediment in waterways can block sunlight. which can lead to the process of eutrophication. both of which are toxic pollutants. creating rainfall which contains sulfuric acid. Waste and sewage generated by industry can get into the water supply. Thermal pollution can have a disasterous effect on life in an aquatic ecosystem as temperature increaces decreace the amount of oxygen in the water. Water can become contaminated with toxic or radioactive materials from industry. This sudden introduction of organic material increaces the amount of nitrogen in the water.    2) Business:   Clearing of land can lead to erosion of soil into the river. and can also lead to eutrophication. streams and lakes. Allowing livestock to graze near water sources often results in organic waste products being washed into the waterways. streams and lakes to despose of waste heat. The sulfur dioxide reacts with the water in the atmosphere. As acid precipitation falls into lakes. and can suffocate fish by clogging their gills. introducing large organic pollutants into the ecosystem. Acid precipitation is caused when the burning of fossil fuels emits sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. thereby reducing the number of animals that can survive there. mine sites and abandoned hazardous waste sites. streams and    . A great deal of this siltation is due to runoff from the exposed soil of agricultural fields. Many industrial and power plants use rivers.Sources of Water Pollution 1) Farming:  Farms often use large amounts of herbicides and pesticides.

ponds it can lower the overall pH of the waterway, killing vital plant life, thereby affecting the whole food chain. It can also leach heavy metals from the soil into the water, killing fish and other aquatic organisms. Because of this, air pollution is potentially one of the most threatening forms of pollution to aquatic ecosystems. 3) Homes:

Sewage generated by houses or runoff from septic tanks into nearby waterways, introduce organic pollutants that can cause eutrophication. Fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides used for lawn care can runoff and contaminate the waterway. As with agriculteral fertilizers, home fertilizers can lead to the eutrophication of lakes and rivers. Improper disposal of hazardous chemicals down the drain itroduce toxic materials into to the ecosystem, contaminating the water supplies in a way that can harm aquatic organisms. Leaks of oil and antifreeze from a car on a driveway can be washed off by the rain into nearby waterways, polluting it.

The Effects of Water Pollution
1) Death of aquatic (water) animals The main problem caused by water pollution is that it kills life that depends on these water bodies. Dead fish, crabs, birds and sea gulls, dolphins, and many other animals often wind up on beaches, killed by pollutants in their habitat (living environment). 2) Disruption of food-chains Pollution disrupts the natural food chain as well. Pollutants such as lead and cadmium are eaten by tiny animals. Later, these animals are consumed by fish and shellfish, and the food chain continues to be disrupted at all higher levels.

3) Diseases Eventually, humans are affected by this process as well. People can get diseases such as hepatitis by eating seafood that has been poisoned. In many poor nations, there is always outbreak of cholera and diseases as a result of poor drinking water treatment from contaminated waters. 4)Destruction of ecosystems Ecosystems (the interaction of living things in a place, depending on each other for life) can be severely changed or destroyed by water pollution. Many areas are now being affected by careless human pollution, and this pollution is coming back to hurt humans in many ways.

The Solutions of Water Pollution
Enforce Existing Laws Our first solution to water pollution, therefore, is pretty simple – tell your politicians to enforce existing laws.When a politician touts his new anti-pollution bill that he claims will clean up the environment, it means little if they continue to allow existing laws to go unenforced.Tell your politicians what you think. Encourage them to enforce existing laws such as the Clean Water Act.Beyond enforcing laws, there are some practical steps that we can take as individuals to limit the pollution in our neighborhoods and cities. Stop Nutrient and Pesticide Pollution If you are putting ―normal‖ fertilizer, pesticides, and other chemicals on your lawn or in your gardens, you are contributing to the pollution problem.While you may find these products helpful, much of their volume is being washed off your lawn and into the nearest waterway. They also tend to degrade the quality of your soil, causing more and more reliance on the chemicals over time. Drive Less Nitrogen deposition from air pollution is a big part of the nutrient pollution problem. How much we drive, how large a vehicle we have, and many other factors contribute to how much pollution we are putting out individually.Be conscious of the emissions that your car spews out and keep your car well maintained. Think about leaning towards a hybrid or electric car if you drive a lot of miles every day.Use public transportation more often. Our government pays a lot of money to put these public systems in place.Driving less is something we can all do better at, and all of the relatively small differences each person makes will add up when summed across millions of drivers. Use Green Household and Personal Care Products As consumers and citizens we have an obligation to know what effect our consumer byproducts are having on the planet.Many of the chemicals found in our food, household cleaners, personal care products, and medications are all being dumped back into the waterways. These chemicals are NOT adequately filtered through municipal water treatment facilities.

but the environmental impact of bottled water plastic is huge!Over 1. If you see someone else‘s litter. don‘t be shy or hesitant in picking it up either.5 billion tons of plastic water bottles end up in U.And last but not least. the growing impact of plastic pollution on our oceans will be one of the big disaster stories of this century. This type of plastic is easy for wildlife to swallow and eventually causes death.Up to 40 percent of all bottled waters are merely re-processed tap water. especially plastic storage bags. don‘t litter. Litter from land is carried into the oceans and beaches through wind and river.Simply say no to bottled water! I know it is convenient to drink bottled water. . It takes over 300 years for plastic to degrade.S.Use Less Plastic and Don’t Litter At the rate we‘re going.Try to figure out ways you can use less plastic. Plastic factories also deliver much of the pollution that is not biodegradable. landfills each year.A much healthier and less expensive solution to bottled water is to invest in refillable glass water bottles or stainless steel water bottles and fill them with filtered drinking water. Every little bit counts.

Health-related problems can occur where eutrophic conditions interfere with drinking water treatment. hunting. and is likely to cause severe reductions in water quality. yellow. Eutrophication generally promotes excessive plant growth and decay. and estuaries such that recreation. causing a variety of problems such as a lack of oxygen in the water. lakes. and aesthetic enjoyment are hindered. brown. fishing. or red. Human society is impacted as well: eutrophication decreases the resource value of rivers. enhanced growth of choking aquatic vegetation or phytoplankton (that is. . Eutrophication is frequently a result of nutrient pollution such as the release of sewage effluent and run-off from fertilizers into natural waters although it may also occur naturally in situations where nutrients accumulate (e. coloured a shade of green. the term is often used to mean the resultant increase in the ecosystem's primary productivity (excessive plant growth and decay). and further effects including lack of oxygen and severe reductions in water quality. fish. The water then becomes cloudy. favors certain weedy species over others. needed for fish and shellfish to survive. depositional environments) or where they flow into systems on an ephemeral basis.g. and other animal populations. However. and may occur on land or in water.Process of Eutrophication Eutrophication is an increase in chemical nutrients — compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus — in an ecosystem. an algal bloom) disrupts normal functioning of the ecosystem. In aquatic environments.

