lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.

org 1

"#$%&'()$ *&++,-.

Clven Lhe rapld growLh ln Lhe number of acLors on women's lssues ln Cambodla and Lhe perslsLlng
gender lnequallLles and human rlghLs vlolaLlons, Lhere ls an lncreaslng need Lo brlng people LogeLher
Lo collecLlvely sLraLeglze and supporL each oLher's efforLs. A convenlng was organlzed Lo brlng a
dlverse array of women acLlvlsLs lnLo a reflecLlve space Lo nurLure leadershlp, consclousness, and
communlLy ln Lhe pursulL of movemenL-bulldlng. 1hls reporL summarlzes Lhe overall process and key
ouLcomes from ºWomen's Space: A Convenlng for Cambodlan Women AcLlvlsLs", held ln Þhnom
Þenh, Cambodla on 17-18 CcLober 2013.

1he convenlng broughL LogeLher LhlrLy-Lhree acLlvlsLs, represenLlng a range of communlLles. 1he
w|de range of ages produced a strong mu|t|generat|ona| d|scuss|on as part|c|pants engaged |n
d|fferent exerc|ses that engage the act|v|sts at mu|t|p|e |eve|s: as |nd|v|dua|s, representat|ves of
organ|zat|ons or commun|t|es, and actors of a |arger network or movement

1hough from dlfferenL areas and backgrounds, Lhe acLlvlsLs share common experlences as women
LhroughouL Lhelr llves such as lack of educaLlonal and employmenL opporLunlLles, lack of access Lo
baslc soclal servlces, dlscrlmlnaLlon, low self-worLh, unsupporLlve soclal relaLlonshlps, fear, and
vlolence and dlscrlmlnaLlon agalnsL women ln Lhe communlLy. When sharlng Lhese personal
sLruggles, Lhere were many lnsLances of parLlclpanLs offerlng Lhelr moral supporL and advlce for self-
care and moLlvaLlon. ÞarLlclpanLs were asked Lo revlew Lhe hlsLory of women's organlzlng ln
Cambodla over Lhe pasL few decades. 1hls supporLed a sense of shared hlsLory. In creat|ng the space
and t|me for these act|v|sts to come together, the conven|ng strengthened re|at|onsh|ps and
produced a strong sense of commun|ty and |dent|ty.

/$01-' 12 31+$245 *0,%$ 612)$2(278 9:;9< =%'1>$- ?@9A
!"# %&'( )&(*&+ ,-./00&"
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 2
WlLh Lhe pressures and busy workllves of acLlvlsLs, Lhe opporLunlLy for self- and collecLlve-reflecLlon
ls rare. 1he conven|ng a||owed act|v|sts to name what they needed as |nd|v|dua|s |n order to be
more effect|ve |n the|r work such as advocacy and |eadersh|p sk|||s, stronger networks, and
techno|ogy. S|m||ar|y, the group |dent|f|ed the ways |n wh|ch they can strengthen the|r movement
through better pract|ces of shared |eadersh|p, |nc|us|on of d|verse groups, and more tra|n|ngs
opportun|t|es for a||.

ln concluslon, Lhe flndlngs from Lhe convenlng are slgnlflcanL for Lhe parLlclpanLs, oLher acLlvlsLs, and
Lhelr allles, supporLlng organlzaLlons llke funders and capaclLy-bulldlng groups. Some of Lhe key nexL
sLeps ldenLlfled were:

Crgan|ze more conven|ngs to cont|nue bu||d|ng, re|nforc|ng, and susta|n|ng the women's
movement of Cambod|a. lor Lhe greaLesL lmpacL, ensure a sLrong level of dlverslLy and lncluslon
of acLlvlsLs from dlfferenL communlLles ln order Lo sLrengLhen relaLlonshlps and creaLe a shared
ldenLlLy and consclousness. lf posslble, allow for adequaLe Llme and more reLreaL for acLlvlsLs Lo
geL lnLo a sLronger space of focus and reflecLlon.

Des|gn the next conven|ng to focus more on sk|||s-bu||d|ng and exper|ence-shar|ng. As a sense
of communlLy geLs sLronger, lL ls essenLlal LhaL Lhese valuable spaces be seen as useful for
acLlvlsLs Lo achleve Lhelr mlsslon. As ouLllned ln Lhls reporL, Lhe skllls acLlvlsLs seek lnclude
leadershlp, Lechnology, resource-moblllzaLlon, communlcaLlon, and advocacy.

Increase the |mpact of the future conven|ngs by deve|op|ng c|ear strateg|es for part|c|pants to
rema|n as a co||ect|ve and enact the|r own |n|t|at|ves. SubsLanLlve Llme ls needed for acLlon-
plannlng, from concepLuallzaLlon, Lo dlscusslon and ouLllnlng clear ob[ecLlves and acLlvlLles.
SLrong faclllLaLors and resource persons would be helpful aL Lhls sLage Lo supporL smarL and
reallsLlc plannlng.

Deve|op strateg|es for transferr|ng ownersh|p to conven|ng part|c|pants to enact the|r own
subsequent |n|t|at|ves and prov|de support for coord|nat|on and fund|ng. 8eflecLlng on lessons
learned ln Lhe convenlng on how Lo sLrengLhen neLworks and avold repeaLed mlsLakes of Lhe
pasL, Lhe group spenL Llme Lhlnklng of how Lo coordlnaLe fuLure acLlon. WlLh some 'neLwork
faLlgue' felL by many parLlclpanLs, lL ls lmporLanL Lo Lhlnk of new, creaLlve, and effecLlve ways of
keeplng people moLlvaLed and focused on a shared goal.

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 3


Cver Lhe pasL Lwo decades, Lhere has been Lremendous growLh ln Lhe number of acLors worklng
Lowards gender equallLy aL dlfferenL levels and enLry polnLs ln Cambodla. 1he rlslng volce of
grassrooLs communlLles ls a poslLlve Lrend, buL hlghllghLs mounLlng Lenslons wlLh Lhe approach,
sLyle, and lmpacL of non-governmenL organlzaLlons LhaL have swelled ln number slnce Lhe early
nlneLles. Lven wlLh changlng laws LhaL promoLe gender malnsLreamlng and equallLy, women's
human rlghLs are conLlnually denled and only glven llp servlce due Lo Lhe lack of pollLlcal wlll, male-
domlnaLed leadershlp, and wldespread corrupLlon aL Lhe governmenL level.

Whlle many of Lhe lssues and concerns remaln clear ln Lerms of endlng vlolence and dlscrlmlnaLlon
agalnsL women ln Lhe workplace, home, and publlc spaces, whaL ls less clear ls wbo and bow Lo
moblllze Lo overcome Lhese lssues. WlLh so many new players ln Lhe fleld, Lhe dlfferenL acLlons and
neLworks for women's human rlghLs can seem dlsparaLe and unconnecLed.

A convenlng was organlzed Lo brlng LogeLher acLlvlsLs from across Cambodla, as well across age,
generaLlon, class, experlence, and lssue focus. 1hese acLlvlsLs were asked Lo parLlclpaLe ln a self-
reflecLlve process ln order Lo advance Lhe followlng ob[ecLlves:

1. 1o provlde a plaLform for self-reflecLlon and dlscusslon beLween women's acLlvlsLs.
2. 1o capLure Lhe pulse of Lhe currenL women's movemenL ln Cambodla and ldenLlfy common
lssues and sLraLegles.
3. 1o nurLure leadershlp, consclousness, and communlLy ln Lhe pursulL of movemenL-bulldlng.
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 4


!"#$%&'&%# )*++&,,--

Slnce movemenLs are a collecLlve process, a [olnL-organlzlng commlLLee was creaLed by Lhe unlLed
SlsLerhood, a women's alllance ln Cambodla, and Amerlcan !ewlsh World Servlce (A!WS), an
lnLernaLlonal granLmaklng organlzaLlon based ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes. A!WS hlred a local lnLernaLlonal
acLlvlsL, uevl Lelper C'Malley, as a consulLanL Lo help coordlnaLe Lhe [olnL-organlzlng commlLLee and
prepare for Lhe convenlng. ln LoLal, Lhe local organlzlng Leam conslsLed of flve members of Lhe
unlLed SlsLerhood, Lwo members from A!WS, and Lhe consulLanL. AddlLlonal supporL was glven by
Lhe lnLernaLlonal Women's uevelopmenL Agency ln AusLralla.


1he Lyla CenLer ls a famlly recreaLlonal cenLer. lL was chosen as Lhe convenlng venue as lL ls noL
commonly used space by clvll socleLy organlzaLlons and would supporL Lhe alm of Laklng acLlvlsLs ouL
of Lhelr normal rouLlne. ln plannlng Lhe convenlng, lL was recognlzed LhaL Llme ls a scarce resource
for busy acLlvlsLs. Cnly Lwo days were allocaLed for Lhe convenlng, followlng Lhe naLlonal Þchum 8en
fesLlval, Lo supporL parLlclpanLs' busy schedules. We lncluded one yoga sesslon for acLlvlsL self-care.


ln Lhe recrulLmenL of faclllLaLors, we looked for lndlvlduals who knew Lhe Cambodlan conLexL well
enough, yeL aL Lhe same Llme were removed enough from Lhe acLlvlsL communlLy Lo be a neuLral
flgure. ChannslLha 'SlLha' Mark was chosen for her experLlse ln faclllLaLlon, femlnlsm, and peace and
confllcL managemenL. She currenLly works ln Myanmar buL ls a Cambodlan naLlonal. 1he second
faclllLaLor was Llnna Chlv, A!WS's CounLry 8epresenLaLlve, who ls famlllar wlLh Lhe currenL lssues of
Cambodla. SokunLhy 8os, member of Lhe unlLed SlsLerhood Alllance, provlded addlLlonal supporL, as
an experlenced faclllLaLor who ls famlllar wlLh many of Lhe parLlclpanLs.


