Nyon Þrocess keport:
V|s|t to 1un|s|a of Þrofessor Iohn Lspos|to and Iu||an We|nberg,
Ianuary 10-1S 2012

Date: 26 Ianuary 1012

1he food carL of Mohammad 8ou'azlzl. 1he carL was belng Laken Lhrough Lhe sLreeLs on !anuary 14
2012, as
1unlslans celebraLed Lhe annlversary of Lhe revoluLlon.

1hls reporL ls based on Lhe vlslL by Þrofessor !ohn LsposlLo, and !ullan Welnberg, Lo 1unlsla, 11-
13 !anuary where Lhey meL wlLh many of Lhe counLry's key pollLlcal acLors from across Lhe
pollLlcal specLrum, youLh acLlvlsLs and clvll socleLy. A llsL ls provlded aL Lhe end of Lhls reporL.


!"#$%&# ()$*+)(, -$* +#( .#/$0120-3 -$* +#( 4$5637 explalned ÞresldenL Marzoukl as he
descrlbed Lhe fraglllLy and urgency of Lhe slLuaLlon faclng Lhe governmenL and Lhe dependency
of achlevlng pollLlcal reform on securlng economlc growLh. lf [ob creaLlon ls noL forLhcomlng,
Lhe publlc's paLlence Lo achleve democraLlc lnsLlLuLlons and process ls LhreaLened.

lmprovlng Lhe economy remalns Lhe prlme challenge faclng 1unlsla's new coallLlon
governmenL. lallure Lo address Lhe economlc needs and Lhe creaLlon of [obs could derall Lhe
pollLlcal pro[ecL of democraLlsaLlon lncludlng Lhe bulldlng of sLrong lnsLlLuLlons. SubsLanLlal and
growlng polarlsaLlon ln Lhe pollLlcal arena rlsks slower economlc recovery, and could be a
sLraLegy of Lhe counLer-revoluLlonary forces, or Lhose forces LhaL were unsuccessful ln Lhe
recenL elecLlons who wlsh Lo see Lhe pro[ecL of Lhe currenL coallLlon fall. 1he governmenL
(ÞresldenL and elecLed members of naLlonal ConsLlLuLlonal Assembly) and Lnnahdha leaders
conslsLenLly ouLllne Lhe urgency of Lhe counLry's economlc slLuaLlon. 1hey sLress Lhelr
openness Lo lnLernaLlonal asslsLance and requesL lnLernaLlonal supporL from Lhe Lu, Culf, Lhe
uS, as well as havlng broader llnks wlLh Asla, Afrlca and SouLh Amerlca.

Achlevlng plurallsm ln Lhe pollLlcal arena ls cruclal Lo Lhe success of Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of a sLrong
democraLlc sysLem and naLlonal unlLy. 1unlsla's currenL coallLlon, (of secular, lefLlsL and lslamlc
falLh-based parLles) appears well aware of Lhe welghL upon lLs shoulders. ÞollLlcal parLles and
dlverse secLors of socleLy respond dlfferenLly when asked Lhelr oplnlon of Lhe challenges faclng
Lhe counLry. 1hose parLles and organlsaLlons commonly referred Lo as 'secular', buL ln some
lnsLances may be more accuraLely referred Lo as 'hard llne' secular, (due Lo Lhelr
uncompromlslng re[ecLlon of Musllm pollLlcal acLors, ln conLrasL Lo Lhe governlng coallLlon
llberal secular parLles,) sLaLe LhaL Lhe blggesL challenge wlll be Lhe wrlLlng of Lhe consLlLuLlon.
1hey argue LhaL Lnnahdha are an unchanged pollLlcal force from Lhe laLe 1980s when Lhe parLy
conLesLed elecLlons, and asserL LhaL Lhe four key challenges ln Lhe consLlLuLlon wrlLlng process
wlll be: gender equallLy (personal sLaLus law), relaLlon of rellglon and sLaLe ln Lhe democraLlc
sysLem, lnLroducLlon of caplLal punlshmenL, and enshrlnlng freedom of bellef ln law.

