Submitted to Prof. Satish Kumar Malhotra


Submitted By: Tamrrika Tyagi A0101912117 MBA-Gen 112D22

especially small investors who are known as retail individual investors (RIIs). Green Shoe Options (GSOs). One such price stabilisation mechanism is the Green Shoe Option (GSO). due to the price stabilising activity of the merchant banks. The primary market also enables members of the public to invest their savings in gainful investment. Investors would certainly be anxious if the price of the shares in the secondary market is highly volatile in the period immediately following the listing date. Such volatility is detrimental to investor confidence. that they would have an exit route during the first 30 days after the listing of shares (called the GSO window period) at a price close to the issue price. Investors buy shares of companies in an initial public offering (IPO) in the hope that the shares would trade in the secondary market at a price higher than the original selling price. The issuer company also benefits from this mechanism. This necessitates some sort of price stabilisation mechanism.Green Shoe Options Introduction The primary market for securities plays an important role in the economic development of a country. and to capital markets at large. A GSO provides the option of allotting equity shares in estabilising mechanism. the Indian market regulator. or over-allotment options. as enhanced investor confidence will result in more bids from investors at better prices. The fact that 91 companies raised capital to the tune of INR 67. in 2003 to stabilise the aftermarket price of shares issued in IPOs.555 crores was mobilised by 76 companies. to the image of the issuer company and the issue managers. by enabling companies to mobilise financial resources from the public for undertaking various projects. In 2009–2010. The objective of this mechanism is to reassure investors. it allows them to participate directly in the profits of the corporate sector.609 crore in 2010–2011 is proof of this role of the primary markets. a total of INR 57. . were introduced by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

When the issuer decides the issue price at the outset and mentions it in the offer document. The most important difference is that the pricing and allocation rules are not announced early on.IPO Process To understand the Green Shoe Option (GSO) mechanism. An IPO can be made through the fixed price method. Based on this advice. It is at this stage that the issuer company and the merchant bank decide whether to avail of the GSO. the company. with some important differences. The price is set at a level at which demand exceeds supply. it is called a book built issue. the market sentiment. . decides the cut off price. On the closing of the issue. When a company decides to launch an IPO. the book building method. the BRLM accepts bids from investors. The issuer discloses a price band or floor price before the opening of the issue of the securities offered. Once the issue is declared open. the company fixes a price band (or a floor price) within which (or above which) the investors bid for the shares. it is commonly known as a fixed price issue. one first needs to understand the initial public offering (IPO) process. The issue price is not set according to any explicit rule. it is based on the interpretation of the investors‟ indications of interest that is made by the issuer company and merchant bank. the book building procedure resembles an auction. When the price of an issue is discovered based on the demand received from the prospective investors at various price levels. In order to manage the book building process. rather. and so on. or a combination of both. the issuer company and the merchant bank solicit indications of interest from institutional investors in order to construct a demand curve. the issuer company designates one merchant bank as the book running lead manager (BRLM) or book runner. but are left to the discretion of the issuer company and the merchant bank. This decision is taken after considering various factors such as the level of confidence of the issuer company and the merchant bank about the price band determined by them. the expectation regarding investors‟ response. In a book built issue. in consultation with the merchant bank. or the price at which shares will be allotted to the investors. and the shares are allocated to the bidders at this price. Thus. it hires a merchant bank to help it assess the number of shares that it can offer and at what price. Book building is a process of price discovery.

which results in the shares selling at a price lower than the issue price. if the market price immediately following the listing day is lower than the issue price. However. Avoiding panic among small investors Small investors anywhere are likely to panic if the price of the shares they received in an IPO were to fall immediately after listing. This indicates a miscalculation in the pricing of the issue. it is fair to expect that the aftermarket price of the shares will hover around this price. and favouring preferred clients. enhancing liquidity in the aftermarket. signalling confidence in the IPO price. they are generally anxious whether they will get the shares. of listing. after they get the shares. Flippers. after initial positive returns. it implies that the issue price was over-estimated. However. Will the market open above the issue price or will it open below? If the market price immediately following the listing day is higher than the issue price. From the perspective of an investor. Rationale for including GSOs in IPO programmes Investors in an IPO could be anxious about various things: before the allotment of shares. it is observed that the aftermarket price is often significantly higher (underpricing) or significantly lower than the issue price (overpricing). and may exit the capital markets altogether in some cases. IPO underpricing as well as overpricing are worrisome. Underpricing may appear beneficial to those investors who were actually allocated shares in an IPO. In practice. In their panic. they worry about how the secondary market will react in the period immediately following the day A price band is the range of prices within which the investors are required to submit their bids. protecting the reputation of merchant banks. also known as stags in stock . it implies that the issue price was underestimated. Jenkinson and Ljungqvist (2001) reveal that such shares perform badly in the long run. a phenomenon known as underpricing. The price may fall in the immediate aftermarket because of the activities of flippers. at least in the short run. the retail individual investors (RIIs). Overpricing. research supports the claim that book building helps companies to reduce underpricing . may cause panic among the most vulnerable investors. they may try to sell their shares at low prices. a phenomenon known as overpricing. On the other hand. The inclusion of GSOs in the IPO programme of an issuer company can be justified on five grounds: avoiding panic among RIIs.As the issue price is determined based on the bids received from the investors.