3 Thermal Pollution .2.

5) Radioactive waste. 2) Nuclear Power plants-Nuclear power plants emit large quantity of heat and traces of radioactive substances which increases the temperature of water bodies. . lakes etc it increases the temperature of receiving water. 4) Domestic sewage-When the domestic sewage is disposed off into water bodies like river. 3) Coal.Causes of Thermal Pollution 1) Industrial Effluents.It is one of the major source of thermal pollution. This heated water when discharged into the water system increases the temperature of water body.Dumping of radioactive waste in marine system increases the temperature when these substances radiate energy.Industries require cooling water for heat removal and cooling purposes.fired power plants.

fish. Heat affects the metabolic rate and enzymatic activity of aquatic animals. Fish and macroinvertibrates are most susceptible to temperature changes. leading to more eating. and microscopic life forms. which can upset the balance in food availability. The other effects are on the biodiversity of aquatic biomes due to killing off of some species that are not resistant to temperature change. bacteria. as they have the most limited tolerance for sudden excessive heat and cold. which disrupts the balance of the food and light chains for plants.Effects of Thermal Pollution The effects of thermal pollution include damage to larvae and eggs of fish in rivers where there is a limited tolerance for temperature change. Dissolved oxygen and other chemical changes to the structure of the water are another effect of heat thermal pollution. The heat tends to decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. .Another effect is that living entities attempt to migrate when their environment is untenable. The increased migration of life forms to areas that had a perfect balance can create a fight for limited resources. once the population increases.

Although there is an increasing number of power-generating plants. The rejection of heat into a dry tower is evaporative and raises the relative humidity. The warmer temperature water lowers the oxygen content of the water. the amount of thermal pollution has not increased at the same rate because of improved efficiency of power plants and the increased use of hydropower. Certainly. 3) Store and Reuse Heated Water It would reduce thermal pollution if those using cooling water were to empty the heated water into shallow ponds or canals. Releasing the heated water near the shoreline doesn't lessen the problem since this may disrupt spawning and kill fish. there would be fewer fish and aquatic organisms killed by thermal shock if there were fewer fish and organisms in the area where the water is discharged. Unfortunately. wait for it to cool and then reuse the water. According to the Cooling Technology Institute. 4) Discharge in Less Vulnerable Zones Discharging in less vulnerable zones is not the best way to reduce thermal pollution. most scientist don't consider it enrichment at all and feel that addition to any zone causes thermal pollution. Cooling towers are wet or dry. the cheapest and easiest way to get cooling water is to withdraw it from a nearby body of water and then release it back into the body of water heated. but this is the idea behind using cooling towers. 2) Reduce Temperature and Volume of Discharge Heated water can be cooled before releasing it. thus reducing the amount of electricity that is used will reduce thermal pollution. In the past scientists have called it thermal enrichment to release heated water. An increase in the use of nuclear power won't reduce the need for cooling waters since they also use cooling water.Ways to Prevent Thermal Pollution 1) Use Less Electricity Generation of electric power uses the largest percentage of cooling water. however. and less can be released to cause less damage. . the cooling potential of a wet surface is much better because there is less evaporative heat transferred into the atmosphere. which increases the respiratory rates of aquatic organisms and weakens them so that they are more vulnerable to disease and death. A cooling tower is an efficient way to reduce thermal pollution because it transfers the heat from the water into the atmosphere. land availability is a hindrance to this method.

2.4 Noise Pollution .

Plumbing.       . the level of noise pollution has drastically increased in these previously unaffected zones. Pneumatic hammers. their effect cannot be neglected. With the low flying military aircrafts soaring over the national parks. air compressors. industrial noise adds to the noise pollution. highways and city streets causes a lot of noise. To meet the demands of the basic necessity of living. trucks. boilers. motors and compressors used in the industries create a lot of noise which adds to the already detrimental state of noise pollution. bulldozers. the sound caused by the cars and exhaust system of autos. horns and whistles and switching and shunting operation in rail yards. buses and motorcycles is the chief reason for noise pollution. With the ever-increasing number of vehicles on road.Causes of Noise Pollution  Traffic noise is the main source of noise pollution caused in urban areas. This is one of the major sources of noise pollution. loaders. People living beside railway stations put up with a lot of noise from locomotive engines. wasteland and other vacant areas. mixers and some kitchen appliances are noisemakers of the house. air conditioners and fans create a lot of noise in the buildings and add to the prevailing noise pollution. Though not a prime reason. dump trucks and pavement breakers are the major sources of noise pollution in construction sites. such as vacuum cleaners. Machinery. Though they do not cause too much of problem. Household equipments. the construction of buildings. generators.

Effects of Noise Pollution  Deafness. being surrounded by too much of noise. bridges and monuments. Noise of traffic or the loud speakers or different types of horns divert the attention. mental illness. It creates waves. etc. temporary or permanent. increasing the stress levels among people. Too much of noise disturbs the rhythms of working. telephone operators etc all have their hearing impairment. It damages the nervous system of the animals. Research has proved the fact that human efficiency increases with noise reduction. Noise indirectly weakens the edifice of buildings. locomotive drivers. thereby affecting the concentration required for doing a work. Fatigue caused is another effect of noise. Noise pollution indirectly affects the vegetation. Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops. Mechanics. The first and foremost effect of noise is a decrease in the efficiency in working. Plants require cool & peaceful environment to grow. is one of the most prevalent effects of noise pollution. people need to devote more time to complete their task. Sometimes. thus causing harm in the working standard. Animals are susceptible to noise pollution as well.         . which can be very dangerous and harmful and put the building in danger condition. Due to lack of concentration. which leads to tiredness and fatigue. Noise pollution acts as a stress invigorator. people can be victims of certain diseases like blood pressure.

It stops the annoying hum. which is like a huge motorbike. Proper maintenance should be carried out for better performance.  If you are working in an area where there are loud noises. avoid riding on the rides which produce a lot of noise.  Motors. and reduces air pollution!  Better off. you must wear earplugs to prevent loss of hearing. reduces the amount of air pollution and noise. One example is the ATV. walk or cycle to school! It does wonders to the environment. so don't try and burn them unnecessarily. which hurts your ears and others' ears. Areas like hospitals and campuses are silence zones and honking is prohibited there. and makes you fit! .  Avoid loud music.  Firecrackers are extremely loud. machines and vehicles also produce loud noises when not maintained properly.Ways to Prevent Noise Pollution  Do not use car horns unnecessarily.  Turn off the engine of your car or motorbike when you are not using it.  When going to theme parks and such.

3.0 The Green house Effect .

manufacture of cement).    . chlorofluorocarbons. Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere (or "sequestered") when it is absorbed by plants as part of the biological carbon cycle. Fluorinated gases : Hydrofluorocarbons. hydrochlorofluorocarbons.. natural gas and oil). trees and wood products. Methane (CH4) : Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal. natural gas. and halons). as well as during combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste. Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills. solid waste. and also as a result of certain chemical reactions (e. and sulfur hexafluoride are synthetic.g. and oil..g. These gases are typically emitted in smaller quantities. powerful greenhouse gases that are emitted from a variety of industrial processes. Nitrous oxide (N2O) : Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities. perfluorocarbons. they are sometimes referred to as High Global Warming Potential gases ("High GWP gases"). Fluorinated gases are sometimes used as substitutes for stratospheric ozone-depleting substances (e. but because they are potent greenhouse gases.The Greenhouse Gases  Carbon dioxide (CO2) : Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels (coal.


