THE BASICS OF JOB ANALYSIS

Job analysis is the systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization. Traditionally, it is an essential and pervasive human resource technique and the starting point of other human resource activities. In today’s rapidly changing work environment, the need for a sound job analysis system is critical. ob analysis provides summary of a job’s duties and responsibilities, its relationship to other jobs, the knowledge and skills required, and working conditions under which it is performed. ob analysis is conducted after the job has been designed, the worker has been trained, and the job is being performed. ob analysis is performed on three occasions. !irst, it is done when the organization is founded and a job analysis program is initiated for the first time. "econd, it is performed when new jobs are created. Third, it is used when jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods, procedures, or systems. ob analysis is most often performed because of changes in the nature of jobs. ob analysis information is used to prepare both job descriptions and job specifications. Example: In 1990 congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA 1990). This act was designed to aid emplo ees with disabilities in the wor!ing world. "ob anal sis has pla ed a !e role in companies compliance with this Act# as well as aiding tho$sands o% disabled Americans.

Job description
The job description is a document that provides information regarding the essential tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the job.

Job specification
The job specification is a document that outlines the minimum acceptable qualifications a person should possess to perform a particular job.

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Example: A bachelor&s degree ma be a minim$m '$ali%ication %or an acco$ntant in a ma(or acco$nting %arm# b$t it is not li!el to be necessar %or the (ob o% shi%t s$per)isor in a %ast*%ood resta$rant.

Importance of ob analysis
$ata derived from job analysis can have an impact on virtually every aspect of human resource management. % major importance of job analysis data is found in the area of human resource planning. &ffective human resource planning must take these job requirements into consideration. #. "taffing '. Training and development (. )ompensation and benefits *. "afety and health +. &mployee and labor relations ,. -egal considerations .. ob analysis for teams

Steps and process of Job Analysis
#. "cope of the project  $ecide purposes of project  $ecide which jobs to include '. /ethods of job analysis  $ecide which types of data are needed  Identify sources of job data  "elect specific procedures of job analysis (. $ata collection and analysis  )ollect job data  %nalyze data

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%ssessing job analysis methods  &valuate results against criteria of benefits. They all provide realistic information about what job incumbents actually do. This method is used in cases where the job is fairly routine and the observer can identify the job essentials in a reasonable amount of time. or combine several. observations and dairy1logs are the most popular methods for gathering job analysis data. and legality !et"ods of collectin# ob analysis information There are various ways to collect information on a job’s duties. 0eport results to organization  0echeck job analysis data periodically *. responsibilities. In practice. The job analyst may videotape the job incumbent in order to study the job in greater detail. Example: In garments %actories the (ob anal sis o% the assembl line wor!ers are mainl done b obser)ation process. The basic rule is to use those that best fit your purpose. Interviews. you could use any one of them. costs. ( . and activities. Inter$ie%s The interviewer 2usually a member of the 30 department4 interviews a representative sample of job incumbents using a structured interview. The structured interview includes a series of job5related questions that is presented to each interviewee in the same order. /anagers use these methods for developing job description and job specifications. questionnaires. Obser$ation %n individual observes the job incumbent actually performing the job and records the core job characteristics from observation.

There are two types of job descriptions7 specific job descriptions and general job descriptions. skill. Example: In a constr$ction site# (ob anal sis can be done b !eeping the records o% the acti)ities o% the emplo ees in a dair or log. working conditions. '(estionnaires The job incumbent fills out a questionnaire that asks a series of questions about the job’s knowledge.&airies "everal job incumbents may be asked to keep dairies or logs of their daily job activities and record the amount of time spent on each activity. duties. This type of job description is associated with work flow strategies that * . Job &escriptions and Job Specifications and t"eir essential elements Job &escription % ob description is a summary statement of the information collected in the job5 analysis process. and specifications. &ach question is associated with a quantitative scale that measures the importance of the job factor or the frequency with which it occurs. a job analyst is able to capture the job’s essential characteristics. responsibilities. Example: "ob anal sis o% %ireman can be done b '$estionnaire method. 6y analyzing these dairies over a representative period of time 2perhaps several weeks4. and responsibilities. and ability requirements. and responsibilities. defines. duties. % specific job description is a detailed summary of a job’s tasks. % computer can then tally the scores on the questionnaires and create a printout summarizing the job’s characteristics. It is written document that identifies. and describes a job in terms of its duties.

