Levi Teitel 2nd Hour

HISTOLOGY LAB: OBSERVING EPITHELIAL TISSUE DUE: MOnday, September 23rd Introduction: The repeated cell division (mitosis) that occurs in a newly fertilized ovum (egg) creates hundreds of identical daughter cells. However, once the mass of daughter cells is implanted along the inner wall of the uterus, mitosis stops temporarily. When cell division resumes, the cells that are produced are not all identical – they have differentiated and the mass of cells is referred to as an embryo. Initially, the embryo has three distinct layers: the ectoderm (outermost layer, which becomes nervous tissue and the outer epithelial tissue); the mesoderm (the middle layer, which becomes connective and muscle tissue), and the endoderm (the innermost layer, which becomes the internal epithelial tissues and visceral organs). Each variety of epithelium is given two classification names (except transitional epithelium). The first name indicates the number of layers present; the second describes the shape of the cells. Layers: Simple = One layer Stratified = Several layers Pseudostratified=All cells touch the basement membrane, but not the apical surface. Shapes: Squamous = flattened or “squashed” in appearance. Cuboidal = “Cubed” shaped (I know, very original name…) Columnar = Tall columns (think of the white house) Transitional = Changeable, random shapes

Epithelial cells can be unciliated, ciliated, or have the presence of microvilli. Ciliated cells function to move substances or cells past the epithelial cells, and microvilli function to increase the surface area of the cell that is involved in absorption. Procedure: 1. Using the compound microscope, observe the prepared slides of the various types of epithelial tissues. Complete a total of seven slides, making sure that you follow each of the following guidelines: •Include the magnification (all images must be at 400X), give specific information from the slide’s label, and label all relevant structures within the tissue (basement membrane, cilia, nucleus, etc.) •Images can be shared amongst students if need be

2. When you have completed your drawings, test your ability to recognize each type of epithelial tissue. To do this, have your lab partner select one of the prepared slides, cover the label with a sticky note or scrap piece of paper, and focus the microscope on the tissue. Try to see if you can determine the tissue correctly! 3. After your drawings are complete use your class notes to research each tissue type. You may view the slides in any order. Include examples of locations that contain each tissue type as well as the function(s) next to each drawing in your lab report. EPITHELIAL TISSUE IMAGE SECTION A. Simple Squamous Epithelium (40X)

Squished cells elliptically shaped nuclei

filtration and diffusion •Simple Cuboidal E.T. (40X)

hexagonal shaped single layer of cells provide a layer of protection

•Simple Columnar E.T. (ciliated)

(40X) long cells, nuclei at base of cell. main function is to protect.

•Pseudostratified columnar E.T. (40X)

function is for secretion and absorption long cells

Stratified Squamous E.T. (40X)

flat, scale-like

provide protection against mechanical friction and chemical damage

•Transitional (40X)

E.T.

cells are fairly round, cuboidal and stretched

function is to manage volume of a liquid in an organ or tube FOLLOW UP QUESTIONS Please complete these questions in BOLD type in the spaces provided.

1. Epithelial tissue is avascular. Nutrients are needed by the cells that make up epithelial tissue to carry out cellular functions, repair damaged portions, and remove cellular waste. Explain how this avascular tissue receives nutrients, oxygen, and disposes of waste. Avascular tissues receive nutrients, oxygen, and get rid of wastes by diffusion from blood vessels in nearby connective tissues or from free surface.

2. Why is learning about epithelial tissue important when it comes to understanding how disease occurs in the human body? Because epithelial tissue protects most organs. 3. Match the each epithelial tissue with the characteristics (1 answer is used twice):

(A) simple squamous (B)= simple cuboidal (C) = simple columnar (D) = pseudostratified (E)= stratified squamous (G) = transitional __B___ a. consists of many layers of cells, which the apical surface cells all appearing flattened, lines the throat, mouth, and vagina. _A____ b. forms the air sacs of the lungs where gas exchange occurs. ___G__ c. forms the inner lining of the urinary bladder and uterus. ___D__ d. forms the lining of large ducts of glands;functions in secreting glandular secretion ____A_ e. forms the walls of the circulatory system’s capillaries, site of g as exchange. ____C_ f. lines the stomach and small intestines where absorption of nutrients occurs. ____E_ g. functions to move the ovum (egg) from the ovaries to the uterus, specialized goblet cells produce mucus. Matching: A. connective B. Epithelium C. Muscle D. Nervous

___C____ Allows movement of limbs and for organ movements within the body

____D___ Uses electrochemical signals to carry out its functions ___A____ Cells of this tissue may absorb and/or secrete substances ___D___ This tissues cells shorten to exert force _____B__ Forms endocrine and exocrine glands ____C___ Allows you to smile, grasp, swim, ski, and throw a ball ___A____ Forms the brain and spinal cord MULTIPLE CHOICE ________Which of the following is not characteristic of epithelial tissue? Has no blood vessels Covers free surfaces of the body Typically involved in secretion, excretion, or absorption **** Contains an extensive nonliving matrix ________Through which epithelial tissue would diffusion most easily take place? **** Simple squamous Transitional Cuboidal Pseudostratified columnar ________What tissue types are found in the intestinal tract? Cuboidal epithelium, smooth muscle Stratified squamous epithelium, stratified muscle **** Simple columnar epithelium, smooth muscle Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, reticular tissue _______The criterion for categorizing epithelia as simple, stratified, or pseudostratified is Cell size. Secretions of cells. •••• Cell shape. Arrangement of cells. When you are finished with your lab, make sure your name is on it and submit to Moodle drop box, if you have trouble with the Moodle dropbox, print off a copy and bring to class.