Members of Lhe coallLlon governmenL, lncludlng Lnnahdha, respond LhaL on all four lssues or
crlLlclsms ouLllned by hard llne secularlsLs, Lhey have already lndlcaLed Lhelr poslLlon and LhaL
Lhere wlll noL be any conLroversy regardlng Lhose arLlcles of Lhe consLlLuLlon. As one advlsor Lo
Lhe Lnnahdha leadershlp sLaLed, !8( 9:&& 5# 2 6#0*&21 0$;6(:(*(:$; 5*( :( 9$;<( 5# 02&&#. 6#0*&21=
8( 9:&& )2># 2 0:>:& +$>#1;/#;(3 %&*12&:6(:03 ;#*(12&:(- $? 1#&:+:$; 2;. :( 9:&& #@*2& 6#0*&21:6/3
+#;.#1 #@*2&:(-A7 Lnnahdha has also repeaLedly sLaLed LhaL lL has no lnLenLlon of changlng Lhe
personal sLaLus code ln whlch 1unlsla's laws on gender equallLy are malnLalned. Moreover,
parLy leaders emphaslze LhaL Lhe maln challenges faclng 1unlsla are economlc and LhaL desplLe
soclal and pollLlcal dlvlslons, Lhey belleve success ln Lhe economy ls fundamenLal Lo Lhe
conLlnuaLlon of Lhe democraLlsaLlon process.

1unlsla's coallLlon governmenL, wlLh supporL from Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy, has Lhe
opporLunlLy Lo dellver an example, a worklng model, for Lhe LranslLlon from dlcLaLorshlp Lo
democracy ln Lhe Arab world. Such a model would enable parLles rooLed ln lslam noL Lo be
seen as poLenLlal spollers or oppressors of rlghLs and freedoms, buL raLher an lnLegral parL of a
new economlc and pollLlcal era ln Lhe Mlddle LasL and norLh Afrlca, brlnglng prosperlLy and
opporLunlLy Lo Lhelr clLlzens afLer decades of pollLlcal suppresslon.

Lconom|c Cha||enges:

ShorL-Lerm and long-Lerm supporL:

As noLed, 1unlsla's economlc slLuaLlon ls fraglle. !ob creaLlon ls Lhe prlmary focus of Lhe
governmenL wlLh unemploymenL currenLly hlgher Lhan lL was before Lhe revoluLlon. 8efore Lhe
revoluLlon, around 70° of Lhe counLry's economlc exchanges, lmporLs and exporLs, were wlLh
Luropean counLrles. lorelgn dlrecL lnvesLmenL ls channelled Lhrough some 3,000 companles
who employ around 430,000 1unlslans. 1he LourlsL lndusLry ls worLh ln Lhe reglon of uS$3
bllllon and employs one mllllon people. 1he poLenLlal for Lurope and Lhe uS Lo become
parLners ln Lhe rebulldlng and successful LranslLlon Lo democracy ls clear. Advlsors Lo Lnnahdha
argue LhaL Lhe opporLunlLy for wesLern naLlons, Lhrough subsLanLlal, conslsLenL and honesL
cooperaLlon wlLh Lhe new LranslLlonal governmenL, wlll lead Lo Lhe formulaLlon of a worklng
model LhaL ls Arab and Musllm, democraLlc, prosperous and modern. Such a model supporLs
wesLern naLlonal securlLy ob[ecLlves beLLer Lhan prevlous pollcles of cooperaLlon wlLh
auLocraLlc reglmes, Lhey argue, by allgnlng wesLern pollcles wlLh Lhe popular leglLlmacy of Lhe
new elecLed governmenL. !B)# C;;2).)2 /$.#& 02; 5# 2 %21(;#1 2;. D#- ?$1 ()# 9#6( ?$1 ()#
E*6&:/ 9$1&.7 a senlor member of Lnnahdha urged. 1here are slgns, accordlng Lo Lnnahdha
offlclals, LhaL Lhe uS has changed lLs lnlLlal perspecLlve (LhaL over Lhe summer was dlsLracLed by
evenLs ln Calro) Lo vlew 1unlsla as Lhe example ln Lhe Arab world, as Lhe flrsL counLry Lo achleve
a consLlLuLlon and governmenL.

1unlsla requlres boLh shorL-Lerm flnanclal ald ln Lerms of hard cash, and long-Lerm forelgn
dlrecL lnvesLmenL Lo supporL economlc growLh over Lhe comlng years. llnanclal asslsLance
from Lhe Culf ls cruclal ln Lhls endeavour, parLlcularly conslderlng Lhe flnanclal crlsls ln whlch
wesLern naLlons sLlll flnd Lhemselves, Lnnahdha offlclals recognlse. Lnnahdha offlclals suggesL
LhaL pracLlcal sLeps wesLern naLlons can underLake should be Lo encourage lnvesLmenL and
lmmedlaLe flnanclal ald from Lhe Culf Lo 1unlsla, Lo enhance faclllLles such as loan guaranLees
for Lhe 1unlslan governmenL Lo meeL Lhe shorL Lerm needs of developlng Lhelr admlnlsLraLlon,
paylng salarles and supporLlng [ob creaLlon, and Lo hold a donors conference Lo encourage
Lrade and lnvesLmenL, as several secLors such as Lhe Agrlbuslness are ln facL growlng, Lhese
offlclals Lold us, emphaslslng Lhe sLrengLhs wlLhln Lhe economy as well as Lhe challenges.