especially small investors. Many investors. Towards this end. the issuer company and the merchant bank that are designated as the book running lead manager (BRLM) decide the issue price after receiving bids from the investors. Signalling confidence The price at which the shares are issued in a book-built IPO is determined in two stages. and to reassure them that their interests would be taken care of by the issuer company. a minimum of 35% of the net offer to public category is required to be made to RIIs. are usually unable to make up their minds whether to bid or not to bid for the shares at the stated price band. the issuer company and the merchant bank can signal confidence in the issue by availing of the GSO mechanism. the merchant banks back up their claims of the price being fair by proposing to buy shares from the secondary market if their claims were to be disproved and the aftermarket price were to fall below the issue price. Thus. The minimum investment limit for RIIs has been raised to INR 2 lakh. it has taken various measures over the last few years. are investors who bid for shares only to sell them on the listing day. Aggarwal (2003) argues that GSOs can counteract the sales pressure generated by flippers. they risk facing the ire of the investors if the share . In this context. In India. It is in this context that the SEBI introduced GSOs to protect RIIs. hoping to make a huge profit in a short period. In the second stage. Given that the merchant bank plays an important role in arriving at the price band or the floor price. there is a lot of subjectivity in the IPO pricing. the issuer company and the merchant banker decide the price band within which investors can bid or the floor price above which the investors are required to bid. Merchant bank reputation Merchant banks may prevail upon the issuers to avail of GSOs in their IPO programmes to retain or enhance their reputation. In the first stage. the merchant jargon. and the regulator. in an issue made through the book building process. the SEBI is in favour of encouraging the participation of retail investors in the primary market for securities. The minimum offer to public has been hiked to 25% of the issue. By so doing. as they stand to lose if the price turns out to be unsustainable.This price band or floor price is decided based on various qualitative and quantitative factors.

During the planning phase of IPOs. and the stabilising agents traded 29. they do indicate that GSOs can significantly enhance liquidity in the aftermarket. Liquidity is defined as the ease with which shares can be traded at prices that reflect the underlying demand and supply conditions. In the US. i.. if the aftermarket prices of the shares were to go below the issue price during the GSO window period. Favouring preferred investors In some jurisdictions (especially in the US). i. the stabilising agents traded 33. who often happen to be institutional investors .907 shares10 were traded during the GSO period. In the case of Indiabulls Power Limited. Secondly.42812 of the 303.443. thereby enhancing liquidity. The larger the number of shares in the hands of the investors. the stabilising agent would buy shares from the market. the reputation of a merchant bank may be affected if an issue managed by them has a bad opening. e. Green shoe options help improve the liquidity of markets in two ways.654 shares11. merchant banks avail of the GSO so that they can issue shares to some of their preferred clients. Liquidity Investors expect the market to stay liquid and transparent when trading begins in the secondary market.627. a total of 363. Firstly.847. In the case of Electrosteels Steel Limited. meeting institutional investors and other sophisticated investors. due to the over-allotment of shares.014.22% of the total trading volume. 8. Thus. more shares would go to the investors than it would have if GSOs were not present.e.08% of the total trading volume. 11. Beatty and Ritter (1986) found that the market share of merchant banks (underwriters) fell significantly after the issues managed by them fared poorly in the aftermarket. Although the figures of these two companies cannot be used to arrive at broad generalizations.01613 shares traded during the GSO window period.trades at a price below the issue price in the immediate aftermarket. the greater the possibility there these shares will be traded in the secondary market. The activities of the stabilising agents of the two Indian companies that availed of GSOs in 2009–2011 is quite instructive.. in order to gauge the potential demand for the IPO and the . merchant banks go on a road show. Merchant banks can prevent such a loss of reputation by availing of the GSO mechanism. and trying to prop up the price of the share if it were to fall below the issue price in the immediate aftermarket.