We lnvlLed parLlclpanLs Lhrough Lhe [olnL-organlzlng commlLLee's neLworks and parLners, almlng Lo
reach acLlvlsLs worklng on a wlde range of lssues and represenLlng dlfferenL age levels and
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 3
communlLles lncludlng urban poor, rural, lndlgenous, sex workers, and garmenL facLory workers. We
made a sLrong aLLempL Lo lnclude an equal number of communlLy acLlvlsLs and nCC acLlvlsLs.

ln order Lo malnLaln an lnLlmaLe meeLlng envlronmenL, we almed Lo lnvlLe beLween 23-30 acLlvlsLs.
Powever, wlLh a hlgher number of lnLeresLed acLlvlsLs, we declded Lo lncrease Lhe number of
parLlclpanLs Lo accommodaLe all of Lhose who were lnLeresLed. ln LoLal, 33 parLlclpanLs aLLended Lhe


Slnce lack of Llme was lnevlLably golng Lo puL pressure on Lhe convenlng schedule, we deslgned a
pre-survey Lo help prepare parLlclpanLs (see Appendlx A). 1he survey asked parLlclpanLs a range of
quesLlons abouL Lhelr age, locaLlon, and work focus, as well as lmmedlaLe reflecLlons on Lhe sLaLe of
Lhe women's movemenL ln Cambodla and expecLaLlons of Lhe convenlng. Answers from Lhe survey
also helped Lo lnform Lhe deslgn of Lhe convenlng, and were presenLed on uay 2. 1he responses
from Lhe survey are woven LhroughouL Lhls evaluaLlon documenL.

ulLlmaLely, Lhe survey also doubled as an lnvlLaLlon and parLlclpanL selecLlon Lool. ln order Lo come
Lo Lhe convenlng, parLlclpanLs were requlred Lo flll ouL Lhe survey, and lf Lhe organlzers recelved Loo
many surveys, Lhe responses were used Lo deLermlne who was mosL lnLeresLed or dedlcaLed Lo Lhe
process. lorLunaLely, organlzers were able Lo accommodaLe all of Lhose who fllled ouL Lhe survey.

.$%#7$#- $%: ,"$%/2$,&*%

1he enLlre convenlng Look place ln khmer. ln addlLlon, Lhere was a sLrong commlLmenL Lo LranslaLe
all wrlLLen maLerlals lnLo khmer. 1ranslaLlon was provlded by Lhe unlLed SlsLerhood. uurlng Lhe
convenlng, we made a consclous efforL Lo noL use Lngllsh [argon, whlch ls now common amongsL
professlonal when speaklng abouL organlzaLlonal work and programs. lor example, many acLlvlsLs
from urban areas wlLh hlgher educaLlon wlll use Lhe Lngllsh word ºproposal" or ºevaluaLlon" raLher
Lhan LranslaLe lL lnLo khmer.

Cne parLlcular word ralsed a loL of dlscusslon for LranslaLlon, and Lhls was Lhe word ºfemlnlsm". We
wanLed Lo be able Lo use Lhls word lnLenLlonally as a way of llnklng our work Lo Lhe larger global
movemenL, buL sLruggled Lo LranslaLe Lhls properly lnLo khmer, noL only llngulsLlcally buL also


LvaluaLlon of Lhe convenlng Look place ln four parLs. llrsL, as Lhe flnal exerclse of convenlng,
parLlclpanLs were asked Lo provlde Lhelr key Lakeaways ln a group clrcle and Lhen slmply lndlcaLe
anonymously Lhelr parLlng lmpresslons as ºSaLlsfled", ºSo-Soº, and ºnoL SaLlsfled". Second, Lhe [olnL
organlzlng commlLLee meL Lo debrlef and self-evaluaLe Lhe success of Lhe convenlng ln a group
dlscusslon. 1hlrd, an onllne survey of LwenLy quesLlons was senL Lo parLlclpanLs. lL conLalned
mulLlple cholce, ranklng, and open-ended quesLlons (See Appendlx C). lourLeen parLlclpanLs
compleLed Lhe onllne evaluaLlon survey, represenLlng approxlmaLely forLy-percenL of Lhe enLlre
group. llnally, a focus group was organlzed wlLh some of Lhe parLlclpanLs one monLh afLer Lhe
convenlng Lo dlscuss lmpacL and nexL sLeps. llfLeen people lncludlng parLlclpanLs, Lhe organlzlng
commlLLee, and lWuA aLLended Lhe focus group dlscusslon. LvaluaLlon resulLs are woven lnLo Lhls
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 6

612)$2(27 *$55(125

1he sesslons of Lhe convenlng were deslgned Lo engage Lhe acLlvlsLs aL mulLlple levels: as lndlvlduals,
represenLaLlves of organlzaLlons or communlLles, and acLors of a larger neLwork or movemenL. 1he
followlng secLlon descrlbes four of Lhe ma[or sesslons and Lhe exerclses and Lools used ln each.

6-//&*% <= !44*",7%&,&-/ $%: 0>$22-%#-/ &% +*8-+-%,5?7&2:&%#

1he purpose of Lhe flrsL sesslon of Lhe convenlng was Lo lnLroduce some of Lhe common
opporLunlLles and challenges faced by acLlvlsLs aL mulLlple enLry polnLs: lndlvldual, organlzaLlonal,
and as parL of a neLwork. llcLlonal case sLudles were creaLed based on real-llve examples LhaL have
been documenLed and observed from around Lhe world buL were easlly relaLable Lo Lhe Cambodlan
conLexL. All case sLudles were creaLed speclflcally for Lhls convenlng (see 1able 2 for an ouLllne of Lhe
case sLudles, and Appendlx 8 for Lhe full LexL of each case sLudy).

lL was agreed by Lhe organlzlng commlLLee LhaL seLLlng Lhese case sLudles ln flcLlonal places would
allow Lhe parLlclpanLs Lo dlscuss Lhe lssues more openly, wlLhouL brlnglng up speclflc examples from
Lhelr own llves LhaL could lead Lo confllcL and sub[ecLlve experlences. 1he polnL of Lhe exerclse was
Lo allow Lhe parLlclpanLs Lo unpack common problems faced ln an ob[ecLlve way, whlch would help
frame Lhe resL of Lhe convenlng as a reflecLlve and soluLlon-orlenLed space.

ÞarLlclpanLs were spllL lnLo slx groups and glven one case sLudy Lo dlscuss Lhe followlng guldlng

1) Who are Lhe maln acLors ln Lhe sLudy?
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 7
2) WhaL are Lhe poslLlve and negaLlve relaLlonshlps beLween Lhe acLors?
3) WhaL are Lhe maln sLrengLhs and opporLunlLles presenLed Lo Lhe acLors?
4) WhaL are Lhe maln weaknesses and challenges presenLed Lo Lhe acLors?
3) Pow can you relaLe Lo Lhe case sLudy?

Croups Lhen reLurned Lo a plenary Lo presenL Lhelr key flndlngs ln Lhe survey.

1able 2. LlsL of case sLudles

1ltle ltlmoty tbemes
Case study 1. Am|na |n Sreysthan - Lxcluslon from declslon-maklng spaces
- AcLlvlsL burnouL and self-explolLaLlon

Case study 2. ka|a and Mary |n

- MulLlgeneraLlonal dlfferences and dynamlcs

Case study 3. Women's Crgan|zat|on
Center |n Þrotedesh
- uonor dependency
- nCC-lzaLlon and excluslon of grassrooLs

Case study 4. Center for Women |n
- Lack of flnanclal resources
- 1rusL and relaLlonshlps beLween oLher

Case study S. ka|nbow Group |n

- lncluslon of mlnorlLy groups - LC81Cl

Case study 6. Ind|genous Women |n

- lncluslon of mlnorlLy groups - lndlgenous

6-//&*% @= !7" /,*"9 *A ,>- +*8-+-%,

1he purpose of Lhls sesslon was Lo creaLe a hlsLory of Lhe women's movemenL ln Cambodla and
ldenLlfy key Lrends. A Llmellne exerclse was used: parLlclpanLs worked lndlvldually Lo wrlLe down
Lhelr reflecLlons flrsL, Lhen pasLed Lhem on a group Llmellne before dlscusslng as a full group. 1he
followlng secLlon descrlbes each of Lhe Lrends lllusLraLed Lhrough Lhe Llmellne exerclse.

6-//&*% B= C0,&8&/, /,*"&-/

lor Lhls sesslon, Lwo guesL speakers were lnvlLed Lo share Lhelr personal [ourneys lnLo and
LhroughouL acLlvlsm. 1he guesL speakers were Ms. 1hlda khus LxecuLlve ulrecLor of Sllaka and Ms.
Þlsey Ly, member of Soclal AcLlon for Change. 1he alm of Lhls sesslon was Lo Lake anoLher sLep closer
Lo personallzed experlence of becomlng an acLlvlsL, and whaL opporLunlLles and challenges come
wlLh lL.

6-//&*% D= E"-- *A .&A-

1hls exerclse was used as a personal reflecLlon exerclse. ÞarLlclpanLs were asked Lo draw a Lree LhaL
represenLed Lhemselves as an acLlvlsL, llsLlng Lhelr LalenLs as Lhe rooLs, sLrengLhs and weakness as
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 8
Lhe Lrunk, and frulLs or leaves as Lhelr successes and dreams. 1he Lrees were hung on a wall, and
parLlclpanLs were glven Llme Lo walk Lhrough Lhe 'garden' and read each oLher's work before
dlscusslng commonallLles.

6-//&*% F= 3"&*"&,&'&%# *7" &//7-/

ln Lhls sesslon, flndlngs from Lhe pre-survey were presenLed as a way of recapplng all Lhe dlscusslons
LhaL had Laken place durlng Lhe convenlng sesslons. lollowlng Lhls presenLaLlon, parLlclpanLs were
asked Lo voLe on Lhe Lop flve lssues Lo lnform Lhe followlng sesslon on acLlon plans.