job duties and responsibilities. control. The (ob !nowledge o% sa%et reg$lations and +ed . fle8ibility. It fits best with a bureaucratic organizational structure with well5defined boundaries that separate functions and the different levels of management. Identification information The first part of job description identifies the job title.emphasize efficiency. 9therwise. and source of job5analysis information: who wrote the job description: the dates of the job analysis and the + . and detailed work planning. % general job description is associated with work flow strategies that emphasize innovation. Example: A speci%ic (ob description %or the (ob o% ser)ice and sa%et s$per)isor. To comply with federal law. location. Elements of ob description ob descriptions have four key elements7 identification information. qualified women. minorities. 9nly the most generic duties and responsibilities for a position are documented in the general job description. job summary. and job specifications and minimum qualifications. and loose work planning. it is important that job descriptions document only the essential aspects of a job. This (ob description closel speci%ies the wor! that is $ni'$e to a person who will s$per)ise sa%et emplo ees. and persons with disabilities may be unintentionally discriminated against for not meeting specified job requirements. This type of job description fits best with a flat or boundary less organizational structure where there are few boundaries between functions and levels of management.ross %irst*aid proced$res incl$ded in this (ob description ma!e it inappropriate %or an other t pe o% s$per)isor (%or example# a s$per)isor at a local s$permar!et). Example: A )alid dri)er&s license sho$ld not be p$t in the (ob description i% the (ob can be modi%ied so that it can be per%ormed b a ph sicall disabled person witho$t a dri)er&s license.

/inimum requirements must be carefully specified to avoid discriminating against job applicants. Job s(mmary The job summary is a short statement that summarizes the job’s duties. Job specification and minim(m )(alification The job specifications section lists the worker characteristics needed to perform a job successfully. . &ach job description typically lists the job’s three to five most important responsibilities.verification of the job description: and whether the job is e8empted from the overtime provision of the fair labor standards act or subject to overtime pay rates. The worker characteristics represent the things that an employee who has mastered the job can do. responsibilities. . how it is done. and why it is done. These can be used to screen job applicants during the recruiting and selection process. &ach responsibility is associated with one or more job duties. and place in the organizational structure. The minimum qualifications are the basic standards a job applicant must have achieved to be considered for the job. Job d(ties and responsibilities ob duties and responsibilities e8plain what is done on the job. Example: A bachelor&s degree ma be a minim$m '$ali%ication %or an acco$ntant in a ma(or acco$nting %arm# b$t it is not li!el to be necessar %or the (ob o% shi%t s$per)isor in a %ast*%ood resta$rant.

e learn how to write job specifications. .e learn how job analysis is used .e learn about the methods of collecting job analysis information .*ey Learnin# +oints • • • • .e learn about the nature of job analysis . .

IT!ENT -ecr(itment 0ecruitment is the process of generating a pool of candidates for a particular job. • =repare and issue a vacancy announcement. %n organization may have all of the latest technology and the best physical resources. but if it does not have the right people it will struggle to achieve the results it requires. > .!AN -ESO. outside the organization. In such circumstances. The firm must announce the job’s availability to the market and attract qualified candidates to apply. skills and personal traits to perform the position<s duties satisfactorily. The firm may seek applications from inside the organization. These people not only produce good results.H. It is also an essential part of any business and it pays to do it properly. but also tend to stay with the organization for a longer time. the organization<s initial and ongoing investment in them is well rewarded. =repare a current position description for the vacant position or verify that the e8isting position description is current. T"e recr(itment and selection process • )onduct a position analysis. Importance "taff recruiting is a very e8pensive practice. -earn about the job’s processes. !ind in detail the minimum qualifications required for the position. 9rganizations always try to choose right people for the job. AN& -EC-. working conditions to determine what the essential functions are and what is required in terms of knowledge. train well the selected people.-CE +LANNIN. or both. performance factors. and treat them appropriately.

