Project Scope Management

Learning Objectives
• • Understand the elements that make good project scope management important. Explain the scope planning process and describe the contents of a scope management plan. Describe the process for developing a project scope statement using the project charter and preliminary scope statement. Discuss the scope definition process and work involved in constructing a work breakdown structure using the analogy, top-down, bottomup, and mind-mapping approaches.

Learning Objectives
• Explain the importance of scope verification and how it relates to scope definition and control. Understand the importance of scope control and approaches for preventing scope-related problems on information technology projects.

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Introduction

Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

Introduction
A deliverable is a product produced as part of a project. Product related: hardware or software Process related: planning document, minutes of meting etc.

• Ensures that the project team and stakeholders have the same understanding of what products will be produced as a result of the project and what processes will be used in producing them .What is Project Scope Management? • Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in a project.

Scope definition: Reviewing the project charter and preliminary scope statement and adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved. Scope verification: Formalizing acceptance of the project scope.Project Scope Management Processes • • Scope planning: Deciding how the scope will be defined. and controlled. verified. • • • . Creating the WBS: Subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller. more manageable components. Scope control: Controlling changes to project scope.

and project management plan. • The scope management plan is a document that includes descriptions of how the team will prepare the project scope statement. forms. and control requests for changes to the project scope. standards. preliminary scope statement.Scope Planning and the Scope Management Plan • Main output of the scope planning is a scope management plan. • Tools and Techniques for scope planning includes templates. . verify completion of the project deliverables. • Key inputs include the project charter. create the WBS. as well as expert judgement.

Sample Project Charter .

Sample Project Charter (cont’d) .

organizational process assets. .Scope Definition and the Project Scope Statement • The preliminary scope statement. project charter. and approved change requests provide a basis for creating the project scope statement. • As time progresses. the scope of a project should become clearer and more specific.

Project Scope Statement • Project scope statements should include – Description of the project – Overall objectives – Description of the project deliverables – Characteristics and requirements of products and services – Other scope related information .

Further Defining Project Scope .

Because the time and cost are set.000 to update a room in their neighbor’s house. Each applicant signs a release acknowledging that the show is not responsible for redecorating a room that isn’t to the owner’s taste. Designers on these shows often have to change initial scope goals due to budget or time constraints.Media Snapshot Many people enjoy watching television shows like Changing Rooms or Trading Spaces. Unlike most projects where the project team works closely with the customer. where participants have two days and $1. some are obviously disappointed. homeowners have little say in what gets done and cannot inspect the work along the way…What happens when the homeowners don’t like the work that’s been done? The FAQ section of tlc. It would make project scope management much easier! . it’s the scope that has the most flexibility. “Everyone on our show is told upfront that there’s a chance they won’t like the final design of the room.com says. Although most homeowners are very happy with work done on the show.” Too bad you can’t get sponsors for most projects to sign a similar release form.

estimated and tracked. • Subdivides the project into tasks that are defined. and changes. • Foundation document that provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules.Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • A WBS is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project. . costs. • Results-oriented family tree that captures all the work of a project in an organized way. resources.

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • Used to provide the framework for organizing and managing the work. • Root of the tree is labeled by the problem name. • Project scope statement and project management plan are the primary input for creating a WBS. .

• Serves as input to five key project management activities: – Cost estimating – Cost budgeting – Resource planning – Risk management planning – Activity definition .

Sample Intranet WBS Organized by Product .

Sample Intranet WBS Organized by Phase .

1 Define user requirements 1.2 Define requirements 1.0 Support .6 Brief Web development team 2.2.2.5 Develop project plan 1.4 Define server owner requirements 1.3 Define system requirements 1.1 Evaluate current systems 1.Intranet WBS in Tabular Form 1.4 Define risks and risk management approach 1.2 Define content requirements 1.2.3 Define specific functionality 1.0 Web Site Design 3.2.0 Concept 1.0 Roll Out 5.0 Web Site Development 4.

WBS Structure Fig: WBS architecture for a Aircraft .

WBS Structure .

Building a Desktop Computer .

Creating an Animated Computer Game .

Intranet Gantt Chart Organized by Project Management Process Groups .

Executing Tasks for JWD Consulting’s WBS .

• Smallest deliverable within the WBS • Project activity list derived form the WBS .Work Package • Task at the lowest level of the WBS.

People who will do the work should help to plan the work .WBS Involve the entire project team and the customers in creating and reviewing the WBS.

subtasks and units of work (a WBS element) to be performed • Increases the probability that every requirement will be accounted • Partition the major project deliverables into smaller components to improve the accuracy of cost estimates  Provide a mechanism for collecting and organizing actual costs  Provide a mechanism for performance measurement and control • Helps with assigning responsibilities • Shows the control points and project milestones • Ensures that unnecessary work is excluded • Decision making tool .Why Use WBS? • Identifies the tasks.

• Analogy approach: Review WBSs of similar projects and tailor to your project. such as the DOD.Approaches to Developing WBSs • Guidelines: Some organizations. • Top-down approach: Start with the largest items of the project and break them down. • Mind-mapping approach: Write tasks in a nonlinear. branching format and then create the WBS structure. provide guidelines for preparing WBSs. . • Bottom-up approach: Start with the specific tasks and roll them up.

• Top-down approach would identify the solution first and then dissect the solution into the steps require to implement it.Top. . • Very specific solutions without delving into all of the details of each solution. • Top-down approach requires more logic and structure and generally preferred method for creating WBS.Down and Bottom-Up • Bottom-up method is ideal for brainstorming a solution to a problem.