lnLegraLed approach Lo norLh Afrlca, 1unlsla and Llbya:

1he llnks beLween 1unlsla and Llbya should also be facLored lnLo Lhe pollcles of wesLern
naLlons. AparL from Lhe lnfluence as a Lhlnker LhaL 8achld Al Channouchl ÞresldenL of
Lnnahdha, has ln Llbya, (lndeed, many of hls former sLudenLs are well-placed pollLlcal acLors ln
Llbya), Lhe economlc and pollLlcal desLlnles of Lhe Lwo counLrles are Lo a cerLaln exLenL
lnLerllnked, 1unlslans repeaLed Lold us ln our meeLlngs. An lnLegraLed economlc and pollLlcal
approach should be a fleld of conversaLlon beLween wesLern offlclals, 1unlslan offlclals and
Llbyan offlclals ln addlLlon Lo bllaLeral conversaLlons. !"$&:(:02& 6*00#66 :; B*;:6:2 ?##.6 %$&:(:02&
6*00#66 :; F:5-2= "$&:(:02& 6*00#66 :; F:5-2 ?##.6 #0$;$/:0 6*00#66 :; B*;:6:237 an Lnnahdha
advlsor sLressed. A successful 1unlsla would be a poLenLlal model whlch oLher norLh Afrlcan
LranslLlonlng counLrles could draw from and lncorporaLe lnLo Lhelr own organlcally grown
processes and sysLems. 8eal fears of Lhe poLenLlal for Llbya Lo lmplode were heard LhroughouL
all pollLlcal secLors of 1unlsla. 1unlsla has a number of facLors LhaL could be uLlllsed Lo supporL
Llbya: 1unlslan and Llbyan famllles are deeply lnLerconnecLed, 1unlsla housed some 1.3 mllllon
refugees durlng Lhe Llbyan revoluLlon, many of whom have or are now reLurnlng, 300,000
Llbyans are resldenLs ln 1unlsla, and Llbya has Lhe ablllLy Lo provlde hundreds of Lhousands of
[obs Lo 1unlslans, offlclals say.

ln addlLlon Lo meeLlng 1unlsla's shorL-Lerm cash-flow problem and long-Lerm lnvesLmenL needs,
Lhe counLry would also beneflL from developmenL and humanlLarlan asslsLance ln Lerms of
medlcal, healLh and oLher such asslsLance LhaL would ease Lhe burden on 1unlsla's llmlLed
governmenL revenue.

Þo||t|ca| Cha||enges:

ÞollLlcal Þlurallsm

1he challenge of achlevlng pollLlcal plurallsm and malnLalnlng naLlonal unlLy ln 1unlsla ls cenLral
Lo Lhe success of Lhe democraLlsaLlon process and wlll supporL Lhe esLabllshmenL of sLrong
lndependenL lnsLlLuLlons LhaL all clLlzens have falLh ln. CreaLlng a space where Lhere ls
agreemenL Lo dlsagree upon dlsagreemenL ls cruclal, and arguably Lhe coallLlon governmenL has
formed Lhe flrsL sLeps of such a space as lL has found accommodaLlon and agreemenL beLween
secular parLles and parLles rooLed ln lslam. ln Lhls [olnL space Lhere ls room for Lhe non-rellglous
and rellglous Lo pracLlce Lhelr values and feel LhaL Lhelr ldenLlLles are secure. 1hls pollLlcal and
soclal cenLre ground ls broader Lhan [usL Lhose parLles ln Lhe coallLlon, and ls shared by oLher
leaders from Lhe commonly referred Lo 'secular' Lrend. As one senlor offlclal commenLed, Lhe
governmenL needs Lo supporL and promoLe pollLlcal plurallsm whlle opposlLlon forces need Lo
appreclaLe Lhe meanlng of dlssenL and opposlLlon Lo a speclflc governmenL from wlLh Lhe
conLexL of a loyal opposlLlon LhaL also operaLes wlLhln Lhe democraLlc process and naLlonal