6-//&*% G= C0,&*% 42$%

lor Lhls sesslon, parLlclpanLs were lnLroduced Lo Lhe Lool, Soclal Change MaLrlx. 1hls Lool was
suggesLed by our faclllLaLor, SlLha. uslng Lhls Lool, parLlclpanLs worked ln groups Lo dlscuss and
analyze sLraLegles for achlevlng susLalnable soclal change aL Lhe lndlvldual and lnsLlLuLlonal levels.
lor each level, groups were asked Lo ldenLlfy how Lo work wlLh Lhe general publlc and how Lo work
wlLh key declslon-makers.

1able 3. Soclal Change MaLrlx 1ool

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 9

3E,' C(C 'E$ %12)$2(27 ,%E($)$G

E>- 0*%8-%&%# 4"*8&:-: $ /4$0- A*" />$"&%# $%: :&/07//&%# 0*++*% 0>$22-%#-/ A$0-: ?9 H*+-%
$0,&8&/,/I 0"-$,&%# $ /,"*%# /-%/- *A 0*++7%&,9J

1hroughouL Lhe convenlng, parLlclpanLs were able Lo share personal experlences of how Lhey
enLered lnLo acLlvlsm and experlenced dlscrlmlnaLlon LhroughouL Lhelr llves. 1here were many
commonallLles ln each oLher's sLorles from chlldhood, such as lack of educaLlonal and employmenL
opporLunlLles, lack of access Lo baslc soclal servlces, dlscrlmlnaLlon, low self-worLh, unsupporLlve
soclal relaLlonshlps, fear, and vlolence and dlscrlmlnaLlon agalnsL women ln Lhe communlLy. Many
parLlclpanLs ralsed Lhe rooL causes of paLrlarchy and culLure ln explalnlng Lhese slLuaLlons.

Some of Lhe acLlvlsLs sLruggled wlLh backlash and opposlLlon Lo Lhelr leadershlp. uurlng Lhe guesL
speaker sesslon, one parLlclpanL from 8aLLambang relaLed an exLreme experlence of how she had
faced abuse afLer galnlng lncreased recognlLlon and vlslblllLy as a leader: Cne day she found a
plcLure of herself ln her offlce vandallzed. She suspecLed lL was from [ealous and angry colleagues,
and was so affecLed LhaL she broughL Lhls same plcLure Lo Lhe convenlng.

When sharlng Lhese personal sLruggles, Lhere were many lnsLances of parLlclpanLs offerlng Lhelr
moral supporL and advlce for self-care and moLlvaLlon. lor example, boLh guesL speakers offered
advlce on keeplng an open mlnd ln Lhe face of opposlLlon, belng falLhful and slncere, belng
LransparenL ln one's work, and spendlng Llme Lo geL Lo know and LrusL oLhers. 1hlda khus also ralsed
Lhe followlng polnL: ºWhen you do Lhls work, lL's hard noL sLress abouL geLLlng pald. 8uL Lry Lo
remember whaL you are passlonaLe abouL, and Lhe pay wlll come laLer."

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 10
ln Lhe onllne evaluaLlon, many people llsLed Lhe personal dlscusslons Lhey had as a group and one-
on-one as Lhe maln hlghllghL of Lhe convenlng. lor example, one parLlclpanL sald ºl love meeLlng and
sharlng wlLh all of Lhe parLlclpanLs. 1hey made me more brave Lo sLruggle for llfe and for change."
lurLhermore, when Lhe parLlclpanLs came LogeLher agaln ln Lhe focus group dlscusslon a few weeks
afLer Lhe convenlng, Lhey shared Lhe followlng:

1bls comloq toqetbet belpeJ wltb my possloo ooJ feelloq of collectlve volce.

l feel l om oot olooe, ooJ tbot tbete ote otbet octlvlsts oot tbete llke me.

1hrough Lhe pre-survey, lL was unanlmously agreed by all parLlclpanLs LhaL a movemenL was
lmporLanL Lo achleve gender equallLy and women's human rlghLs. Powever, Lhere were sLlll some
parLlclpanLs who felL Lhere was noL yeL a real women's movemenL ln Cambodla.

llgure 1. uo you Lhlnk Lhere ls a women's movemenL ln Cambodla?

E>- :&8-"/&,9 &% ,>- "**+ 4"&+$"&29 0*%,"&?7,-: ,* $ /,"*%# +72,&5#-%-"$,&*%$2 :&/07//&*%

1here was a range of ages wlLhln Lhe room, and whlch conLrlbuLed Lo a sLrong mulLlgeneraLlonal
dlscusslon. As one parLlclpanL polnLed ouL, ºl'm really lmpressed wlLh Lhls program because now l
know how Lo creaLe new meLhods from boLh young and older women." Pavlng so many young
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 11
acLlvlsLs ln Lhe room was hearLwarmlng for many of Lhe older parLlclpanLs who sald: ºl dldn'L expecL
all Lhe young people Lo be so acLlve!" and ºlL's been some Llme slnce l've been ln an acLlvlsL space,
and lLs encouraglng Lo come back and see so many young women lnLeresLed and worklng on our
lssues!" Slmllarly, younger parLlclpanLs were pleased Lo have guesL speakers LhaL were boLh ºyoung
and senlor Lo share and encourage oLher women."

1ables 4 and 3. ÞarLlclpanLs by age and by experlence level

Powever, when lL comes Lo geographlc dlverslLy, we were less successful and parLlclpanLs were
concenLraLed ln Lhe Þhnom Þenh area. unforLunaLely, Lhls was due Lo loglsLlcal consLralnLs and very
real dlsconnecL beLween Lhe rural and urban neLworks. Powever Lhe [olnL-organlzlng commlLLee was
very pleased wlLh Lhe parLlclpaLlon of acLlvlsLs from Lhe provlnces, who spoke confldenLly and
passlonaLely, more so Lhan many of acLlvlsLs from urban areas.

1able 6. ÞarLlclpanLs by locaLlon

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 12
E>- 0*%8-%&%# 4"*8&:-: $ 42$,A*"+ A*" "-A2-0,&*% $/ $ #"*74I *AA-"&%# :*07+-%,$,&*% *A /*+- *A
,>- K-9 /,"-%#,>/I H-$K%-//-/I *44*",7%&,&-/I $%: ,>"-$,/ *A ,>- H*+-%L/ +*8-+-%, &% )$+?*:&$J

SLarLlng wlLh Lhe pre-survey, Lrlggered ln Lhe case-sLudy exerclse, and hlghllghLed ln Lhe Llmellne
acLlvlLy, parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled many of Lhe challenges lnvolved ln bulldlng a sLrong, effecLlve, and
susLalnable movemenL.

1able 7. Þroblems and soluLlons for sLrengLhenlng neLworks

Þroblems SoluLlons
! Lack of undersLandlng and unlLy
! Lack of honesLy and LrusL
! Lack of commlLmenL and communlLy
! Lack of engagemenL and sharlng wlLh
neLwork acLors
! Absence of clear prlnclples, sLraLegy and
! Lack of maLerlal, moral, flnanclal and
Lechnlcal supporL Lo neLworks
! Lack of leadershlp/coordlnaLlon LhaL
manages work plans
! varylng levels of knowledge and experlence
! lndlvlduals are sLlll lacklng ln confldence and
can be easlly lnfluenced
! Women are noL lnLeresLed ln women's lssues
! varylng soclo-economlc poslLlons - some
lndlvlduals sLlll need Lo focus on Lhelr own
lncome and llvellhood

! lmprove people's undersLandlng of Lhe
beneflLs of solldarlLy
! lncrease collaboraLlon beLween naLlonal and
reglonal neLworks
! Spend Llme dolng collecLlve vlslonlng
! 8e honesL and share each neLwork
members' sLrengLhs and weaknesses
! uevelop clear advocacy sLraLegles
! Work on developlng Leam splrlL and
lndlvldual members' confldence
! uecrease dependency on donors Lo lead and
fund neLworks
! 8e sLraLeglc ln Lhe Llmlng of developlng
neLworks and enacLlng plans

llgure 2. CpporLunlLles for bulldlng a sLrong women's movemenL

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 13

llgure 3. Challenges for bulldlng a sLrong women's movemenL

ÞarLlcularly ln Lhe case-sLudy exerclse, Lhe Lhemes LhaL provoked Lhe mosL dlscusslon ln Lhe plenary
were: a) Lenslon beLween nCCs and grassrooLs communlLles, b) Lenslon beLween dlfferenL age
groups and generaLlons of acLlvlsLs, and c) donor dependency and flnanclal susLalnablllLy. Some of
Lhe remarks lncluded:

wbot coo we Jo lo otJet to qet people lovolveJ ooJ volce tbelt tlqbt ooJ oploloos, especlolly
wbeo tbey´te oftolJ of volcloq tbelt oploloos?

we sboolJ oot be JepeoJeot oo tbe Jooots, lt ls Jooqetoos- wbot otbet woys coo we Jo lo
otJet to tecelve fooJloq? lf we ote posslooote wltb oot wotk, bow coo we focos oo tbe lssoe
wltboot bovloq mooey be o Jllemmo?

now wlll tbe yoooq qeoetotloo leoto mote lf tbey Jo oot qet tbe oppottoolty to leoto?

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 14
E>- 0*%8-%&%# H$/ $ "$"- *44*",7%&,9 A*" &%:&8&:7$2 -8$27$,&*%

A ma[or aspecL of Lhe convenlng's deslgn was Lo emphaslze LhaL movemenLs are made up of many
dlfferenL people, comlng from many dlfferenL poslLlons, wlLh many dlfferenL skllls and lnLeresLs.
lurLhermore, for a movemenL Lo be successful, Lhe lndlvlduals need Lo be self-aware and confldenL
of Lhelr own skllls and ablllLles. As our faclllLaLor, SlLha, remarked, acLlvlsLs ln Cambodla ofLen do noL
have Lhe opporLunlLy Lo self-reflecL on Lhelr own skllls and capaclLles: ºAlLhough, Lhey are open Lo
share Lhelr experlences, many of Lhem faced dlfflculLy ln reflecLlng on Lhemselves, crlLlcally analyzlng
and appreclaLlng Lhemselves. CfLen Llmes, Lhey focus on Lalklng abouL Lhelr famlly, envlronmenL and
communlLy and Lalk abouL Lhem buL less abouL Lhemselves."