Trend analysis involves studying firm’s employment level over the past five years or so to predict future needs. )onduct interviews based on established criteria. if necessary. Trend analysis . prepare questions and screening criteria. =repare questions and screening criteria for the selection interview. !rom a sweeper to managing director. &mployment planning is very closely related to a firm’s strategic plans. The h$man reso$rces team th$s !new the wo$ld need plans %or who to hire# how to screen applicants# and when to p$t plans into place. all future positions are embraced by personnel planning. "elect the top5ranking individuals for interviewing.• • • • • • =repare application screening criteria. Thus you might compute the number of employees in your firm at the end of each of the past five years. The aim is to identify employment trends you think might continue in the future. "creen applications and.nited /ro$p decided to enter into the real estate b$siness# its managers !new the wo$ld ha)e to expand its emplo ment. The firm decides what position will have to fill. there are several simple ways for a manager to estimate future personnel needs. +lannin# and Forecastin# &mployment and personnel planning is the first step in recruitment and selection process. %ll types of business e8pansion and reduction influence the types of positions the firm will need to fill or eliminate. Example: -hen . and how to fill them through this process.hile some firms use sophisticated computerized personnel forecasting tools. conduct initial screening interview. If an interview is necessary to conduct an initial screening of applicants. based on established criteria. ? . /ake your selection decision. and conduct reference checks on your choice.

Internal so(rces of candidates +romotions =romotion means to give a higher position. the vacancy is advertised within the organization.-atio analysis It is a kind of analysis making based on some historical ratio between sales volume and number of employees required. Th$s the empt position o% a management trainee o%%icer is %illed. +ecentl he was trans%erred to +a(shahi 1+TA. the vacancy can be filled by transferring a suitable candidate from the same organization. "o. Example: A ($nior o%%icer is promoted to management trainee o%%icer a%ter se)eral ears o% wor! experience. Internal Ad$ertisements 3ere. The e8isting employees are asked to apply for the vacancy. "o. recruitment is done from within the organization. Transfers Transfer means a change in the place of employment without any change in the position. the vacancy can be filled by promoting a suitable candidate from the same organization. Example: 0 brother*in*law was dep$t director o% 0irp$r 1+TA. salary and responsibility to the employee. salary and responsibility of the employee. "o. status. #@ . status.

retired managers may be recalled for a short period. %t the end of this phase. responsibility and pay at a future point in time. %fter he solves the problem. ## . dismissal. S(ccession +lannin# "uccession planning is one of the most important tasks that an organization<s 30 department carries out. 30 reviews them and. management selects one employee who is then placed under the departing employee to receive hands5on training. retirement or death of an employee. This is done when the organization cannot find a suitable candidate. The vacancy could arise due to a resignation. in accordance with top management. The need for succession planning arises when a vacancy is impending. 9nce the applications are received. short5lists a few candidates. The 30 department informs and urges all the departments that are likely to have qualified employees to apply for the vacancy. train and empower a specific individual to undertake a job with higher authority. This is done when the organization faces a problem which can only be solved by that particular manager. The report is then forwarded to top management to make their call. It is the process by which the 30 department works in alliance with top management to select.-etired !ana#ers "ometimes. his leave is e8tended. -ecall from Lon# Lea$e The organization may recall a manager who has gone on a long leave. The short5listed candidates receive e8tensive technical and soft skills training for a probationary period. the performances of these candidates are evaluated and tabulated once again. the organization prepares today for a vacancy that may arise tomorrow. promotion. The premise and rationale behind succession planning is that under no circumstance should work be disrupted due to the absence of any one employee. !or that. %t this point.

Fi#(re/ S(ccession +lannin# Example: The position o% Dean o% .ni)ersit is met b s$ccession planning. #' .nited International .

etc. +(blic Ad$ertisements The =ersonnel department of a company advertises the vacancy in newspapers. trained but ine8perienced candidates. Camp(s -ecr(itment The organization conducts interviews in the campuses of /anagement institutes and &ngineering )olleges. This source is used for recruiting qualified. are interviewed. they take a service charge or commission. Example: A post o% assistant manager in 2+A3*+45 gro$p p$blished in the 2rothom Alo (obs website. They act as a representative of the employer. it is very costly and time consuming. It invites applications from suitable candidates. who<re soon to get graduate. communication skills. !inal year students. 3owever. This advertisement gives information about the company. In return for their services. #( . This source is the most popular source of recruitment.E0ternal So(rces of -ecr(itment !ana#ement Cons(ltants /anagement consultants are used for selecting higher5level staff. the job and the required qualities of the candidate. intelligence. This is because it gives a very wide choice. They make all the necessary arrangements for recruitment and selection. -ecommendations The organization may also recruit candidates based on the recommendations received from e8isting managers or from sister companies. the internet. "uitable candidates are selected by the organization based on their academic record. etc.

*ey Learnin# +oints/ • • • • .e learn how to effectively recruit candidates . . &ep(tation +ersonnel The organization may also recruit candidates who are sent on deputation by the Aovernment or !inancial institutions or by holding or subsidiary companies.e learn about the main outside sources of candidates .e learn about the main internal sources of candidates #* .Example: +ecentl o$r compan # Astha De)elopments 5imited appointed a diploma engineer on the recommendation o% o$r architect.e learn about the main techniques in employment planning.