1here ls a sLrong challenge posed by hard llne secularlsL pollLlcal groups who are far more
uncompromlslng ln Lhelr accepLance of Lnnahdha as a pollLlcal force. Pard llne secularlsLs we
spoke Lo argued LhaL Lhey needed a year Lo organlse Lhemselves lnLo a successful pollLlcal
alLernaLlve Lo Lnnahdha havlng falled ln Lhe recenL elecLlons. 1hey see Lhelr role as belng an
opposlLlon Lo Lhe coallLlon. Loyal opposlLlon ls cruclal for democraLlc process, no doubL. As
1unlsla's new governmenL Lackles Lhe vasL economlc and pollLlcal challenges Lhe counLry faces,
so ls naLlonal consensus. Some hard llne secular pollLlcal forces suggesLed Lhey could noL see
Lnnahdha succeedlng Lo meeL Lhe economlc demands. uesplLe Lhe facL LhaL fallure Lo do so
would be very grave for 1unlsla, Lhese very pollLlcal groups Lhemselves had declded Lo be Lhe
opposlLlon Lo Lhe governmenL. 1hls ls a pollLlcal calculaLlon almed aL caplLallslng on Lhe fallure
of Lhe governmenL. Powever, lL rlsks accusaLlons from Lhe populaLlon LhaL Lhey dld noL lend
Lhelr asslsLance aL a cruclal Llme of need, chooslng Lo waLch from Lhe sldellnes as Lhe counLry
deLerloraLes pollLlcally and economlcally. Such a fallure would have devasLaLlng consequences
for democraLlsaLlon ln 1unlsla.

1he dlvlslons beLween Lnnahdha and lLs cenLre-secular pollLlcal parLners, and Lhe more hard
llne secularlsLs ofLen evoke accusaLlons of 'double speak' from each abouL Lhe oLher: .$ ()#-
1#2&&- /#2; 9)2( ()#- 62-A Such susplclons are also heard from wesLern naLlons as Lhey pledge
Lo supporL 1unlsla's LranslLlon, buL are heslLanL Lo belleve wholly ln Lnnahdha's sLaLemenLs.
1hese same accusaLlons are heard from Lhose ln Lnnahdha, from Lhe youLh leaders we spoke
Lo, and more senlor members of Lhe organlsaLlon, '.$#6 ()# 9#6( 1#2&&- /#2; 9)2( :( 62-6G 9:&&
()# 9#6( 1#2&&- (1#2( *6 26 #@*2& %21(;#16H< Cnly acLlon wlll prove or dlsprove such senLlmenL.
Across Lhe board, Lnnahdha's pollLlcal dlscourse was pralsed, buL 'wlll Lhey dellver' ls Lhe key
concern, and challenge from Lnnahdha's poslLlon. ln our meeLlngs wlLh Lnnahdha from Lhe
youLh leadershlp Lo Lhe senlor leadershlp and elecLed members of Lhe naLlonal Assembly, Lhere
ls a clear deLermlnaLlon Lo dellver on boLh Lhe economlc and pollLlcal challenges faclng Lhe
counLry, and carry ouL Lhelr assurances LhaL Lhe consLlLuLlon wlll noL be an obsLacle for Lhe
naLlonal ConsLlLuLlonal Assembly.


Pard-llne secular parLles also sLaLe LhaL conslderlng 30° of Lhe populaLlon dld noL voLe ln Lhe
2011 elecLlons, Lhls means Lhere ls a sllenL ma[orlLy LhaL supporL Lhelr pollLlcal programme.
Such analysls ls mlsleadlng. AparL from Lhe facL LhaL free and falr democraLlc rarely reach voLer
Lurn ouL of anyLhlng close Lo 100° of Lhe elecLoraLe, Lo assume LhaL an unvolced voLe ls yours ls
a mlsLake. 1he onus ls on Lhe parLles Lo organlse and convlnce Lhose lndlvlduals who dld noL
voLe Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe nexL elecLlon, noL Lo assume Lhey speak on Lhelr behalf. LlecLlon
analysLs from Lnnahdha argue, based on Lhelr analysls of monLhs of oplnlon polls, LhaL Lhose
who dld noL voLe are llkely Lo voLe ln accordance wlLh Lhe spread of voLes ln Lhe elecLlon.