1he pre-survey and 1ree of Llfe acLlvlLy allowed parLlclpanLs Lo spend Llme Lhlnklng abouL
Lhemselves and namlng concreLely whaL Lhey needed Lo become sLronger acLlvlsLs. ln Lhe focus
group dlscusslon, Lhe lssue of self-lmprovemenL and furLher educaLlon was ralsed several Llmes. All
responses are summarlzed ln llgure 4. Cverall, Lhe 1ree of Llfe was one of Lhe mosL popular
acLlvlLles of Lhe convenlng.

llgure 4. WhaL do l need Lo be an effecLlve acLlvlsL?

E>- 0*%8-%&%# 4"*8&:-: $ /+$22 /%$4/>*, *A ,>- +*/, 4"*+&%-%, &//7-/ A*" H*+-% &% )$+?*:&$J

Slnce many of Lhe parLlclpanLs are hlghly aware of Lhe dlfferenL lssues faclng women ln Cambodla,
Lhe convenlng was noL deslgned Lo allow for deep dlscusslon and analysls. Powever, Lhe convenlng
sLlll provlded Lhe chance Lo capLure a qulck overvlew of Lhe dlfferenL problem areas acLlvlsLs are
addresslng ln Lhelr communlLles LhroughouL Cambodla. 1hese are summarlzed ln llgure 3 wlLh Lhe
larger clrcles represenLlng lssues ralsed by many parLlclpanLs Lhrough Lhe pre-survey and LhroughouL
Lhe convenlng, and smaller clrcles represenLlng lssues LhaL were only ralsed by a few parLlclpanLs.

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 13
llgure 3. WhaL are Lhe mosL presslng lssues faclng women and glrls ln Cambodla?

E>"*7#> ,>- ,&+-2&%- -M-"0&/-I $ /-%/- *A >&/,*"9 H$/ 0"-$,-: :7"&%# ,>- 0*%8-%&%#I $22*H&%#
4$",&0&4$%,/ ,* "-+-+?-" 4$/, $0>&-8-+-%,/ $%: :-,-"+&%- ,"-%:/J

When ldenLlfylng successful mllesLones, many parLlclpanLs focused on pollcy-level lnlLlaLlves such as
Lhe uomesLlc vlolence 8lll and LransparenL monlLorlng of pollcy lmplemenLaLlon. 1hls work was
credlLed Lo sLrong collaboraLlons beLween female members of parllamenL, nCCs, and auLhorlLles aL
Lhe sub-naLlonal level. Powever, Lhls work and collaboraLlon was concenLraLed ln Lhe laLe 1990s and
early 2000s. 1oday, acLlvlsLs felL LhaL lnLeresL ln women's rlghLs was dylng down, and communlLy
acLlvlsLs had less power Lo parLlclpaLe ln pollcy developmenL LhaL would proLecL and provlde
beneflLs Lo women and LhaL collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe currenL MlnlsLry of Women's Affalrs was
lneffecLlve. Some of Lhe dlscusslon focused on soluLlons Lo Lhls problem, whlch lncluded Lhe need Lo
lncrease poslLlve relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhe governmenL, change sLraLegles, and sLrengLhen Lhe women's
movemenL ln all secLors. ln addlLlon, more rural and grassrooLs communlLy neLworks needed Lo be
connecLed Lo naLlonal-level pollcy work.

Looklng aL Lhe Llmellne and Lhlnklng abouL Lhe overall movemenL, parLlclpanLs ldenLlfled Lhe lack of
women ln managemenL, leadershlp, and declslon-maklng poslLlons over Lhe pasL few decades.
Powever, lL was clear LhaL over Lhe pasL Lhree Lo flve years, women have been lncreaslngly vlslble:

! 1bete bos beeo oo locteose lo tbe oombet of poollfleJ womeo lo leoJetsblp,
! womeo bove locteoseJ cooflJeoce ooJ Jote to ose tbelt powet lo mokloq Jeclsloos,
! Mote pollcles bove beeo JevelopeJ to ptotect ooJ eocootoqe womeo leoJets lo oll levels,
! 1be lJeo of ellmlootloo of Jlsctlmlootloo oqolost womeo bos beeo molostteomeJ lo
fotmol ooJ lofotmol eJocotloo.
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 16

3E,' 2$#'G /$%1++$2C,'(125 ,2C F11H(27 I1-J,-C

A ma[or componenL of Lhls convenlng was Lhe evaluaLlon, whlch was deslgned as a way of
collecLlvely measurlng Lhe lmpacL of Lhe convenlng and supporLlng nexL sLeps. 1he parLlclpanLs
ldenLlfled Lhe followlng nexL sLeps LhroughouL Lhe convenlng and evaluaLlon.

Crgan|ze more conven|ngs w|th more part|c|pants and more t|me.

AlmosL all parLlclpanLs expressed a deslre Lo aLLend anoLher convenlng buL had consLrucLlve
feedback on how Lo lmprove lL. llrsLly, several parLlclpanLs expressed Lhe deslre Lo lmprove Lhe
dlverslLy of women ln Lhe room. Some of Lhem suggesLed Lo lnclude more women from Lhe
buslness, governmenL, pollLlcal secLor as Lhls would be useful, noL only Lo develop more
relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhls secLor, buL also for young leaders Lo learn how Lhese 'powerful women'
reached Lhese poslLlons. 1hree parLlclpanLs ralsed Lhls speclflc concern and suggesLed Lhe followlng
women as poLenLlal parLlclpanLs of Lhe nexL meeLlng: Mu Sochua, Men Sam-Cn, and Lng
kunLhaphavy. Cne parLlclpanL suggesLed Lo lnclude men.

Secondly, many parLlclpanLs complalned LhaL Lhere was noL enough Llme for compleLlng Lhe
exerclses, havlng more plenary dlscusslon, and havlng free Llme Lo Lalk wlLh each oLher. Many
parLlclpanLs sald Lhey lefL Lhe convenlng noL really knowlng whaL organlzaLlons each of Lhe
parLlclpanLs represenLed and asked for more Llme for lndlvldual presenLaLlons. Cne parLlclpanL also
ralsed Lhe lssue of some parLlclpanLs needlng more Llme Lo read Lhe case sLudles due Lo varylng
llLeracy levels, whlch cuL lnLo Lhe Llme allocaLed for dlscusslon. Several parLlclpanLs polnLed ouL LhaL
Lhe faclllLaLlon Leam could have pracLlced beLLer Llme managemenL, buL ulLlmaLely one exLra day
was needed Lo allow for deeper dlscusslon and a more relaxed pace.

Des|gn conven|ngs to focus more on sk|||s-bu||d|ng and exper|ence-shar|ng.

ÞarLlclpanLs were pleased wlLh Lhe resulLs of Lhe flrsL convenlng ln LhaL lL provlded Lhe space for
Lhem reflecL on Lhelr sLrengLhs and weaknesses. 8uL Lhe nexL sLep for many of Lhem was clearly Lo
begln enhanclng Lhelr skllls and knowledge by deslgnlng Lhe nexL convenlng Lo lnclude more Lralnlng
exerclses, speclflcally on leadershlp, neLwork coordlnaLlon, and fundralslng. lncludlng a sLudy Lour Lo
an organlzaLlon was suggesLed.

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 17
Increase the |mpact of the next conven|ngs by deve|op|ng c|ear strateg|es to a||ow part|c|pants
to take on respons|b|||ty.

uurlng Lhe evaluaLlon process, a large parL of Lhe group dlscusslon was focused on Lhe apparenL
challenges some parLlclpanLs faced ln sharlng learnlngs from Lhe convenlng back Lo Lhelr
organlzaLlons or communlLles. 1hls was parLly due Lo Lhe facL LhaL many parLlclpanLs dld noL hold
hlgh-level poslLlons and Lherefore felL unsure how Lo LranslaLe Lhe learnlngs lnLo clear acLlons for
Lhelr organlzaLlons. 1hls could be lmproved wlLh more Llme and beLLer exerclses for acLlon plannlng.
Some parLlclpanLs lndlcaLed Lhe deslre Lo focus on speclflc lnlLlaLlves, llke CLuAW monlLorlng.

Crgan|zers must deve|op strateg|es for transferr|ng ownersh|p and prov|de support for
coord|nat|on and fund|ng.

8eflecLlng on lessons learned ln Lhe convenlng on how Lo sLrengLhen neLworks and avold repeaLed
mlsLakes of Lhe pasL, Lhe group spenL Llme Lhlnklng of how Lo coordlnaLe fuLure acLlon. Some
parLlclpanLs wanLed a formal neLwork wlLh clear requlremenLs from each member, whlle oLhers
were more comforLable wlLh a loose and lnformal neLwork. 1he organlzlng commlLLee sLressed Lhe
need Lo decrease dependency on donors and recrulL new members Lo organlze Lhe nexL convenlng.
Several people volunLeered for Lhls, parLlcularly young women.

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 18

K00$2C(# KL M-$;612)$2(27 *&-)$.