This inturn affect human settelement.crop production.overflooding.nitrous oxide.These gases have high capacity of trapiing or holding the out going long wave radiation.From the mentioned gases nitrous oxide is the most dangrous in traping radiation (200x> CO2) and methane is the second(28).methane..When this radiation is traped before escaping the lower atmosphere it increases the temprature of the earth environment..etc in the atmosphere and form a blanket coverage to the underneath earth. .The Formation of Greenhouse Effect Green house effect was formed from the accumulation of gases like C.Increasing in environmental temprature causes melting of the polar ice. transportation etc.unseasonal rainfall due to high evaporation and condensation in the atmosphere for areas far from ocean and sea.animal life and habitate.increasing in volum of the ocean and sea water.

The Sources The man-made (or anthropogenic) component of the greenhouse effect is caused by man‘s activities that emit greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Combustion Deforestation . The most important of these is the burning of fossil fuels. This is why carbon dioxide is the most important gas in the man-made component of the greenhouse effect. Fossil fuels contain carbon. or locked up in soils. We emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in enormous quantities because we burn so much fossil fuel and the changes in land use that we have implement are so widespread. and when they are burnt this carbon combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to form carbon dioxide. For example deforestation results in the emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere that was previously stored on the Earth‘s surface in the form of trees and other vegetation. Changes in land use are also important sources of greenhouse gas emissions.

The Greenhouse Effect Global Warming The term "global warming" refers to the increase in the average temperature of global surface air and oceans since about 1950. are used. most commonly based on the area-weighted global average of the sea surface temperature anomaly and land surface air temperature anomaly. However.Another term for "global warming" is "climate change." .."Per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. and to continuing increases in those temperatures. only anomalies. for changes over time. which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace with Al Gore for landmark work on climate change:"The global surface temperature is an estimate of the global mean surface air temperature..

The Effects of Global Warming 1) Rising Sea Level 2) Shrinking Glaciers 3) Heat Waves 4) Storms and Floods 5) Drought 6) Disease 7) Economic Consequences 8) Loss of Biodiversity 9) Destruction of Ecosystems .

0 The Thinning of The Ozone Layer .4.

adhesives and chemical processing. some aerosols. In B. But HCFCs they still cause some ozone destruction and are potent greenhouse gases. cold cleaning. Halons  Used in some fire extinguishers. in cases where materials and equipment would be destroyed by water or other fire extinguisher chemicals.  Also used in foam products — such as soft-foam padding (e.  Used as coolants in refrigerators.C. dry-cleaning agents and hospital sterilants. cushions and mattresses) and rigid foam (e. Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs)  HCFCs have become major. Carbon Tetrachloride  Used in solvents and some fire extinguishers.g. Methyl Chloroform  Used mainly in industry — for vapour degreasing. accounting for over 80% of total stratospheric ozone depletion.  Found in industrial solvents. home insulation). halons cause greater damage to the ozone layer than do CFCs from automobile air conditioners.The Causes of Ozone Depletion      Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)  The most widely used ODS..g. They are much less harmful to stratospheric ozone than CFCs are. . freezers and air conditioners in buildings and cars manufactured before 1995. ―transitional‖ substitutes for CFCs.

resulting in reduced growth. tomatoes. rivers and lakes could reduce fish yields for commercial and sport fisheries. cornea.  Adverse impacts on agriculture. Only a few commercially important trees have been tested for UV (UV-B) sensitivity.     Damage to marine life:  Animals:  In domestic animals. In particular. rice. Decreases in plankton could disrupt the fresh and saltwater food chains. The effect of ozone depletion on the Canadian agricultural sector could be significant. sunburns and premature aging of the skin.  More cataracts.g. especially in seedlings. . 1993). Early findings suggest that too much UV radiation can suppress the human immune system. peas. The economic impact of replacing and/or protecting materials could be significant. and lead to a species shift in Canadian waters. young fish. corn. fabrics and many construction materials are degraded by UV  radiation. is harmed by more intense UV radiation. plastic. which may play a role in the development of skin cancer. blindness and other eye diseases: UV radiation can damage   several parts of the eye. plankton (tiny organisms in the surface layer of oceans) are threatened by increased UV radiation. but early results suggest that plant growth. Cataracts (a clouding of the lens) are the major cause of blindness in the world. forestry and natural ecosystems:  Several of the world's major crop species are particularly vulnerable to increased   UV. oats. These species include wheat. A sustained 10% thinning of the ozone layer is expected to result in almost two million new cases of cataracts per year. cauliflower. broccoli and carrots. retina and conjunctiva. rubber. Loss of biodiversity in our oceans. photosynthesis and flowering. barley. Species of marine animals in their developmental stage (e. Plankton are the first vital step in aquatic food chains. shrimp larvae and crab larvae) have been threatened in recent years by the increased UV radiation under the Antarctic ozone hole.  Materials:  Wood. cucumbers. soybeans. globally (Environment Canada.The Effects of Ozone Depletion  Harm to human health:  More skin cancers. including the lens. UV overexposure may cause eye and skin cancers. Weakening of the human immune system (immunosuppression).

Car pooling.The Ways to Reduce Ozone Depletion 1. it will become a major contributor to ozone depletion. 2. The best solution for this would be to try using natural remedies. A study shows that the harm caused by rocket launches would outpace the harm caused due to CFCs. the global rocket launches do not contribute hugely to ozone layer depletion. Banning the use of dangerous nitrous oxide Due to the worldwide alarm caused by a study in the late 70s about the alarming rate at which the ozone was being depleted. but over the course of time. 3. At present. Limit private vehicle driving A very easy way to control ozone depletion would be to limit or reduce the amount of driving as vehicular emissions eventually result in smog which is a culprit in the deterioration of the ozone layer. This is because many of these cleaning agents contain toxic chemicals that interfere with the ozone layer. due to the advancement of the space industry. but are harmful for the ozone layer. . Avoid using pesticides Pesticides may be an easy solution for getting rid of weed. taking public transport. using a bicycle would limit the usage of individual transportation. walking. 5. Governments across the world should take a strong stand for banning the use of this harmful compound to save the ozone layer. You can perhaps try to weed manually or mow your garden consistently so as to avoid weed-growth. the protocol did not include nitrous oxide which is the most fatal chemical that can destroy the ozone layer and is still in use. A lot of rocket launches are happening the world over without consideration of the fact that it can damage the ozone layer if it is not regulated soon. 4. All types of rocket engines result in combustion by products that are ozonedestroying compounds that are expelled directly in the middle and upper stratosphere layer – near the ozone layer. However. Developing stringent regulations for rocket launches The world is progressing in scientific discoveries by leaps and bounds. Use eco-friendly household cleaning products Usage of eco-friendly and natural cleaning products for household chores is a great way to prevent ozone depletion. It would be a great option to switch to cars/vehicles that have a hybrid or electric zero-emission engine. nations around the globe got together and formed the Montreal Protocol in the year 1989 with a strong aim to stop the usage of CFCs. rather than heading out for pesticides. A lot of supermarkets and health stores sell cleaning products that are toxic-free and made out of natural ingredients.