The communication process includes clarifying e8pectations. and management of human performance in organization. all managers in the organization must maintain comparable rating standards. 0ather. 0anagement is the overriding goal of any appraisal system. 0eas$rement entails making managerial judgments of how BgoodC or BbadC employee performance was. =erformance management is an ongoing process of communication between a supervisor and an employee that occurs throughout the year. setting objectives. Aood performance measurement must be consistent throughout the organization. providing feedback. appraisal must take a future5oriented view of what workers can do to achieve their potential in the organization.E!ENT AN& A++-AISAL +erformance Appraisal =erformance %ppraisal involves the identification. in support of accomplishing the strategic objectives of the organization. when effectively carried out. +erformance mana#ement =erformance /anagement is one of the key processes that. This means that managers must provide workers with feedback and coach them to higher levels of performance.+E-FO-!ANCE !ANA. helps employees know that their contributions are recognized and acknowledged. That is. measurement. Identi%ication means determining what areas of work the manager should be e8amining when measuring performance. #+ . and evaluating results. %ppraisal should be more than a past5 oriented activity that criticizes or praises workers for their performance in the preceding year. identifying goals.

=erformance management allows you to tap the full potential of your staff. so a factor such as job knowledge might be rated # 2poorly informed about work duties4 to + 2has complete mastery of all phases of the job4. but do so to the best of their abilities and up to your e8pectations. 0ating scales #. E The scales may specify five points. Golume of work under normal working conditions E Fuality of work. &8hibits enthusiasm and cooperativeness on the job E )ooperation . with respect to attendance. E Initiative. )onscientious. . accurate. In short. E udgment E attitude. )ontent of appraisal E Fuantity of work. keeping in mind the crucial role of the employees.illingness and ability to work with others to produce desired goals. it can be described as a comprehensive process starting from monitoring and developing the desired traits to rating their progress and rewarding them for their achievements. E $ependability. etc. thorough.rap"ic ratin# met"od The 0ating "cale is a form on which the manager simply checks off the employee’s level of performance. reliable. . Dsing performance management.T"e Importance of +erformance !ana#ement &mployees are an integral and indispensable part of running the business smoothly and efficiently. E This is the oldest and most widely method used for performance appraisal. +rocess and tec"ni)(es 1met"ods2 . Heatness. you can ensure that your employees not only fulfill their responsibilities. relief. a recent trend known as =erformance /anagement has come into practice. That<s why. thoroughness and accuracy of work Inowledge of job. lunch breaks.

and does not rely on the assignment of ratings or rankings. Critical incident met"od The critical incident method of performance appraisal involved identifying and describing specific events 2or incidents4 where the employee did something really well or something that needs improvement. . E They also allow for quantitative comparison. Alternation -an3in# !et"od % rating method used in job evaluation and performance evaluation whereby the rater is asked to select the best and worst employees from a listing of all employees and then rank them accordingly.0ating scales can include + elements as follows7 E Dnsatisfactory E !air E "atisfactory E Aood E 9utstanding %dvantages of the rating scales E Araphic rating scales are less time consuming to develop. although it is occasionally coupled with a ratings type system. The use of critical incidents is more demanding of the manager since it requires more than ticking off things on a form 55 the manager must actually write things out. It<s a technique based on the description of the event. 9n the other hand critical incidents can be e8ceedingly useful in helping employees improve #.

(. and also does not require the manager to have been present when the incident occurred. 0eallocate IncidentsK%ny group of people who also know the job then reallocate the original critical incidents. They are given the cluster<s definitions. it<s important that incidents be recorded %" T3&J 9))D0. Be"a$iorally anc"ored ratin# scales Its supports claim that it provides better. Aenerate )ritical IncidentsK=ersons with knowledge of the job to be appraised 2job holders1 supervisors4 are asked to describe specific illustrations 2critical incidents4 of effective and ineffective performance. situations that did not go well4. $elaying the recording of critical incident reports 2either good incidents or not so good4 means a loss of detail and accuracy. and asked to redesign each incident to the dimension it best describes. That<s an interesting variation that places more responsibility with the employee. and critical accidents. "ome managers encourage employees to record their own critical incidents 2where the employee e8celled. '. #. The procedure for 6%0" is usually five stepped. $evelop =erformance $imensionsKThese people cluster the incidents into a smaller set of performance dimensions.since the information in them is more detailed and specific than in methods that involve rating employees. Aenerally. and not written at or around the annual performance review. Typically a critical incident is retained if some percentage 2usually +@ lo >@L4 of this group assigns it lo the same cluster as the previous group did. &ach cluster is then defined. more equitable appraisals as compared to other techniques. #> .