Þre-Conference Survey
1hls survey has been deslgned as a way for Lhe organlzers Lo selecL parLlclpanLs from lnvlLed
organlzaLlons. 1hrough Lhe survey, we hope Lo geL Lo know poLenLlal parLlclpanLs a blL beLLer and
lnform our own plannlng of Lhe Space so lL ls relevanL and useful Lo Lhe parLlclpanLs. 1he responses
wlll be presenLed aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe summlL. 1here are 19 quesLlons ln our survey, some are
shorL and some are long. We hope you do noL need more Lhan 30 mlnuLes Lo compleLe Lhe survey.
8emember LhaL your answers wlll lnform our dlscusslon aL Lhe summlL so Lhere ls more opporLunlLy
Lo speak abouL lL aL LhaL Llme. 1hank you for Laklng Lhe Llme Lo flll our pre-survey!

¥our Informat|on

WhaL ls your name? *

WhaL ls your age? *

under 20
21-30 years old
31-40 years old
Cver 40 years old

lf you work for an organlzaLlon, please Lell us Lhe name of your organlzaLlon and Lhe LlLle of your

Where do you currenLly llve and/or do your work?*

Pow many years have you been worklng on women's lssues or women's human rlghLs? *

Less Lhan 1 year
1-2 years
2-3 years
6-10 years
Cver 10 years

¥our Commun|ty

ln your communlLy, whaL do you Lhlnk are Lhe mosL presslng lssues faclng women and glrls?

Are Lhere organlzaLlons/groups ln your communlLy worklng on Lhese lssues? Who are Lhey? uo
you engage wlLh Lhem?

WhaL are Lhe sLrengLhs and weaknesses of your communlLy when lL comes Lo achlevlng gender

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 19
¥our Cp|n|ons

Who are your roles models and why?

uo you Lhlnk a movemenL ls lmporLanL Lo achleve gender equallLy and women's human rlghLs? *


uo you Lhlnk Lhere ls a women's movemenL ln Cambodla? *


When you hear Lhe word ºfemlnlsm", ls lL a poslLlve or negaLlve concepL for you?


¥our Learn|ng Goa|s

lf you could meeL wlLh a dlverse group of acLlvlsLs from around Cambodla, whaL would you llke Lo
dlscuss or learn from Lhem?

WhaL do you Lhlnk you could Leach Lhem from your own llfe experlences, boLh personal and

WhaL do you feel you need ln order Lo be an effecLlve acLlvlsL?

1hank you for fllllng ouL Lhe survey!

uo you wlsh Lo add anyLhlng else Lo our survey? leel free Lo share any commenLs or feedback here.
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 20

K00$2C(# NL 6,5$ *'&C($5

Case Study 1: Am|na |n Sreystan

Amlna gew up ln Lhe counLry slde of SreysLan. She was noL able Lo compleLe her educaLlon aL [unlor
hlgh school. When she was aL school, she was known as a smarL kld, well llked by her frlends and
Leachers. Powever, she could noL compleLe her educaLlon, as her famlly's economlc condlLlon dld
noL allow for lL. Per broLher who had compleLed [unlor hlgh school, wanLs Lo conLlnue hls educaLlon.
ln Lhe end, her parenLs declded Lo sLop Amlna's schoollng and fulfll Lhe wlshes of Amlna's broLher.

When Amlna was 18, Amlna's aunL helped Amlna flnd a [ob ln a facLory ln Lhe clLy. AL Lhe facLory,
Amlna qulckly became well known. uue Lo her organlzaLlonal skllls, she was able Lo moblllze her
frlends ln dolng soclal acLlvlLles near her currenL resldences. She was ofLen asked by her frlends Lo
speak up Lo Lhe supervlsor when Lhey were accused of dolng Lhlngs lncorrecLly or asked Lo work Loo
much overLlme. ln Lhree years, her organlzaLlonal skllls furLher developed afLer [olnlng a worker's
unlon founded by several workers, acLlvlsLs and a women's nCC. She meL many oLher llke-mlnded
young women and had Lhe opporLunlLy Lo go Lo a meeLlng of Lhe lnLernaLlonal Labour CrganlzaLlon
ln Ceneva. uurlng Lhls Llme, Amlna also goL marrled and had one chlld. ln 2009, Amlna was elecLed
Lo be Lhe lead represenLaLlve ln Lhe women's wlng of a labor unlon.

1he same year, a facLory burnL down, kllllng many women workers Lrapped lnslde. Amlna led Lhe
campalgn Lo demand for beLLer worklng condlLlons and LhaL facLory owners be held responslble for
Lhe deaLhs of Lhelr workers. Amlna began Lo recelve harsh LhreaLs and harrassmenL because of her
organlzlng. no resoluLlon or compensaLlon was glven Lo Lhe workers, and facLory condlLlons dld noL
lmprove. lor a whole year, Amlna worked hard Lo moblllze women workers ouLslde of Lhelr worklng
hours, creaLlng collecLlve sLaLemenLs on workplace safeLy, women's healLh needs, and chlldcare
faclllLlaLes Lo presenL Lo Lhe overall leadershlp of Lhe unlon, whlch ls predomlnanLly male. Amlna
found LhaL she was ofLen excluded from declslon-maklng and budgeL processes buL Lhe leadershlp
Look a loL of credlL for her organlzlng work ln fronL of Lhe medla and wlLhln clvll socleLy. uesplLe llLLle
pay and ongolng harrassmenL from facLory owners, Amlna conLlnued Lo work for Lhe unlon.

AfLer one year, Amlna began Lo geL slck very ofLen, and her husband was Llred of her work schedule.
She forgoL Lo eaL and had Lrouble sleeplng. ln her [ournal, she wrlLes:

´1oJoy, l weot to vlslt ooe fomlly of tbe womeo wotkets wbo JleJ lo tbe 2008 flte. 1bete
wete two cbllJteo wbo lost tbelt motbet lo tbe flte, oow llvloq wltb tbelt elJetly qtooJmotbet
wbo coolJ oot poy fot tbelt eJocotloo. l feel vety soJ becoose tbe foctoty bos stlll oot
oJmltteJ lt wos tbelt foolt ot qlveo compeosotloo. l Joo´t koow wbot to Jo fot tbls fomlly os l
bove oo mooey to offet tbem eltbet. l om stottloq to feel lt ls bopeless. l olso feel so qollty
becoose l oevet see my owo cbllJ, becoose l om olwoys wotkloq.´

ln 2010, Lhe governmenL changed Lhe law for Lhe penslon for workers. Amlna's unlon and acLlvlsL
frlends wanLed Lo proLesL Lhls new law. 1hey expecLed Amlna Lo help lead Lhe efforL agaln, buL
Amlna sald she dld noL wanL Lo. 1hey are angry aL her for noL parLlclpaLlng ln Lhe proLesLs.
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 21
Case Study 2: ka|a and Mary |n Ducnoum|a

kala ls 30 years old. She grew up ln Lhe caplLal clLy of uucnoumla and comes from a pollLlcal famlly.
uurlng Lhe pro-democracy movemenL, kala was very acLlve ln moblllzlng people Lo proLesL for free
and falr elecLlons and formed a sLrong coallLlon of women acLlvlsLs who advocaLed for women's
equal voLlng rlghLs ln Lhe new consLlLuLlon. kala founded Lhe organlzaLlon womeo lo lolltlcs (WlÞ) ln
2000, whlch promoLes women's pollLlcal leadershlp Lhrough pollcy reform and legal advocacy. She
was honored Lo aLLend many global conferences Lo speak on women's pollLlcal parLlclpaLlon ln her
counLry. ln a recenL speech, she sald ºl am worrled abouL Lhe fuLure because young women are Loo
scared Lo parLlclpaLe ln pollLlcs and call Lhemselves a femlnlsL. 1hey do noL know how hard we
foughL for Lhelr rlghLs."

Mary ls 24 years old. She also grew up ln caplLal clLy and wenL Lo unlverslLy. Mary esLabllshed her
own magazlne aL Lhe unlverslLy, for young women Lo ralse Lhelr volces abouL lssues Lhey care abouL
Lhrough Lhe lnLerneL. She uses lacebook a loL ln her work, as well as many fun soclal acLlvlLles and
arL pro[ecLs. She ls especlally lnLeresLed ln women's sexual healLh and rlghLs. ln 2011, Mary
graduaLed wlLh her degree ln ÞollLlcal Sclence and was able Lo geL a [ob aL WlÞ where kala ls sLlll
LxecuLlve ulrecLor. Mary ls asslgned Lo work on reporLs for donors because of her Lngllsh and
compuLer skllls for a program on women's healLh pollcy. AfLer one year worklng Lhere, Mary Lold her
frlends, ºl Lhlnk Lhe ldeas of Lhe organlzaLlon are a blL borlng and noL exclLlng. l wlsh l could use
more lacebook Lo educaLe people abouL Lhe work of WlÞ."

ln 2012, WlÞ was requesLed Lo send one parLlclpanL Lo Lhe 36Lh Sesslon of unlLed naLlons
CommlLLee on Lhe SLaLus of Women (unCSW) wlLh Lhe Lheme 8ural Women's LmpowermenL. 1he
unCSW ls an annual meeLlng ln new ?ork, uSA for dlfferenL governmenLs Lo meeL and presenL Lhelr
progress on gender equallLy. nCCs and acLlvlsLs can parLlclpaLe as well and advocaLe governmenLs
Lo adopL resoluLlons Lo proLecL and advance women's rlghLs. 1he 8oard of WlÞ ls maklng a declslon
on who should go as Lhe represenLaLlve Lo share abouL WlÞ's work on advocaLlng for a new healLh
law ln uucnoumla. As founder and dlrecLor, kala ls on Lhe 8oard as well.

Mary ls very exclLed Lo hear abouL Lhls opporLunlLy she never heard abouL before. She Lhlnks Lo
herself LhaL she would really llke Lo go Lo meeL many new people who work on slmllar lssues and
lncrease her neLwork. 8ecause of her work on Lhe reporLs, she ls very confldenL abouL sharlng
lnformaLlon on Lhe slLuaLlon ln uucnoumla and WlÞ, buL she ls sLlll a llLLle shy abouL publlc speaklng.
kala has aLLended Lhe unCSW Lwo Llmes before. She knows many people Lhere, especlally
governmenL offlclals. She ls very famlllar wlLh Lhe process and has a clear advocacy sLraLegy.