Sample Mind-Mapping Approach .

.• Technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas. • Allows people to write and draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.

Resulting WBS in Chart Form .

• The approved project scope statement and its WBS and WBS dictionary form the scope baseline. . which is used to measure performance in meeting project scope goals. • A WBS dictionary is a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item.The WBS Dictionary and Scope Baseline • Many WBS tasks are vague and must be explained in more detail so people know what to do and can estimate how long the work will take and what it will cost.

• Scope Baseline may be defined as – sufficiently detailed description of the project's deliverables and/or its components that provides a basis for the measurement of changes from that baseline • A key tool in documenting the scope baseline is the work breakdown structure (WBS) .

Freezing the scope baseline • Is not as easy as it sounds • There will be resistance – Do it too early and the customers will be disappointed with the product – Do it too late and the client will be disappointed with the cost and schedule results .

no later than when funds are committed to the start of a new phase or stage .When to freeze? • The right time to freeze – Generally depends on the area of project management application • And the technology involved • And hence the degree of technological uncertainty – Consequently. freezing properly takes place later in some projects than others • But in any case.

especially through the definition phase.Scope Creep • Scope Creep may be characterized as – Continual extension of the scope as observed in some projects • Often leading to a runaway project – As some projects progress. their requirements continually change (increase) incrementally causing the project team to add to the project's mission or objectives • Involving more work. more time and more money .

there is necessarily an "evolution" or "clarification" of the scope • In most types of project – This is through a process of iteration to determine • What is it that is really required? • And what does this involve? .The Progression • Thus. as every project – Moves from its conceptual statement to a point where there is sufficient definition and planning for implementation • So.

as the product gradually becomes reality – The client/customers may well say • That's not really what I meant • Or. if it is.The Problem • Unfortunately. that's not really what I want! • In the course of normal project execution – It is some times difficult to detect these shifts in direction • Without firm project control . during the Implementation Phase.

• It could be worse – Because the project sort of grew out of no where • There was no Business Case • No benefits analysis or project justification as to value • No verification of alignment with corporate goals • No clear scope definition and scope change procedure • No timeline as a basis for managing activities • No evaluation of resource requirements .

• In the initial weeks of project implementation – It isn't long before the plan has to change • We often find – Things have been left out – There's a better way of doing the work – The estimates. cost or resource estimates are suspect – The client/sponsor or users want changes • Usually. . are no longer valid • Or the time. . hence budgets.Consequently . additions to the scope • All of which – Represent scope creep • And require more time and money .

• The answer to scope creep is to – Establish a clear strategic direction • And a clear set of benefits – Establish a firm baseline plan – The baseline plan will necessarily include a clear scope description • That is a "Scope Baseline" .

the scope baseline itself – Will "evolve" during the Definition Phase • The trick – Is to "freeze" the description • As part of the implementation phase approval process .• However.

• A WBS item is the responsibility of only one individual. even though many people may be working on it. • The WBS must be consistent with the way in which work is actually going to be performed. it should serve the project team first. and other purposes only if practical. . • The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it.Advice for Creating a WBS and WBS Dictionary • A unit of work should appear in only one place in the WBS.

. • Each WBS item must be documented in a WBS dictionary to ensure accurate understanding of the scope of work that is included and not included in that item.Advice for Creating a WBS and WBS Dictionary (cont’d) • Project team members should be involved in developing the WBS to ensure consistency and buy-in. • The WBS must be a flexible tool to accommodate inevitable changes while properly maintaining control of the work content in the project according to the scope statement.

Scope Verification • Very difficult to create a good scope statement and WBS for a project. • Many IT projects suffer from scope creep and poor scope verification • Involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by stakeholders . • It is even more difficult to verify project scope and minimize scope changes.

Scope Verification • Input: – Scope statement – WBS dictionary – Scope management plan • Tool: – Inspection • Output: – Accepted deliverables – Requested changes – Recommended corrective actions .

. – Ensure changes are processed according to procedures developed as part of integrated change control.Scope Control • Scope control involves controlling changes to the project scope. – Manage changes when they occur. • Goals of scope control are to: – Influence the factors that cause scope changes. • Variance is the difference between planned and actual performance.

Scope Control • Input: – – – – – Project scope statement Scope management plan WBS and WBS dictionary Performance reports Change requests • Tools: – Change control systems – Configuration management – Variance analysis • Output: – Requested changes – Recommended corrective actions – Updates to the project scope statement. scope baseline. WBS. . WBS dictionary.

. • Don’t promise to deliver when you know you can’t. • Co-locate users with developers. • Hold regular meetings with defined agendas. and have users sign off on key deliverables presented at meetings. • Place users on the project team in important roles. • Deliver something to users and sponsors on a regular basis.Suggestions for Improving User Input • Develop a good project selection process and insist that sponsors are from the user organization.

• Create a requirements management database for documenting and controlling requirements. • Put requirements in writing and keep them current. use case modeling. and JAD to get more user involvement.Suggestions for Reducing Incomplete and Changing Requirements • Develop and follow a requirements management process. • Use techniques such as prototyping. .

• Review changes from a systems perspective. • Allocate resources specifically for handling change requests and enhancements . • Emphasize completion dates to help focus on what’s most important.Suggestions for Reducing Incomplete and Changing Requirements (cont’d) • Conduct adequate testing throughout the project life cycle.