+. or ? point scales are typical4 the behaviour described in the incident as to how effectively or ineffectively it represents performance on the appropriate dimension. '. "cale of IncidentsKThis second group is generally asked to rate 2. yet it has got certain advantages.  Though 6%0" technique is more time5consuming and e8pensive than other appraisal tools. Independent dimensions. "ystematically clustering the critical incidents into + or . since 6%0" is done by persons e8pert in the technique. The technique is not biased by the e8perience and evaluation of the rater. NaverageN performance and so forth. #? . (. or . per cluster4 are used as Nbehaviour anchorsN for the performance dimensions. performance dimensions. M +. % more accurate gauge.*. helps in making the dimensions more independent of one another. 0ater 5 Independence. $evelop !inal InstrumentK% subset of incidents 2usually . the results are sufficiently accurate. *. !eedback. such as7 #. The critical incidents along the scale help to clarify what is meant by Ne8tremely goodN performance. The use of critical incidents may be more useful in providing feedback to the people being appraised. )lear "tandards.

"ome divisional heads may require much higher quality of performance than others. weaknesses and pitfalls. '@ . % high rating on one trait leads automatically to high rating on all other trait.+roblems in performance appraisal "ince performance appraisal is conducted by human beings. It is the tendency of most raters to give average ratings to all or the center of the scale. 45 T"e "alo effect The halo effect is introduced when an overall impression of an individual is judged on the basis of a single trait. "ome raters are. a very high rating may be given to protect an employee for whom there may be personal sympathy. "ome of these are discussed below. biases. 65 Constant error This error is a reflection on the trait of the rater. it is subjected to a number of errors. too liberal. 75 -ecency of e$ents There is a tendency of many evaluators to give much more weight to the recent behaviour of the candidate than the past behaviour. %ccordingly. It could also be due to the fact that the rather lacks sufficient knowledge about the applicant and hence. %lso. by nature. This may be due to the fact that a very high rating or a very low rating could invite questions. 95 Errors of $ariable standards It is quite possible that organisations follow different standards of performance. This is based on the reflection that the future trend is established by the mere recent behaviour. 85 T"e central tendency It is the most commonly found error. others too strict and some tend towards rating most people in the middle. does not want to commit himself one way to another. an average rating is safer. criticisms or e8planations.

s1he will not hesitate to give you a name. % person may be rated higher because he is a <nice< person or because of his seniority. people and performances. • )hange the title of supervisor to )oach. where they can see the person’s behavior in all its accomplishments and failures. rumor and sampling errors. If you ask any supervisor who their best performer is. supervisors will tell you. If you ask them who the best person is for another job as in a promotion or transfer.:5 Ot"er miscellaneo(s biases There may be some built 5 in biases in the minds of the rater. If you do. there is a clear accountability on '# . Ho% to a$oid appraisal problems • %ssign the responsibility of helping a performer improve to a person who works directly with such person. based upon his own perception of things. They know who that person is without looking up their history of performance appraisal ratings. these supervisors will work with the person and their new bosses to identify behaviors that need to change and to positively reinforce good behavior or improvements. The biggest need for all performers is to have someone who has the primary responsibility for helping them improve or to help them maintain high and steady performance. unfiltered by paper. If a supervisor recommends people that don’t succeed or who struggle in a new position. • 3old supervisors accountable for the success of the people they recommend for promotion or reassignment.

e learn how to evaluate appraisal form . This can function as a feedback loop for improving the supervisor’s skills in assessing employee’s strengths and weaknesses. '' .e learn to develop. The technical term for that is shaping.e learn pros and cons of appraisal methods. 6eing a good coach requires. % background for that skill is behavior analysis. *ey learnin# points • • • • • . an ability to see small changes. • %ll supervisors will not automatically become coaches. the ability to apply effective reinforcement and the ability to see behaviors that are interfering with improvement and those that produce improved performance. evaluate.e learn the appraisal process . . and administer performance appraisal tools.e learn to avoid problems in performance appraisal system.the old supervisor. in my opinion. .