1he 8oard declded Lo send kala Lo unCSW.

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 22
Case Study 3: Women's Crgan|zat|on Center |n Þrotedesh

ÞroLedesh has a long hlsLory of women's organlzlng golng back Lo lLs sLruggle for lndependence ln
Lhe 1930s. uurlng long perlods of ÞroLedesh's mlllLary rule ln Lhe 1980s, women's movemenLs were
acLlve ln Lhe democracy movemenL and forged llnks wlLh human rlghLs, culLural and oLher soclal
movemenLs. AL Lhe same Llme, many women's nCCs were formed Lo defend women's human rlghLs,
llke Lhe womeo´s Otqoolzotloo ceotet (WCC). WCC was esLabllshed by an educaLed woman, whose
parenLs were promlnenL pollLlcal flgures ln Lhe pro-democracy movemenL. ln Lhe beglnnlng, WCC's
maln focus was Lo campalgn for new laws Lo proLecL women's rlghLs llke Lhe anLl-domesLlc vlolence
law. lL worked wlLh many oLher organlzaLlons and moblllzed many volunLeers Lo successfully
advocaLe for Lhe adopLlon of Lhe AnLl-uomesLlc vlolence Law ln 1999. 1he founder of WCC became
a very famous flgure ln ÞroLedesh.

uurlng Lhls Llme, WCC relled heavlly on donaLlons from forelgn developmenL agencles llke Lhe World
8ank and Aslan uevelopmenL 8ank, who were very acLlve ln supporLlng nCCs and clvll socleLy
groups ln ÞroLedesh. WlLh Lhe sLrong fundlng, WCC grew from a very small organlzaLlon Lo a large
organlzaLlon of sevenLy sLaff members ln order Lo lmplemenL programs, wrlLe proposals, monlLor
pro[ecLs, conducL evaluaLlons, and manage flnances. SLarLlng ln 2002, donors have sLarLed Lo
decrease Lhelr fundlng Lo nCCs and work dlrecLly wlLh Lhe governmenL lnsLead. Slnce ÞroLedesh ls
becomlng a more economlcally developed and pollLlcally sLable counLry, many donors declded Lo
look aL oLher counLrles ln need.

AfLer Lhe domesLlc vlolence law was passed, remalnlng donors ln ÞroLedesh became more lnLeresLed
ln deallng wlLh cllmaLe change and looked for groups Lo look aL Lhls lssue. WCC declded Lo creaLe a
program Lo advocaLe for a new law for deallng wlLh cllmaLe change and recelved a large granL
because Lhey had a good repuLaLlon ln Lhe pasL. 1hey organlzed many meeLlngs, roundLables, and
conferences ln Lhe caplLal of ÞroLedesh Lo dlscuss a new pollcy on cllmaLe change. Many grassrooLs
communlLles crlLlclzed WCC for noL lncludlng Lhem and dld noL LrusL LhaL a law would make lmpacL
on Lhelr llves. ln a press sLaLemenL from Lhe organlzaLlon kotol Moootolo womeo Otqoolzotloo
(8MWC) says:

´we ote ftom tbe blqb moootolos of ltoteJesb wbete yoo coo see tbe lmpoct of cllmote
cbooqe Jltectly oo oot fooJ ptoJoctloo ooJ llvellbooJ. wOc come to oot commoolty ooly ooe
tlme lost yeot. we ote opset to beot tbot wOc lovlteJ tbe tolloq polltlcol potty to tbelt
toooJtoble becoose tbls polltlcol potty wos olteoJy lovolveJ lo tbe exttoctlve loJosttles
bottloq oot commoolty os well.´

ln an lnLervlew wlLh WCC's founder and dlrecLor, she defended Lhe declslon Lo lnclude Lhe rullng
parLy aL Lhe roundLable because she needed Lo malnLaln neuLrallLy and LhaL 8MWC does noL
undersLand how Lhlngs are acLually done ln Lhe caplLal of ÞroLedesh.

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 23
Case Study 4: Center for Women |n Nearysthan

ceotet fot womeo (CW) ls ln Lhe rural counLryslde of nearysLhan founded by Lhree soclal workers ln
2007. 1he mlsslon ls of Lhe organlzaLlon ls Lo combaL gender-based vlolence by provldlng servlces
and educaLlon Lo rural women. CW was locaLed ln Lhe house of one of Lhe founders. ln Lhe
beglnnlng, Lhe founders of CW were commlLLed Lo work wlLh very low salary and even conLrlbuLe
Lhelr own pay Lo Lhe work of Lhe organlzaLlon.

CW was well-llked and LrusLed by Lhe communlLy, and could easlly recrulL volunLeers when lL needed
Lo. 8ecause of Lhe successful servlces and pro[ecLs, CW sLarLed Lo be lnvlLed Lo provlde lnformaLlon
on dellverlng servlces ln rural areas. Many organlzaLlons wanLed Lo parLner wlLh CW because CW
had a sLrong relaLlonshlp wlLh Lhe communlLy, lncludlng wlLh Lhe local and dlsLrlcL leaders.

ln 2009, Lhere was a Lerrlble Lsunaml ln nearysLhan affecLlng Lhe rural communlLles. CW worked
very qulckly Lo moblllze volunLeers and develop new programs Lo help wlLh Lhe posL-dlsasLer
recovery. Many donor organlzaLlons wanLed Lo help Lhe people affecLed by Lhe Lsunaml. Cne donor
approached CW wlLh a large granL Lo CW, encouraglng Lhem Lo expand Lhelr programs, conducL
research, and parLner wlLh more governmenL deparLmenLs. Powever, Lhe donor would noL provlde
much supporL Lo sLaff salarles, offlce renL, or admlnlsLraLlve expenses. 8uL CW accepLed Lhe granL Lo
conLlnue Lhelr work.

lor Lhree years, CW worked very hard Lo dellver Lhe work expecLed of Lhelr maln donor. 1hey Lrled
Lo recrulL one young member Lo help asslsL Lhem ln Lhelr flnanclal managemenL and reporLlng Lo Lhe
donor, buL many young people sald Lhey dld noL wanL Lo work for a low salary. Many organlzaLlons
from Lhe urban areas asked CW Lo work wlLh Lhem on lnLernaLlonal advocacy campalgns, buL CW
felL LhaL Lhey dld noL have Llme Lo collaboraLe wlLh Lhem and Lhey were worrled Lo appear Loo
ºangry" and ºconfronLaLlonal" Lo Lhe governmenL. AL Lhe end of Lhe Lhree years, Lhe donor declded
Lo change lLs prlorlLles and move Lo a new counLry, so lL no longer fund Lhe work of CW.

1he organlzaLlon ls faclng a flnanclal crlsls. Many of Lhe women from Lhe communlLy depended on
Lhe work of CW and dld noL wanL Lhe founders Lo qulL. 8uL Lhe founders were also faclng pressure
from Lhelr famllles Lo earn more money, especlally Lhelr chlldren who needed flnanclal supporL Lo
flnlsh Lhelr educaLlon. CW submlLLed proposals Lo dlfferenL donors, buL Lhey were re[ecLed for a few
reasons: 1) 1he CW dld noL have a clear rlghLs-based focus wrlLLen ln lLs mlsslon, and 2) 1he
organlzaLlon was Loo small and dld noL have a professlonal organlzaLlonal sLrucLure, and 3) dld noL
seem Lo have a good repuLaLlon worklng wlLh neLworks and parLners. Many oLher organlzaLlons
sLopped lnvlLlng CW Lo parLlclpaLe ln advocacy campalgns and meeLlngs because Lhey suspecLed CW
Lo be Loo close wlLh Lhe rullng governmenL and Loo afrald Lo proLesL for women's rlghLs.

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 24
Case study S: ka|nbow Group |n kattanam

8aLLanam ls a counLry wlLh a conservaLlve socleLy, wlLh one sLrong rellglon. ln 8aLLanam,
homosexuallLy ls consldered lmmoral. ulscrlmlnaLlon, harassmenL, and vlolence agalnsL lesblan, gay,
blsexual, and Lransgender (L81) ls common, and Lhe governmenL does noL help Lo prevenL vlolence
agalnsL sexual mlnorlLles, even Lhough human rlghLs are proLecLed ln Lhe consLlLuLlon. Many rlghLs
are denled Lo LC81C lndlvlduals and Lhey are ofLen blamed for Lhe Plv epldemlc ln 8aLLanam.

1be kolobow Ctoop (8C) ls a small organlzaLlon worklng for Lhe rlghLs of lesblan, Lransgender, and
queer women. 1hree young women who meL aL unlverslLy formed 8C ln 2010 Lo address Lhe speclflc
lssues of Lhe L81 communlLy. 1he organlzaLlon sLarLed ouL very lnformal, meeLlng secreLly Lo dlscuss
each oLher's problems.

ln 2011, a young woman was raped on Lhe unlverslLy campus by a young man who found ouL she
was a lesblan. 8C declded Lo go Lo Lhe unlverslLy admlnlsLraLlon, buL Lhe unlverslLy dld noL wanL Lo
do anyLhlng Lo hold Lhe young man responslble. 1hen 8C wenL Lo Lhe women's group of Lhe sLudenL
unlon Lo presenL Lhe lncldenL as a case of gender-based vlolence. 8uL Lhe sLudenL unlon also dld noL
wanL Lo Lake up Lhe lssue because Lhey sald lL was Loo senslLlve and [usL one lncldenL. 8ecause 8C
began Lo speak ouL abouL Lhe lssue, Lhey became LargeLs of harassmenL.

1hough Lhey felL defeaLed, 8C conLlnued Lo meeL secreLly, and learn more abouL human rlghLs
LogeLher. 1helr membershlp slowly lncreased. 1hey began Lo use Lhe lnLerneL Lo neLwork wlLh each
oLher and oLher L81 groups ln oLher counLrles.