0 The Importance of Proper Management of Development Activities and the Ecosystem .5.

5.1 Managing Development Activities to Ensure a Balanced Ecosystem .

indirectly generate electricity when the heat from solar thermal collectors is used to heat a fluid which produces steam that is used to power generator. and some garbage. PV systems are often used in remote locations that are not connected to the electric grid. including generating electricity on-campus at CU. crops. Solar Power Plants . Some examples of biomass fuels are wood. people use the sun's energy for lots of things. Today. Solar energy The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar Panel . manure. trash. They are also used to power watches.The Use of Renewable Energy Biomass Biomass is organic material made from plants and animals. such as heat and electricity. In the 1830s. and lighted road signs. the British astronomer John Herschel used a solar thermal collector box (a device that absorbs sunlight to collect heat) to cook food during an expedition to Africa. Solar energy is the sun‘s rays (solar radiation) that reach the earth. Plants absorb the sun's energy in a process called photosynthesis. calculators. alcohol fuels. The chemical energy in plants gets passed on to animals and people that eat them. Biomass contains stored energy from the sun. Even our trash can be used for energy! Scientists consider biomass a renewable energy source because we can always grow more trees and crops. Solar energy can be converted into other forms of energy. Solar energy can be converted to electricity in two ways:   Photovoltaic (PV devices) or ―solar cells‖ – change sunlight directly into electricity. We make biomass energy with wood fuels. decaying crops and landfill gas. and waste will always exist.

Caused by the uneven heating of the earth‘s surface by the sun. it absorbs the sun‘s heat at different rates.Wind energy Wind is simple: air in motion. A quick US calculation would be 938 kWh per home per month. As the blades turn.4 million households. wind is constantly moving. 12 months. about 0. In 2006. but it is only a small fraction of the nation's total electricity production. Now. This is enough electricity to power a city larger than Los Angeles. enough to serve more than 2.5 times more than wind generation in 2002. That‘s 1776 American homes on one wind turbine. they can make enough energy to power entire cities.4 percent. This new turbine is officially rated at 6 megawatts. Like old fashioned windmills. Since the earth‘s surface is made of very different types of land and water. The world‘s largest wind turbine is now the Enercon E-126. a generator inside the turbine creates clean electricity that can be added to the grid to power homes and businsses around the world. electricity generated from wind was 2. that‘s 11.256 kWh per year per house.000 households of four in Europe. wind machines in the United States generated a total of 26. In 2006. That‘s enough to power about 5.6 billion kWh per year of electricity. today‘s wind machines use blades to collect the wind‘s kinetic energy. The amount of electricity generated from wind has been growing fast in recent years. This turbine has a rotor diameter of 126 meters (413 feet). . but will most likely produce 7+ megawatts (or 20 million kilowatt hours per year). Historically windmills were used to mill grain.

geothermal energy is heat from within the earth. Water passes through the bottom of the dam and the pressure from all the water in the reservoir turns turbines that generate electricity. creating electricity and creating reservoirs for drinking water. So. We can use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to heat buildings or generate electricity. Because the water is replenished by rainfall and the heat is continuously produced inside the earth.Hydro energy Through the use of large dams we are able to harness the power of rivers and moving water. The change in river flow can lead to serious problems with errosion and sediment depletion. Impeeding the natural flow of a river causes widespread ecological damage. We use hydropower specifically to create electricity. Dams are good for two things. Hydroelectric station Geotermal Energy The word geothermal comes from the Greek words geo (earth) and therme (heat). Read about some of the impacts of dams on Colorado rivers in the LA Times article titled. Colorado river dams decimate native fish. geothermal energy is considered a renewable energy source. affecting the migration and habitat of countless aquatic species. . These dams do have their own drawbacks though.


adakah mereka akan dicintai oleh seseorang dan adakah normal apabila mereka melakukan hubungan seks. Zaman remaja adalah masa mempelajari seks dengan tujuan mencari suatu identiti seks peribadi. Pada peringkat ini remaja memikirkan sama ada mereka mempunyai daya tarikan seks. Kadar pembesaran dan perubahan zaman remaja adalah berbeza di antara remaja lelaki dan perempuan. intelek serta emosi dan terpaksa berhadapan dengan berbagai konflik di dalam dirinya dan juga masyarakat. Mengikut seorang ahli psikologi Stanley Hall (1904) zaman remaja ialah jangka masa seseorang itu mengalami berbagai cabaran dan tekanan ( storm and stress ). Perubahan kematangan seks dan perubahan hormon yang terlibat adalah asas bagi kematangan seks seorang remaja. Perubahan-perubahan ini berlaku akibat tindakan hormon dalam bentuk badan. Kebanyakan remaja akhirnya menunjukkan perkembangan seksual yang matang tetapi terdapat jangka masa yang mana hadirnya perasaan kekeliruan dan perasaan mudah dilukai sepanjang kehidupan seksual mereka. adakah perkembangan mereka berterusan. iaitu keupayaan mengalami ataupun melahirkan perasaan seks.Perkembangan Fizikal Zaman remaja adalah tempoh yang mana seorang individu dikelilingi oleh isu-isu seksual. Perkembangan fizikal remaja perlu diketahui bagi membantu memahami tentang sesetengah remaja yang lambat atau cepat dalam pekembangan mereka dan apakah kesan-kesan disebaliknya. Ini bermaksud remaja yang mengalami perubahan fizikal. Pada peringkat usia ini remaja mempunyai perasaan ingin tahu yang tinggi mengenai misteri alam seks. Ketika ini remaja-remaja lelaki dan perempuan secara sedar atau tidak akan mengalami perubahan dari segi bentuk tubuh badan dan emosi. Malah kadar pembesaran adalah berbeza di antara seorang individu dengan individu yang lain. .

. Pada usia beginilah dia terlalu prihatin dengan keadaan tubuhnya.Kematangan Biologi Pada awal alam keremajaan. Remaja yang cepat matang mempunyai beberapa kelebihan apabila dibandingkan dengan yang lambat matang. Ini sudah pasti memberi kesan kepada imej tubuh serta konsep kendiri. Kesedaran ke atas kejantinaan diri semakin bertambah. Mereka terlebih dahulu mengambil tempat dalam masyarakat remaja sementara mereka yang lambat matang perlu bersaing daripada sudut fizikal dan sosial bagi mendapat tempat yang istimewa dalam kelompok remaja. remaja selalunya sibuk menyesuaikan diri dengan pertumbuhan yang berlaku pada tubuhnya. Dia sering membezakan dirinya dengan rakan sebaya yang lain.

perasaan ingin tahu dan keinginan seks yang tidak berkaitan dengan cinta. . Keinginan berkahwin dengan pasangan mereka juga wujud di kalangan pelajar wanita tetapi kurang bagi pelajar lelaki. Remaja perempuan belajar mengaitkan seks dengan cinta. Beberapa buah kajian di Barat menunjukkan bahawa cinta adalah faktor utama ramai remaja perempuan melakukan hubungan seks.Tingkah Laku Heteroseksual Remaja zaman dahulu mempunyai sikap yang berbeza ke atas pelbagai aspek seksual berbanding dengan remaja zaman sekarang. terutamanya remaja perempuan. Faktor-faktor lain adalah seperti desakan teman lelaki. dan kadar pelajar perempuan yang melakukan hubungan seks meningkat lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan pelajar lelaki. Sebuah kajian ke atas kelompok pelajar sebuah kolej di Amerika Syarikat di antara tahun 1900 dengan tahun 1980 menunjukkan peratusan orang muda yang melakukan hubungan seks meningkat.