1unlsla's nexL elecLlons, scheduled for 2013, wlll be under a dlfferenL elecLoral sysLem. lL ls
esLlmaLed LhaL around 30° of voLes, ln Lhe elecLlon lasL year, ln effecL I0$*;(#. ?$1 ;$():;+< as
Lhe sheer number of llsLs and candldaLes meanL 30° of Lhe voLes dld noL sLrengLhen any of Lhe
leadlng parLles. Lnnahdha offlclals also complalned LhaL some consLlLuencles requlred Lens of
Lhousands of voLes Lo wln a seaL, whllsL oLhers only a couple of Lhousand. 1hls sysLem clearly
beneflLed smaller parLles ln Lhe elecLlons. LlecLoral reform ls llkely ahead of Lhe nexL elecLlons
ln order Lo even ouL such dlsparlLles. We were Lold LhaL lL ls unllkely LhaL Lhe 30-30 male-
female candldaLes raLlo whlch was lnLroduced for Lhe 2011 elecLlons wlll be changed. A
challenge remalns, however, ln brlnglng lnLo Lhe elecLlons an esLlmaLed 20° of Lhose ellglble Lo
voLe who couldn'L due Lo Lhelr llllLeracy.


ln addlLlon Lo economlc and pollLlcal challenges, pollLlcal acLors from Lhe broad cenLre ground
who are commonly referred Lo as 'secular opposlLlon' and noL parL of Lhe governlng Lnnahdha-
secular coallLlon, broughL up Lhe challenge faclng Lhe governmenL of lLs own lack of experlence.
Coupled wlLh a lack of experlence for many of Lhe counLry's new leaders, ls an ongolng sLruggle
agalnsL remnanLs of Lhe 'deep sLaLe' LhaL remalns a Lool of Lhe counLer-revoluLlonary forces
LhaL have susLalned much of Lhelr power slnce Lhe fall of 8en All [usL over one year ago. 1he
new governmenL, Lherefore, faces a mechanlcal challenge ln Lerms of lLs lnexperlence wlLh
governlng ln addlLlon Lo Lhe broader challenges of economy and pollLlcal plurallsm.

1hough ofLen quesLloned ln some 1unlslan pollLlcal clrcles, Lhe sLrengLh of Lhe coallLlon should
noL be doubLed Loo readlly elLher. 8achld Cannouchl, Lhe ÞresldenL of Lnnahdha, and 1unlslan
ÞresldenL Moncef Marzoukl formed a sLrong relaLlonshlp whllsL boLh were ln exlle.


uesplLe Lhe enormous Lasks ahead, 1unlsla's coallLlon governmenL, backed up by cooperaLlon
from Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy, has Lhe opporLunlLy Lo dellver an example, a worklng model,
for Lhe LranslLlon from dlcLaLorshlp Lo democracy ln Lhe Arab world. Such a model would enable
parLles rooLed ln lslam are noL seen as poLenLlal spollers or oppressors of rlghLs and freedoms,
buL raLher an lnLegral parL of a new economlc and pollLlcal era ln Lhe Mlddle LasL and norLh
Afrlca, brlnglng prosperlLy and opporLunlLy Lo Lhelr clLlzens afLer decades of pollLlcal


! WesLern governmenLs should ensure LhaL pro[ecLs Lhey supporL Lo sLrengLhen
democraLlc lnsLlLuLlons and process are lncluslve of 1unlsla's dlverse pollLlcal Lrends,
and are noL seen Lo be sLrengLhenlng cerLaln groups over oLhers.
! 1he pollLlcal dynamlc ln 1unlsla as ln LgypL should noL slmply be seen Lhrough Lhe lens
of an lslamlsL vs secularlsL polarlLy for boLh lslamlsLs and secularlsLs are dlverse raLher
Lhan monollLhlc and ln many cases Lhelr lnLeresLs and values overlap.
! 1o assure Lhe developmenL of a susLalnable democracy wlLh sLrong lnsLlLuLlons, Lhe
lnLernaLlonal communlLy musL work wlLh 1unlsla's governmenL Lo meeL Lhe counLry's
shorL-Lerm and long-Lerm economlc needs, a flrsL sLep could be Lhe plannlng of a donors
conference for 1unlsla.
! Lxchange programmes and pro[ecLs LhaL fosLer dlalogue and [olnL-acLlon should be
faclllLaLed beLween 1unlslan youLh, pollLlcal parLles, governmenL offlclals and Members
of Lhe ConsLlLuenL Assembly, lncludlng Lnnahdha, and wesLern counLrles Lo supporL Lhe
forglng of new relaLlonshlps and Lhe exposure of each Lo Lhe oLher.
! MeeLlngs should be organlsed ln 1unlsla LhaL brlng LogeLher hard-llne secular parLles
and groups wlLh Lhose rooLed ln lslam and oLher cenLre-secularlsL groups Lo dlscuss ln a
LrusLed envlronmenL Lhelr pollLlcal vlslons ln order Lo achleve broad consensus on Lhe
'rules of Lhe game' ln whlch Lhe mulLlple ldenLlLles of Lhe new 1unlsla are secured.