A conference on Sexual and 8eproducLlve PealLh and 8lghLs ls golng Lo be held ln 8aLLanam ln 2014.
lL ls belng organlzed by Lhe 8aLLanam Alllance for Cender LquallLy. 1he lnLernaLlonal funders asked
Lhe organlzlng commlLLee lf LC81 people would be lncluded ln Lhe conference. AL flrsL, Lhe
commlLLee sald Lhey do noL have any people llke Lhls ln Lhe counLry. 8uL Lhen one organlzaLlon
lnslsLed LhaL LC81 communlLy does exlsL, and Lhey should noL be excluded from Lhe conference.

So Lhe organlzlng commlLLee lnvlLed 3 LC81 groups lncludlng 8C Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe conference.
Many women laughed when Lhey meL 8C members and sald, ºWow, l never meL a lesblan woman
before! WhaL ls lL llke?" When lL was Llme Lo dlscuss Lhe conference, gay men were Lhe only ones
who goL Lo speak abouL Lhe LC81 communlLy.

lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 23
Case Study 6: Ind|genous Women |n Sroknes|a

Sroknesla ls a counLry made up of dlverse people. 1he lndlgenous populaLlon ls approxlmaLely 12.7
mllllon people, represenLlng 13° of Lhe populaLlon. Powever, Lhe Sroknesla sLaLe has noL recognlzed
or proLecLed Lhe rlghLs of lLs lndlgenous people, and has always malnLalned, LoleraLed, and even
supporLed Lhe dlscrlmlnaLlon of lndlgenous people and Lhe explolLaLlon of Lhe populaLlon's
resources and labor. LxLreme poverLy affecLs lndlgenous women ln many dlfferenL ways. WlLh
regards Lo educaLlon, more Lhan half of Lhe women are llllLeraLe. MaLernal deaLh among lndlgenous
women ls Lrlple Lhe naLlonal average and malnuLrlLLlon affecLs 40° of all lndlgenous women. SLrlcL
LradlLlonal pracLlces and Lhe overall aLLlLude ln Lhe counLry generaLes a heavy workload on women
and lgnores her economlc conLrlbuLlons. As one woman, Ms. Maney, descrlbes:

ºwe woke op vety eotly lo tbe motoloq to ptepote bteokfost fot oot fomlly, toke cote of oot
oolmols, beqlo to sbell coto, ooJ oftet tbot woke op oot cbllJteo ooJ toke of tbem. wbeo oot
bosbooJs leove fot wotk, we bove to cleoo tbe boose. we osoolly bove to collect tbe wotet
oeot tbe tlvet. uotloq botvest seosoo, we olso bove to wotk lo tbe flelJs. we qet bome lote
ooJ tbeo oeeJ to ptepote Jlooet oqolo. l qo to beJ lost oftet my fomlly ls osleep ooJ tbeo
woke op fltst to stott tbe Joy oqolo.´

Many women are parL of self-help groups Lo supporL each oLher's lncome generaLlng acLlvlLles. 1he
women all have a sLrong shared culLural ldenLlLy and prlde ln Lhelr communlLy Lhrough shared
cusLoms, bellefs, and pracLlces. 8uL some women who parLlclpaLe ln Lhe groups face harrassmenL,
gosslp, and vlolence from Lhelr famllles who ob[ecL Lo Lhelr parLlclpaLlon ln publlc llfe. 1hrough Lhe
groups, Lhe women have developed dlfferenL relaLlonshlps wlLh nCCs ln urban areas. Powever,
many nCCs demand a loL of Llme from Lhe women and Lhe nCCs ofLen do noL speak Lhe lndlgenous

Slnce Lhe mld 1990s, an lndlgenous movemenL emerged LhaL challenged Lhe sysLemaLlc
dlscrlmlnaLlon and explolLaLlon of Lhelr ldenLlLy, culLure, llvellhoods, and rlghLs. Women have been
ln charge of loglsLlcs ln many of Lhe marches, encampmenLs, and meeLlngs of Lhe lndlgenous
movemenL, and Lhelr parLlclpaLlon was fundamenLal ln Lurnlng moblllzaLlons lnLo mass evenLs.
lurLhermore, women were able Lo rely on Lhelr own prevlous connecLlons, llke Lhe cooperaLlves.
Slnce 2003, Lhe number of vlolenL clashes wlLh sLaLe auLhorlLles and prlvaLe securlLy forces has
lncreased. SlxLy people, lncludlng women and men, have been lmprlsoned or are awaLlng Lrlal for
proLesLlng. ln 2007, unknown assallanLs kllled an lndlgenous female acLlvlsL. ln May 2012, a proLesL
agalnsL land grabblng Lurned vlolenL, and Lhe dlsLrlcL governer ordered securlLy forces Lo arresL flfLy
proLesLers, many of Lhem women. Accordlng Lo Lhe newspapers, ºCuards Lhen resLralned Lhe
women, some of whom were frall and elderly, and dragged Lhem Lo a munlclpal pollce Lruck".
8ecause of Lhe lncrease number of mlllLary and securlLy personnel on communlLy land, Lhere has
been an lncrease ln sexual vlolence agalnsL women and glrls.

uesplLe Lhelr sLrong acLlvlsL role, women are sLlll excluded from all publlc declslon-maklng spaces.
When women Lry Lo ralse lssues of maLernal healLh, gender-based vlolence, and glrl's access Lo
educaLlon, Lhe men say LhaL Lhls ls noL a prlorlLy rlghL now. lndlgenous women are unable Lo
parLlclpaLe ln many conferences abouL cllmaLe change, economlc pollcy, and envlronmenLal [usLlce
because of Lhe lack of lnformaLlon, cosL of Lravel Lo conference locaLlon, and noL knowlng Lhe
ma[orlLy languages.
lor more lnformaLlon, conLacL: a[ws[a[ws.org 26

!""#$%&' )* +,-./-0&1$ 2/3,#4

An evaluaLlon survey was senL Lo parLlclpanLs. We recelved fourLeen compleLed surveys (abouL
42° of all parLlclpanLs). 8elow are Lhe overall resulLs and sample responses.
!" $%&'()%*

+', )- ./* 0%%1 / ,%%2 *)13% -.% 3'14%(%13%" 5./- 6' 7'8 (%&%&0%( &'*- 4('& -.%

Sample responses:

l teolly eojoyeJ tbe tlme lloe exetclse, lt wos
qooJ to speoJ some tlme teflectloq oo bow
we come loto tbls wotk ooJ wbot we bove
Jooe sloce tbeo.

1be blstoty qollety jtlmelloe exetclse] wblcb
temloJeJ my wotk lovolvloq wltb moblllzloq
yoooq womeo to speok oot tbelt cooceto
ooJ wotkloq toqetbet fot solotloo to tbe
ptoblem focloq. Also my ttee wblcb ls teflect
my stteoqtb/weokoess ooJ bow to olm
poteotlol qool.

l temembet of tbe woy to lottoJoce eocb
otbet, stoty sbotloq ooJ speoket sbotloq tbe

CooJ memotles wltb pottoets, l coo Jtow
tbe ttee tbot JesctlbeJ oboot ttoe llfe

l temembet tbot wbeo we Jlscoss oboot
mllestooe (stoty tlmelloe) of my
pottlclpotloo lo wotkloq to ptomote
womeo's tlqbt ooJ cbooqes boppeoeJ ovet
tbe lost 15 yeots expetleoce of my
ptofessloool wotk. l olso temembet oot
Jlscossloo oboot lssoe tbot oeeJ to be
oJJtesseJ tbtooqb womeo oetwotk.

lt ls olso lmpottoot oboot ¥oqo. lt ls vety
belpfol to teJoce sttess of womeo wblle we
ote flqbtloq ooJ wotkloq fot cbooqe. lt ls o
kloJ of meJlcloe to beol ootselves ooJ to
molotolo oot eocootoqemeot os well.

:;%(/<<= ,/* -.% 3'14%(%13% / ;/<8/0<% %>?%()%13% 4'( 7'89

!"# %"#& '()"#%*+'"(, -"(+*-+. */012*/013"#4 56
!!" $%&'%() *&+,-+,
$.-(/- *0-*1 ,0- ,&2 ,0%-- 2%&'%() (*,343,3-/ 5&6 -+7&5-8 ,0- )&/,"

9-%- ,0- ,&23*/:83/*6//3&+/ 3)2&%,(+, ,&
;&)-+ (*,343/,/ 3+ <()=&83(>

?38 5&6 .-(%+ +-; 3+@&%)(,3&+ @%&) ,0-

$.-(/- /0(%- (+5 *&))-+,/ 5&6 0(4- &+ ,0- 2%&'%()"
1be ptoqtom sboolJ lovlte soccessfol
womeo oetwotk ftom otbet coootty (e.q
Myoomot,ot loJooeslo ..) to sbote

l especlolly eojoyeJ tbe ttee of llfe octlvlty, lt
belpeJ me to cooslJet my cbolleoqes ooJ
soccesses. wbot l pottlcolotly llkeJ wos
sbotloq otbet people's ttees os tbls sboweJ
me bow slmllot oot stteoqtbs ooJ
weokoesses wete.

l tblok tbe pottlclpoots sboolJ bove mote
tlme to lotetoct wltb eocb otbet meooloq
tbe poestloos ooJ ooswets sessloo oftet
eocb octlvltles sboolJ be looqet.

wbot l eojoyeJ. -meetloq ooJ oetwotkloq
wltb some oew womeo octlvlsts ftom
Jlffeteot oqes ooJ expetleoces, -leotoloq
oew sttoteqles (wbot, wbo ooJ bow)
towotJs "cnANCí", -olce ooJ comfottoble
veooe, -qooJ fooJ ooJ soock, -soft ooJ botJ
focllltotots, -sotvey pteseototloo, -Jtowloq
ttee of llfe eveo l'm oot qooJ ot Jtowloq ^^
!"# %"#& '()"#%*+'"(, -"(+*-+. */012*/013"#4 56
-¥oqo wbot l JlJ oot eojoy. N/A My
soqqestloos. -l woolJ llke mote of tbls kloJ
of coofeteoce ooJ l om mote tboo boppy lf
tbe otqoolzets coo cbooqe tbe veooe to
kompot ot kompooq 5om fot tbe oext
opcomloq ooe .-)

l teolly eojoyeJ meetloq tbe pottlclpoots
tbot l boJ oot meet befote olso o cbooce to
met people l bove koowo to teftesb oot
telotloosblp. 1btooqboot tbls coofeteoce l
bove some oew oetwotks ooJ soppott lf l
bove ooy op comloq ploo/ptoject to wotk
wltb tbem.