misai dan janggut mula tumbuh. bulu tumbuh di celah ketiak dan bahagian ari-ari. suara mungkin berubah dari suara keanakanakan kepada suara yang lebih matang. Lonjakan ini merupakan tanda yang nyata tentang permulaan akhil baligh. lonjakan pertumbuhan kanak-kanak dengan tiba-tiba akan berlaku. Ianya bermula apabila tahap hormon yang memasuki salran darah meningkat ekoran respon kepada isyarat daripada bahagian otak iaitu hipotalamus. bahu dan dada menjadi bidang. satu siri perubahan biologi dan psikologi akan berlaku yang membawa mereka ke alam remaja. Alam remaja akan membawa mereka ke dalam kematangan sama ada dari segi fizikal.Akil Baligh Di akhir zaman kanak-kanak. Bagi remaja lelaki perubhan yang akan berlaku ialah suara menjadi garau. Apabila tahap pertumbuhan hormon bertambaha dalam badan. Bagi remaja perempuan pula perubahan yang akan dialami seperti buah dada (payudara) mula membesar. Baligh adalah merupakan perubahan biologi yang menandakan permulaan remaja. mula didatangi haid. Apabila ini berlaku perkara yang paling ketara semasa baligh adalah merupakan perkembangan permatangan seksual iaitu kebolehan pembiakan. jerawat mula tumbuh. mengalami mimpi yang menghairahkan sehingga mengeluarkan air mani serta zakar dan buah zakar mula membesar. jerawat mula tumbuh. dan pemikiran mereka turut berubah serta turut berperanan dalam masyarakat. . Punggung melebar menunjukkan ciri-ciri kewanitaan. Pengalaman inilah menunjukkan remaja lelaki telah akil baligh.

Hall percaya bahawa hasil daripada tekanan-tekanan dan perubahan tersebut. yang bukan semasa peringkat latensi. Manakala Sigmund dan Anna Freud. Pada masa ini. kemarahan. perubahan fikiran.Teori dan Konsep Menurut Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Remaja juga mengalami perkembangan kognitif. dan remaja ini sekali lagi dilanda fantasi oedipal. remaja akhirnya akan menjadi individu yang matang dan bermoral. Stanley Hall (1904) berpendapat perkembanagan seseorang individu ditentukan oleh naluri iaitu tenaga-tenaga biologi dan faktor genetik dan bukannya persekitaran. khasnya didorong tenaga seksual yang hebat. Dengan kata lain mereka mula tertarik antara satu sama lain. Mencapai akil baligh merupakan satu masa apabila emosi menjadi tidak stabil dan tergugat. sekarang mengganggu ego dan daya tahannya. . kanak-kanak melalui peringkat kedua kelahiran. mereka mula merasai perasaan seksual. akil baligh bermula pada usia 15 tahun atau mungkin lebih awal dari yang dianggarkan. Zon genital. "Perubahan angin. bentuk badan mula berubah dan keinginan muncul dari dalam. Dorongan seksual dan agresif. Mula berasa segan atau malu apabila berhadapan dengan kehadiran orang yang berlainan jantina. Remaja ini mungkin rasa susah atau tidak selesa apabila berada di kalangan ibu bapanya. awal remaja adalah peringkat yang paling bermasalah disebabkan perubahan dramatik psikologi yang berlaku pada masa ini. membuatkan mereka tidak dapat mengawal". Beliau mengatakan zaman remaja sebagai zaman 'storm and stress' yang bersifat biologikal yang terhasil daripada perubahan-perubahan yang berlaku semasa baligh yang tidak dapat dielakkan. Mereka sudah mampu menghadapi konsep yang lebih abstrak dan mula berminat dalam perkara-perkara yang melbatkan teori dalam pelajaran sains dan moral.

KoGNiTiF ReMajA PENGENALAN Perubahan dalam perkembangan kognitif yang dialami oleh remaja : * Perubahan ini tidak dapat dilihat dengan jelas. termasuk bakat tentang pengetahuan tertentu. merancang masa depannya. * Walaupun demikian. dan sangat berbeza mengikut seseorang. relatif dan reflektif. Sejauh manakah tepatnya tingkat perkembangan kognitif seorang individu pada masa remaja sukar diramalkan. * Suatu perkara yang harus diperhatikan pada perkembangan kognitif remaja adalah bukan pada kepantasan berfikir dan banyaknya informasi yang dikuasai yang penting. dan menganalisis permasalahan yang dihadapi. namun lebih kepada cara remaja itu menggunakan informasi yang dimilikinya untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan yang dihadapi. multidimensional. namun juga cara ia memproses informasi. dan kedekatannya dengan suatu objek pengetahuan. tingkat kematangan kognitif seseorang dapat ditingkatkan dengan latihan-latihan dan usaha untuk memperbaiki cara belajar dan mengorganisasi memori. namun secara umum remaja cenderung menggunakan idea-idea yang abstrak dan berfikir secara abstrak. * Perkembangan kognitif seseorang itu tidak hanya ditentukan dari pertumbuhan dan kematangan sistem saraf pusat mahupun periferi sahaja. Hal ini juga tidak terlepas dari potensi-potensi yang dimilikinya. meningkatkan daya ingat dan kapasiti memorinya. termasuk teori perkembangan kognitif sebagaimana yang dikemukakan oleh Piaget. namun penting bagi seseorang individu bagi mencapai tingkat perkembangan kognitifnya akan mempengaruhi cara ia melihat dirinya. . * Terdapat banyak teori mengenai perkembangan kognitif remaja. berbeza bagi setiap individu.

Tahap bagi remaja ialah tahap akhir iaitu. * Mereka tidak lagi cuba menyelesaikan sesuatu masalah secara cuba jaya (trial and error). * Pada tahap ini mereka berupaya mengunakan serta memahami logik dan konsep abstrak dan cuba merealisasikan konsep tersebut. .TEORI PERKEMBANGAN KOGNITIF PIAGET Teori perkembangan kognitif dipelopori oleh Jean Piaget. tetapi mereka menggunakan pelbagai alternatif dalam menyelesaikan sesuatu masalah. seperti semasa mereka berusia tujuh tahun. Beliau adalah seorang pakar psikologi kanak-kanak dari Switzerland. * Teori yang dikemukakan oleh Piaget lebih berfokus kepada tahap. * Remaja pada tahap ini mampu memikirkan perkara abstrak dan berfikir secara logik. reflektif serta sistematik. Piaget juga menerangkan cara berfikir yang kesan kepada tingkah laku setiap individu. * Mereka berkeupayaan melakukan sintetis terhadap sesuatu kejadian dan seterusnya cuba membentuk hipotesis untuk mencapai sesuatu kesimpulan. tahap operasi formal yang bermula pada umur dua belas tahun hinggalah ke atas.