1h|s report |s based on meet|ngs w|th:

! Moncef Marzouk|, ÞresldenL of 1unlsla
! She|kh kash|d A| Ghannouch|, ÞresldenL of Lhe Lnnahdha MovemenL
! Dr kaf|k Abdessa|em, lorelgn MlnlsLer, Member of Lnnahdha
! Ayad 8en Ashour, lormer ÞresldenL of Lhe Plgher ÞollLlcal 8eform Commlsslon of
1unlsla charged wlLh overseelng legal and consLlLuLlonal reform ln posL-8en All 1unlsla
! Ame| Ghou||, Member of naLlonal ConsLlLuenL Assembly for Lnnahdha and one of Lhe
parLy's 42 women MÞs
! 2|ed Ladhar|, Member of naLlonal ConsLlLuenL Assembly for Lnnahdha
! Souad Abderrah|m Landa, Member of Lhe naLlonal ConsLlLuenL Assembly for Lnnahdha
! Mondher 8enayed, Lnnahdha economlc and pollLlcal advlsor, lncludlng uS relaLlons
! Sa|d Ier[an|, Lnnahdha CommunlcaLlons 8ureau
! Mokhtar ¥ahy|aou|, 2011 ConsLlLuenL Assembly candldaLe, lmporLanL pollLlcal
lndlvldual, secular human rlghLs acLlvlsL, and Lhe flrsL person Lo publlcly crlLlclse Lhe
former ÞresldenL 8en All
! Na[|b Chebb|, Leader of ÞuÞ ÞarLy
! Þo||t|ca| Cff|ce, 8rlLlsh Lmbassy 1unls
! Chema Gargour|, ÞresldenL of 1unlslan AssoclaLlon of ManagemenL and Soclal SLablllLy,
worklng on economlc and soclal lssues llke mlcro fundlng.
! Ade| A| Da'daa, Lnnahdha, senlor member of Lhe parLy, and buslness relaLlons
! A||an| A|aya, Þrofessor ConLemporary PlsLory Manouba unlverslLy, 1unlsla - 8esearch ln
lslamlsm of Lhe Maghreb and lnLernaLlonal 8elaLlons
! kama| 8en ¥ounes, 8eporLer and [ournallsL, 88C World Servlce and oLhers
! kadwan Masmoud|, ulrecLor of CenLre lor Lhe SLudy of lslam and uemocracy, and
ConsLlLuenL Assembly candldaLe
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe above, we held meeLlngs wlLh:
! Lnnahdha pollLlcal bureau members
! Lnnahdha communlcaLlons Leam
! Lnnahdha parllamenLarlans, lncludlng women. ln conLrasL Lo LgypL where only flve
women were elecLed Lo parllamenL, ln 1unlsla 23° of Lhose elecLed Lo Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonal Assembly were women, 83° of whom were members of Lnnahdha
! Lnnahdha youLh members
! Clvll SocleLy workers and members of Lhe secular opposlLlon Lo Lhe governmenL
! Member of Lhe ÞresldenLs proLocol and clvll servanL

Authors: B)# >:#96 #J%1#66#. 21# ()# 2*()$16< $9; 2;. .$ ;$( ;#0#6621:&- 1#?&#0( ()$6# $? ()#
K-$; "1$0#663 $1 $()#1 %21(:0:%2;(6 :; ()# "1$0#66=

Iohn L. Lspos|to ls unlverslLy Þrofessor & Þrofessor of 8ellglon & lnLernaLlonal Affalrs,
CeorgeLown unlverslLy

Iu||an We|nberg ls Lhe nyon Þrocess Þrogramme Manager

About the Nyon Þrocess:
1he nyon Þrocess ls a dynamlc and expandlng group of secular and rellglous pollLlcal leaders
from Lhe uS, Lu and Mlddle LasL who meeL regularly ln an efforL Lo brldge Lhe growlng gap ln
undersLandlng LhaL exlsLs beLween rellglous and secular worldvlews, Lhls gap ln undersLandlng
ofLen leads Lo mlsgulded or lll-lnformed pollcy-maklng and poLenLlal confllcL aL a naLlonal or
global level.