1be qtoop Jlscossloo JlJ oot qo smootb
wltblo tbe teom os tbete wos tbe level of
eJocotloo of qtoop membets ( eq. lo my
qtoop, some membets ftom commoolty
coolJ oot teoJ well so tbey oeeJ mocb tlme
to teoJ Jotloq cose stoJy Jlscossloo). 8ot
oot qtoop wos oot qlve mote tlme tboo
otbet qtoops lo tbls speclol cooJltloo so tbe
Jlscossloo seem tosb wltb oo eoooqb tlme
to Jlscoss ooJ mocb sbotloq ftom tbose

- NeeJ mote tlme to Jlscoss oo solotloos
mote tboo lssoes - NeeJ mote tlme fot
qtoop wotk oo mottlx ploo - NeeJ mote
cleot exploootloo - 5boolJ lovlte meo to jolo
os well becoose ooly womeo coo oot solve
tbe ptoblems. AoJ sometlmes tbe lJeo ftom
oll womeo ls too mocb extteme oboot
womeo. we sboolJ beot ftom meo os well
oo wbot Jo tbey tblok oboot womeo's

!!!" $%&'()(*%+',

-./&%001 23 435 6//0 7/ (+)052/2 % 2(./&,/
&%+8/ 36 *%&'()(*%+', (+ '9/ )3+6/&/+)/:

;(2 435 <//' +/7 )3+'%)',=*/3*0/ '9%'
7(00 >/ 5,/650 '3 435:

$0/%,/ ,9%&/ %+4 )3<</+', 435 9%./ 3+ '9/ *%&'()(*%+',"

My petsoool vlew, tbe pottlclpoots ote ftom
Jlvetse qtoop. lt woolJ be mote osefol lf tbe
womeo ftom qovetomeot offlclol coolJ

l love meetloq ooJ sbotloq wltb oll of tbe
pottlclpoots. 1bey moJe me mote cootoqe,
sttoqqle fot llfe ooJ fot cbooqe,
lleose lovlte ooe ot two tole moJels os
blqbllqbteJ by tbe pottlclpoots to sbote
tbelt llfe expetleoce fot tbe oext

!"# %"#& '()"#%*+'"(, -"(+*-+. */012*/013"#4 56
"# $%&'( )* +%%( ,- .%& /01 0'2% %3+01,4* 0
2,5,'03 5**#,1+ $,#6 5*17 %3 $%5*1
,1/'&(,1+ 5*1 )*/0&2* 5*1 ,2 #6*
8*38*#30#%37 #6*. 1**( #% '*031 01( +*#
,1-'&*1/* 06*0( #601 $%5*1 %#6*3$,2* #6*.
5,+6# )* *02,'. #% )* 0 8*38*#30#%39

" #6,1: ,# $%&'( )* +3*0# ,- #6* 803#,/,801#2
03* ,1/'&(*( $%5*1 -3%5 )&2,1*22 2*/#%3
01( 8%',#,/0' 0/#,;,2#29
<6%&'( ,1;,#* 803#,/,801#2 $6% 03* -3%5
(,--*3*1# 8%',#,/0' 803#,*29 "2 8%22,)'* #%
,1;,#* =& <%/6&0 #% 2603* 6*3 '*0(*326,8
3%'*2 02 26* ,2 +3*0# 5%(*' -%3 &2> ?'2% =29
=*1 <05@A1 01( B1+ C&1#60860;. 02 #6*.
03* 8%$*3-&' ,1 /&33*1# +%;*315*1#9 D* 02
.%&1+ '*0(*32 $01# #% :1%$ 6%$ #6*.
%;*3/%5* #% 0,5 #6*,3 8%$*3 #%(0.9

"#$ %&'()*(+) ,-. /0',-(1,*(&-

2,) *34 +&-5404-+4 6477 5,+(7(*,*4.8

2,) *34 +&-5404-+4 6477 &0',-(14.8

2,) *34 +&-5404-+4 347. (- , '&&.

2,) 9 .,:) 4-&;'3 *(<4 5&0 *34

!"# %"#& '()"#%*+'"(, -"(+*-+. */012*/013"#4 56
Þ|ease share any comments you have on the organ|zat|on of the conference.

! #$%& '()* )+ ,+-./&)& -* 0+1 23 )#& '$2/*
1$4&' 4+ )5+ '$*4 23 )#& 5&&6 '$*4 24 $ 12)
#$7' )+ 0+23 $/)#+(8# ! 5+(/' 4(88&4) 9+7
)#& 9()(7& 29 2) 24 )5+ '$*4 5+(/' 1& :72'$*
$3' ;$)(7'$* )#&3 5& $4 )#& &-./+*&& ,$3
1& 5&// ,+-123&' 5+76238 $3' /&$73238<

=(4) $'' +3& -+7& '$* 24 &3+(8#<

>#& .7+87$- 5&3) 4-++)# 0(4) )2-&
-$3$8&-&3) 24 /$)& )#$3 $8&3'$<
! 7&$//* $..7&,2$)&' )#& +78$32?238 $3' )5+
'$*4 5$4 &3+(8# 1&,$(4& 5& ,$3 3+) )$6&
-+7& )2-& $5$* 97+- +(7 5+76<

@/&$4& $'' +3& -+7& '$* 29 )#& 3&A)
,+39&7&3,& #+/' +()42'& @#3+- @&3#<
!) -$* 1& 87&$) 29 5& ,$3 #$%& )#&
,+39&7&3,& 23 4+-&5#&7& -+7& 3$)(7& $3'
&3%27+3-&3)$/ 972&3'/*< !) 5+(/' 1& -(,#

!3 -* +.232+3B C$6& 4(7& 52)# .$7)2,2.$3)4
$1+() )#& )2-& $3' 4#+(/' 1& 23%2)& -+7&
46&$6&74 $3' -+7& &A.&72&3,& 9+7 4#$7&<

! 5+(/' 4(88&4) )#$) )#& 87+(. '24,(442+3
4#+(/' 1& -+7& 42-./& $3' )#& D(&4)2+34
4#+(/' 1& ,/&$7&7< E* )#& 5$*B 9$,2/2)$)+7
4#+(/' .7+%2'& ,/&$7&7 8(2'$3,& $3'
.(7.+4&< F<8 .$7)2,2.$3) 4&&-&' ,+39(4&'
52)# )#& /$4) 4-$// 87+(. '24,(442+3 +9 )#&

V. Cvera|| Conference Goa|s

D|d the conference prov|de a space for
se|f-ref|ect|on, d|scuss|on, and |earn|ng
between women's act|v|sts?

D|d the conference capture the pu|se of
the current women's movement |n
Cambod|a and |dent|fy common |ssues and

D|d the conference nurture |eadersh|p,
consc|ousness, commun|ty, and act|ons |n
the pursu|t of movement-bu||d|ng?

Wou|d you attend another conference ||ke

!"# %"#& '()"#%*+'"(, -"(+*-+. */012*/013"#4 56

"#$%& '#$ %()* +# ,* (-.#%.*& (- #/01-(2(-0 1 3#-4*/*-3* %()* +5(67

8&&(+(#-1% 3#99*-+6

lt wos o qooJ spoce to otqoolze ooJ
moblllze womeo octlvlst bot we ote oot yet
moke ooy Jeclsloo oo wbot's qoloq
oo/movloq fotwotJ fot tbls spoce.

l'm teolly lmptessloos wltb tbls ptoqtom
8ecoose l koow bow to cteote o oew
metboJ ftom o meetloq betweeo o qtoop of
womeo, 8otb yoooq ooJ olJet womeo, AoJ
tbe olJet metboJ of cootJlootloo, now Jo
yoo pottlclpote sboteJ lJeo ot commeots.

cteote mote coofeteoce llke tbls ooJ lovolve
mote wotk wltb meo.

1book yoo vety mocb fot ptovlJloq os wltb
tbls wooJetfol oppottoolty to meet socb o
Jlvetse qtoop of womeo ooJ to bove tbe
spoce to Jlscoss lssoes tbot offect oll of oot

l expetleoce womeo's 5poce coofeteoce ls
qteot, tbetefote, l woolJ tecommeoJ to
cteote otbet coofeteoces mote speclflcs to
copoclty bollJloq to lovolve wltb blqbet level
meetloq ooJ Jeclsloo mokloq olso
locloJe/Jeflolte bow womeo tole ls
lmpottooce lo eJocotloo, polltlcs, ecooomlcs
ooJ poteotloq.

l wlsb to jolo mote sloce l teolly eojoyeJ lt
ooJ llke tbe lJeo of bovloq tlme to meet
wltb tbe womeo wbo ote teolly keeo to
cbooqe ooJ osslst womeo wbo ote Joloq
tbls wotk. lf we Joo't bove Jooot to belp we
stlll coo meet ooy ploce tbot Joes oot cost
too mocb.

1book yoo vety mocb fot ptovlJloq os wltb
tbls wooJetfol oppottoolty to meet socb o
Jlvetse qtoop of womeo ooJ to bove tbe
spoce to Jlscoss lssoes tbot offect oll of oot