dalam melalui proses kehidupan ini. Batasan usia remaja menurut WHO (badan PBB untuk kesihatan dunia) adalah 12 sampai 24 tahun. Ia bermula dengan proses penyesuaian pada bentuk dan perasaan yang ada pada tubuh dan kemudian penyesuaian dengan manusia dan situasi yang berlainan. remaja dan dewasa. RUJUKAN: Mahmood Nazar Mohamed. Waktu remaja adalah waktu yang amat kompleks. maka dimasukkan ke dalam kelompok remaja. Hal ini menyebabkan berlakunya kes-kes remaja lari dari rumah dan ia menjadi satu fenomena yang menjadi fokus permasalahan remaja masa kini. perubahan mental. Pelbagai jenis masalah seperti perubahan pada diri. manusia melalui tiga peringkat perkembangan yang utama iaitu kanak-kanak. Masa remaja dikatakan zaman yang menimbulkan pelbagai konflik yang menyebabkan tekanan jiwa kepada individu. DBP.Pengantar Psikologi:Satu Pengenalan Asas Kepada Jiwa Dan Tingkah Laku Manusia. seks bebas dan sebagainya. seseorang individu itu akan mempelajari cara – cara menyesuaikan diri dengan alam sekelilingnya.   mulai dewasa. Sebaliknya.barulah mereka akan melangkah ke alam dewasa. Kuala Lumpur. sudah cukup umur untuk berkahwin. jika usia sudah bukan lagi remaja tetapi masih tergantung pada orang tua (tidak mandiri). percubaan-percubaan dalam hidup dan pelbagai bentuk lagi berlaku pada waktu ini. 2005. Zaman remaja: Zaman remaja merupakan satu masa peralihan sementara daripada zaman kanak-kanak kepada zaman dewasa. Perkara ini berlaku akibat tidak ada komunikasi kerana adanya jurang generasi. Edisi ketiga) Pengenalan: Secara amnya. Hal ini kerana seseorang remaja gemar mencuba sesuatu yang kadang-kala bertentangan dengan norma sosial masyarakat. . Satu fenomena yang sering kedengaran kini ialah pertelingkahan di antara remaja dan ibu-bapanya. Tiap – tiap peringkat mempunyai ciri perkembangan psikologikalnya yang tersendiri.Definisi berkaitan remaja Remaja: Remaja didefinisikan sebagai masa peralihan daripada masa kanak-kanak ke masa dewasa. maka ia tergolong dalam dewasa atau bukan lagi remaja. sudah akil baligh. Selepas itu. Namun jika pada usia remaja seseorang sudah berkahwin. Ia boleh didefinisikan sebagai satu masa yang bermula apabila baligh sehingga permulaan zaman dewasa. (Kamus Dewan. Apabila melangkah di alam remaja. Contohnya pengambilan dadah.

Sel dalam tempat sasaran mempunyai keupayaan untuk bertindakbalas dengan hormon tertentu yang mengedar dalam darah tetapi tidak bertindakbalas terhadap yang lain. ada remaja awal menjadi gemuk dan pendek pada masa ini. Perkembangan cepat tersebut akan mengakibatkan remaja berasa janggal Selain itu. manakala Lemak di badan perempuan akan kekal pada bahagian tertentu.Pada zaman remaja awal. Contohnya. bahu menjadi semakin lebar. Sifat seksual kedua seperti bulu badan. Contohnya rembesan testosteronemenyebabkan zakar bertumbuh.Pertumbuhan dan perubahan fizikal  Pada zaman remaja. Ada perubahan wujud bersama pada lelaki dan perempuan. Saiz otot dan tulang mula berkembang. peningkatan kekuatan tenaga dan stamina. Kedua-dua lelaki dan perempuan mempunyai lemak dalam tempat dada. bahagian badan yang berbeza berkembang dengan kadar yang tinggi. Sebaliknya. iaitu saiz badan. Hormon “lelaki” dan hormon “perempuan” muncul dalam kedua-dua seks. Untuk mencapai saiz badan dewasa. Setiap hormon mempengaruhi satu set sasaran atau reseptor yang tertentu. perkembangan otot.Tetapi kebanyakan perubahan adalah spesifik antara seks. dan kematangan organ seksual akan menimbul dalam perubahan fizikal remaja. Tanda permulaan akil baligh perempuan merujuk kepada waktu haid yang pertama. Seterusnya kelebaran badan berkembang. Lemak di dada perempuan akan kekal. fizikal remaja mengalami perubahan yang ketara dan tiba-tiba. Akil baligh merujuk kepada pencapaian kematangan seksual pada lelaki dan perempuan. badan dan kulit remaja akan bermula mengeluarkan banyak minyak. uterus bertindakbalas secara terpilih        . pertambahan lemak badan. Perubahan akil baligh bagi remaja awal ialah peningkatan besar dalam ketinggian. Hormon mempengaruhi pertumbuhan remaja sejak zaman fetal hingga sekarang. 1978). Lemak yang berlebihan di badan lelaki akan hilang. tetapi lelaki mempunya hormon bernamaandrogens yang lebih banyak. Perkembangan fizikal remaja ini akan selesai dalam 10 tahun bermula daripada permulaan akil baligh. manakala bagi lelaki pula merujuk kepada pancaran air mani. Perubahan fizikal tersebut adalah dikawal oleh hormon. bilangan pengeluaran hormon semakin bertambah pada akil baligh. akibatnya badan mereka akan mengeluarkan bau. dan hormon yang terpenting.testoterone berbanding dengan perempuan.bahan biokimia yang dirembeskan dengan bilangan yang sangat kurang oleh kelenjar endokrin. manakala perempuan pula mempunyai hormon dipanggil estrogen danprogesterone yang lebih banyak berbanding dengan lelaki (Tanner. kaki dan tangan mereka semakin panjang. ia hanya satu peringkat perkembangan sahaja. bulu bertumbuh di tempat kemaluan dan di muka. manakala lelaki pula tidak. Perubahan akil baligh selalunya didahului oleh pertambahan lemak badan.estrogen menyebabkan uterus dan dada bertumbuh dan pinggung menjadi semakin lebar.

perubahan major biologikal kedua ialah pembanguan sistem pembiakan. iaitu testis dalam badan lelaki dan ovari dalam badan perempuan. zakar mengalami pertumbuhan secara menyembur.      . Pancutan pertama selalunya wujud pada tempoh pertumbuhan lelaki yang cepat dan mungkin datang sejak pelancapan atau “mimpi lembap”. Lebih kurang 1 tahun selepas pertumbuhan ini bermula. Perkembangan uterus dan vagina adalah serentak dengan pembesaran labia dan kelentit. Antara 2 perkara ini. Suara betul-betul berubah mengambil tempat berelavif lewat dalam rangkaian perubahan akil baligh. Selepas pertumbuhan secara menyembur. Pancutan pertama ini biasanya tidak mempunyai cukup air mani untuk subur (Money. Sel sasaran adalah sangat peka terhadap kuantiti hormon dan sangat kecil. lelaki juga membangun lebih banyak sel darah merah berbanding dengan perempuan. Hormon tropi ini merangsang fungsi beberapa kelenjar. pertumbuhan yang lain ialah suara garau yang janggal. perkembangan saiz jantung dan paru-paru juga berlaku. termasuklah kelenjar seks. Selain itu. Hypothalamus adalah bahagian otak yang memulakan proses pertumbuhan dan pembiakan sejak zaman remaja. Kelenjar seks mempunyai 2 fungsi: mengeluarkan sperma atau ovum dan merembeskanandrogens atau estrogens. bulu pubik mula muncul. Sejak tempoh ini. adalah berkemungkinan besar menandakan peringkat perubahan perempuan. dan dalam kebanyakan lelaki berlaku terlalu perlahan untuk menjadi kepentingan sebagai batu tanda jarak pertumbuhan. tetapi ia tidak mencapai pertumbuhan sepenuhnya sehingga selepas penyelesaian perkembangan kemaluan. kerja penyenggaraan ini dijalankan oleh 2 tempat otak:hypothalamus dan pituitary. ia mengeluarkan beberapa jenis hormon. sebenarnya berlaku lewat dalam rangkaian. Pituitari terletak dibawah bahagian otak. (Tanner. walaupun hormon muncul dalam bilangan yang begitu kurang seperti mengesan seketul gula yang larut dalam satu kolam renang (Tanner. selepas puncak pertumbuhan secara menyembur. Pengeluaran sel darah merah yang luas ini adalah salah satu faktor menyatakan keupayaan olahraga remaja lelaki mengatasi remaja perempuan. Pancutan air mani pertama akan berlaku pada awal umur 11 tahun atau lewat umur 16 tahun. Berpunca daripada kelakuan hormon seks lelaki.terhadapestrogen dan progesterone.Waktu haid pertama. 1980). dan beberapa hormon tropi kedua. iaitu hormon yang mengawal seluruh pertumbuhan badan. 1978)  Kelenjar endokrin merembes hormon yang kompleks dan halus. Hormon yang dirembeskan oleh kelenjar pituitari dan kelenjar seks mempunyai pengaruh emosi terhadap fizikal remaja Kematangan seksual pada lelaki. “dada bertunas” adalah biasanya tetapi bukan selalunya sebagai tanda pertama akil baligh bermula. termasuk hormon pertumbuhan. tanda pertama akil baligh ialah pertumbuhan testis dan skrotum secara pecut. 1978) Kematangan seksual perempuan Dalam perempuan. Pada lelaki.testosterone.

waktu haid pertama berlaku lebih lewat berbanding dengan Amerika Syarikat. Dalam bahagian dunia lain. Imej badan dan penyesuaian. Media massa menghasilkan kecenderungan remaja terhadap ketidaksabaran oleh imej menarik stereotaip pasaran. Dalam masyarakat kita. Waktu haid pertama mungkin berlaku pada awal umur 9 ½ atau lewat umur 16 ½. Sebaliknya. ada peperiksaan rapi terhadap penerimaan jenis badan. Sebab banyak remaja adalah sensitif dengan ekstrim terhadap kemunculan fizikal dan menggunakan banyak masa untuk memeriksa mereka sendiri di hadapan cermin. ketinggian dan otot adalah penting terhadap mereka. Orlos. purata perempuan Czechoslovakian menghadapi haid pertama pada umur 14 tahun. Mereka menumpukan prihatin terhadap berat. tanda ini biasanya berlaku semasa beratnya mencapai lebih kurang 100 pound (Frisch. riang remaja tanpa pimpes. banyak kajian telah menerangkan kesan kematangan awal atau lewat. dan untuk Bindi of New Guinea ialah umur 18 tahun (Power. Ahli sosiologi memanggil remaja sebagai kumpulan pinggiran (marginal group). kanakkanak menjadi sedar terhadap jenis badan dan unggul yang beza. Jadi. & Knapp. Keputusannya. dan mereka dapat idea jelas saksama terhadap jenis badan. 1989). perempuan sangat bimbang mereka menjadi terlalu gemuk atau terlalu tinggi. & Kilner. di samping itu. dan teknik mereka. Prihatin remaja terhadap imej badan. ketidaksamaan antara imej sendiri mereka yang kurang sempurna dengan kilap unggul yang mereka nampak dalam media sering menghasilkan kesangsian sendiri dan kebimbingan. Biasanya. Contohnya. pendakap. kebanyakan lelaki lebih menumpukan prihatin mereka terhadap kekuatan fizikal bahawa mereka boleh menggunakannya ke atas persekitaran (Lerner.Sejak imej badan berhubungan sangan dekat dengan masa kematangan. 1988). atau menari. Remaja boleh menjadi tidak sabar terhadap penyimpangan dengan ekstrim. Sejak zaman kanak-kanak pertengahan. sementara itu memulakan dengan usaha ke atas keras regimen kesihatan fizikal dan latihan tenaga. sebab mereka prihatin terhadap penerimaan sosial. iaitu satu kumpulan antara budaya atau budaya dominan yang pinggir bahawa biasanya menunjukkan keperluan intensifieddisahkan. atau masalah berat. kadar. Perubahan dalam perempuan· Perkembangan dada· Pertumbuhan bulu kemaluan· Pertumbuhan bulu di bawah ketiak· Pertumbuhan badan· Waktu haid pertama· Pertambahan pengeluaran minyak dan peluh yang dihasilkan oleh kelenjar. Hauser. contohnya mengangkat berat. Tetapi dalam remaja. Perubahan dalam lelaki· Pertumbuhan testis dan scrotal sac·Pertumbuhan bulu kemaluan· Pertumbuhan bulu di bawah ketiak dan muka· Pertumbuhan badan· Pertumbuhan zakar· Perubahan suara· Pancutan air mani yang pertama· Pertambahan pengeluaran minyak dan peluh yang dihasilkan oleh kelenjar. 1976). purata di antara Kikuyu of Kenya ialah umur 16 tahun. Bagi purata ketinggian perempuan. olahraga. ada orang muda menakluk mereka sendiri kepada pengehadan makanan dengan bersungguh. Waktu haid pertama biasanya berlaku semasa dia hampir mencapai ketinggian dewasanya dan semasa dia diuruskan untuk menyimpan jumlah minimum lemak badan. janggal. banyak remaja perempuan yang       . purata perempuan Amerika Syarikat ialah 12 ½.

mereka berasa mereka gemuk dan cuba untuk menghilangkan berat badan mereka. dengan bentuk tubuh yang baik. Lebih kurang 2/3 remaja harap mereka sendiri akan mempunyai satu atau banyak bahagian pertukaran fizikal (Peterson & Taylor.” Lelaki juga tidak puas tetapi kurang tepat. Dalam kes lain. Setidak-tidaknya. terutamanya bagi lelaki kematangan lewat. Kematangan awal dan lewat. Bilangan kesedaran sendiri terhadap badan seseorang menyusut pada remaja akhir. 1981). dia mengalami kelemahan dalam sukan. 2 tahun lebih awal daripada lelaki. dan lelaki kematangan lewat akan memberikan reaksi dengan pergantungan kebudak-budakan dan tingkah laku tidak matang. dalam umur antara 11 tahun dan 18 tahun. Setengah kalangan remaja berkata mereka prihatin terhadap pimples dan blackheads. 1980). kematangan awal dan lewat mendatangkan masalah.normal. Seorang lelaki tipikal mungkin berkata: “Saya ingin mendapat rupa yang handsome dan tidak gemuk. prihatin terhadap berat ini boleh mendatangkan anorexia nervosa atau bulimia. orang yang mengalami kematangan lewat mempunyai status sosial yang lebih rendah di kalangan rakan dia dan dipandang sebagai kurang kecekapan oleh dewasa (Brackbill & Nevill. jadi lelaki kematangan lewat adalah orang yang paling lewat mencapai akil baligh dan paling lewat untuk mengalami pertumbuhan secara pecut. Walaupun banyak remaja mempunyai sikap positif dengan patutnya terhadap kadar kematangan mereka sendiri (Pelletz. kepuasan terhadap imej badan perempuan pada umur 13 tahun dan lelaki pada umur 15 tahun adalah paling rendah. walaupun kurus. Keseluruhannya. dia adalah paling kecil dan kurang otot berbanding dengan rakan sama umur dia. 1995). Apabila mereka terlalu ekstrim.Terdapat perbezaan yang menarik dalam perubahan remaja perempuan dan lelaki yang ingin buat terhadap badan mereka. Kanak-kanak dan dewasa berkecenderungan menganggap kanak yang lebih kecil sebagai kanak yang lebih muda. dia mungkin bantah dan menjadi sangat aggresif. Perempuan mahu perubahan spesifik: “saya hendak buat telinga saya dalam keadaan tertentu” atau “ Saya hendak buat dahi saya lebih rendah. lelaki kematangan lewat mempunyai kesusahan penyesuaian yang lebih banyak berbanding dengan lelaki kematangan awal. Daripada zaman pertengahan kanak-kanak. Kadang-kalanya persepsi ini menjadi ramalan kepenuhan sendiri.Ketinggian. lelaki kematangan awal lebih suka menjadi pemimpin rakan kumpulan mereka (Weisfeld & Billings. Menurut satu kajian. kepuasannya meningkat dengan ketara. dengan puratanya. Kedua-dua perempuan dan lelaki bimbang terhadap kulit mereka. 1989). berat dan wajah adalah sumber prihatin kepada remaja. Lantaran daripada perempuan matang. Jika      .  Selepas umur tersebut. Oleh itu. 1988). kepuasan imej badan perempuan lebih rendah daripada lelaki (Rauste-von Wright. jadi. Saya ingin mendapat rambut hitam berombak. Saya hendak tukar seluruh rupa fizikal jadi saya akan menjadi handsome. Lelaki kematangan awal bercenderungan menambahkan semua jenis sosial dan faedah olahraga di kalangan rakannya.

dan lebih matang berbanding dengan rakan lelaki dia. dia kurang mempunyai peluang untuk berbincang dengan rakan dia bahawa perubahan fizikal dan emosi yang dia alami. Dia lebih popular dalam golongan rakan dia berbanding dengan perempuan kematangan awal. Perempuan kematangan awal.kematangan awal adalah aset kepada remaja lelaki.  Tetapi. lebih tinggi. Akibatnya. mereka lebih popular dengan lelaki yang lebih besar. Perempuan kematangan lewat mungkin mula matang pada masa yang sama dengan rakan lelaki dia. Dalam perempuan. dan mereka keluar untuk pertemuan sosial lebih kerap berbanding dengan rakan yang mengalami kematangan lewat . jadi ia juga menjadi rahmat kepada perempuan. faedah awalnya terlekat pada kematangan lewat. sebaliknya perempuan kematangan awal kerap berasa lebih tertarik.

"You Will Never Be" How did we ever come to this I never thought you'd be Someone I'd have to miss.. And there I was caught in your game Needing answers that never came And we took a chance........ Look at her She won't ever compare You can say you're sorry But I still don't care Was she worth this mess Was she worth this pain You can say it's her fault But you're both to blame And now I'm... And now I'm. You said you were strong Strong enough But you were wrong.. Deafened by your silence Blinded by the tears If you're looking for forgiveness You won't find that here Cause you lied your way to heartbreak And now it's all too clear That you will never be... Deafened by your silence Blinded by the tears If you're looking for forgiveness You won't find that here Cause you lied your way to heartbreak And now it's all too clear That you will never be. That you will never be. . Looking back it was all so easy I hope you know you're my last mistake Don't come around and say you need me I won't stay Now I know that you were so deceiving Was it fun for you to walk away I hope you liked it Cause she's so damn easy You won't change Deafened by your silence Blinded by the tears If you're looking for forgiveness You won't find that here Cause you lied your way to heartbreak And now it's all too clear That you will never be....

Ku sedar ku tak seberapa Jika dibanding mereka Yang jauh lebih megah dari diri ini Apa yang mampu ku berhias Hanyalah hati yang ikhlas Terpendam simpan untuk dia yang sudi Mencintai aku dengan seadanya Mencintai aku bukan kerana rupa Dalam waktu sedu Dalam waktu hiba Ku harapkan dia rela Mencintai aku dengan seadanya Sanggup menerima insan tak sempurna Atau mungkin cinta sebegitu hanya Kisah dongeng saja Belum pernah ku merasakan Dipeluk dalam dakapan Eratnya melindungi jiwa rapuh ini Sanubariku memerlukan Kehadiran seorang teman Tulus mencurah kasih sepenuh hati Mencintai aku dengan seadanya Mencintai aku bukan kerana rupa Dalam waktu sedu Dalam waktu hiba Ku harapkan dia rela Mencintai aku dengan seadanya Sanggup menerima insan tak sempurna Atau mungkin cinta sebegitu hanya Kisah dongeng saja .

Pernahkah kau bermimpi seketika Berada di tempatku Membayangkan pahit manis berlalu Entah siapa yang tahu Mungkin nanti kau jua merasakan Berdepan dengan kata menyesakkan Takkan tugumu kebal Tiada pertimbangan (Chorus) Keheningan malam membangunkan Kepayahan jiwa meluahkan Andai kau jujur memahami Tiadaku menjauhi Dan kisahku yang masih panjang Menambahkan berat yang memandang Lantas ku pendam Ku putuskan biarlah rahsia (Bridge) Semakin aku hidup dalam cinta Tiada kuasa mampu menghalangnya Hentikan kata-kata Bertulangkan dusta (Chorus) Pernahkah kau bermimpi seketika Berada di tempatku .

Biar mimpi mimpi kita Jejak sampai ke bintang Walau harus menggapai awan Menongkah arus ini Aku tahu bukan mudah Tapi mimpi ini harus aku Tiada gunung yang terlalu tinggi Tiada laut yang terlalu luas Tuk mereka memisahkan kita Dari mimpi-mimpi kita ini Jangan resah ini takdir Tuhan mendengarnya Tuk membawa mimpi-mimpi kita Biar mimpi sampai ke bintang Kerna kita semua tahu Kerana ini impian Setiap satu dari kita Tiada gunung yang terlalu tinggi Tiada laut yang terlalu luas Tuk mereka memisahkan kita Dari mimpi-mimpi kita ini Jangan resah ini takdir Tuhan mendengarnya Tuk membawa mimpi-mimpi kita Menuju ke bintang .

Bertuturlah cinta mengucap satu nama Seindah goresan sabda-Mu dalam kitabku Cinta yang bertasbih mengutus hati ini Ku sandarkan hidup dan matiku pada-Mu [*] Bisikkan doaku dalam butiran tasbih Ku panjatkan pintaku pada Maha Cinta Sudah diubun-ubun cinta mengusik rasa Tak bisa ku paksa walau hatiku menjerit [**] Ketika cinta bertasbih nadiku berdenyut merdu Kembang kempis dadaku merangkai butir cinta Garis tangan tergambar tak bisa aku menentang Sujud syukur pada-Mu atas segala cinta Back to [*][**] Cinta… Back to [**] Garis tangan tergambar tak bisa aku menentang Sujud syukur pada-Mu atas segala cinta Ketika cinta bertasbih .