The facility of green shoe option introduced by SEBI facilitates the investment bankers to stabilize the post listing price of the security. 2003. The extent of borrowed shares is restricted to 15% of the issue size.22 The issuer company needs to pass a shareholder resolution for availing the GSO. the SA enters into an agreement with promoters or other pre-issue shareholders to „borrow‟ a certain number of shares from them. The rationale for the introduction of GSOs was stated as follows: Unexpected developments may have an adverse impact on price of newly listed securities. especially the RIIs. The details of such an agreement have to be disclosed in the offer document. The shares borrowed from the pre-issue shareholders are allotted together with the shares being issued in the IPO. The merchant bank then makes a favourable allotment to such institutional investors. GSOs in India The GSO facility was introduced in India by the SEBI on August 14. This facility was expected to be a major policy initiative to reassure investors. for appointing a stabilising agent. the SA obtain the .price at which the shares could be sold. The process of GSOs in India The GSO process involves the appointment of a merchant bank as a stabilising agent (SA) by the issuer company. thus. Pre-issue shareholders are usually the promoters or other individuals who were already holding shares in the company at the time of the IPO. This measure is expected to mitigate volatility and enhance investor confidence. and for carrying out the market stabilising activity in the aftermarket.

funds that need to be deposited in a separate bank account. . known as the GSO bank account.

There was a feeling that the GSOs facility was highly constrained by the limit of 15% overallotment and the 30-day stabilisation period. Such high fees for merchant banks were felt to be unjust as they face limited risk in implementing GSOs. These reasons are discussed in some detail in the rest of this section. such as the uncertainty about the effects of GSOs. thereby interfering with the free play of market forces. Uncertainty about impact of GSOs Many issuer companies and quite a few merchant banks were unsure of the effects of GSOs. and to discourage them from exiting the capital markets. The general opinion was that there was no guarantee that the stabilisation programme would in fact be successful. It was suggested that starting from the pre-SEBI days. any aftermarket price stabilisation would deprive “value investors” from purchasing shares from naïve investors when the price falls in the immediate aftermarket. these issuer companies and merchant banks felt that the panic and fear of the retail individual investors (RIIs) would only increase. the lack of incentives. The GSO would merely reinforce these attitudes.Reasons for indifference towards GSOs The data reveals that there is a case for issuer companies and merchant banks to avail the facility of GSOs to reassure investors. Unfair advantage for merchant banks Merchant banks that are designated as stabilising agents get high fees for availing of the GSOs. Further. the merchant banks‟ unwillingness to bear additional responsibility. the interference with market forces. Interference with free play of market forces Some investors felt that the practice of GSOs was questionable as it artificially propped up share prices. the unfair advantage to merchant banks. Unwillingness of merchant banks to accept additional responsibility . and so on. RIIs were led to believe that investing in an IPO would guarantee them positive initial returns. especially RIIs. the absence of market discipline. In this scenario. various reasons emerged. What then is the reason for this indifference to GSOs on the part of issuer companies and merchant banks? From our interaction with market participants and merchant banks.

they were not prepared to take any additional responsibility for a facility that was optional to begin with. In the face of this lack of market discipline.The issuer companies and merchant banks that we interacted with felt that the legal and regulatory compliances were cumbersome. This would adversely affect their chances of getting further business because investors would keep away from the issues managed by them. but they are not allowed to sell even if the stock value goes up. issuer companies. a typical response was “Unlike in the US. appear to be indifferent to ascribing responsibility. Lack of incentives According to the GSO regulations. We are required to stabilise the price around the offer price for which we get a fixed fees”. and merchant banks did not see any incentive to opt for GSOs. and that the consequent risks had increased manifold. In this scenario. This was one of the major concerns highlighted by merchant bankers in a survey conducted by The Economic Times.34 In this scenario. especially the RIIs. Absence of market discipline In a mature market. SEBI does not permit merchant bankers to make money in trading. Any profits arising from the price stabilisation activity need to be transferred to the Investor Protection and Education Fund (IPEF) established by the SEBI. merchant bankers are not allowed to earn a profit from the aftermarket price stabilising activity. promoters and pre-listing shareholders. merchant banks in India have no reason to shirk the . if the aftermarket price of the shares falls significantly. However. They will have to buy the stock if the price falls below the offer price. investors in India. the credibility of the merchant banks would take a hit. the investors would hold the merchant banks responsible for the same. In such an event.

SEBI introduced this option with a view to boost investor‟s confidence by arresting the speculative force.--Name of Stability agent. --The max. may lend the shares subject to provision of SEBI. The . no of shares shall not be in excess of 15% of total issue size. --The max amount of fund to be received by company in case of further allotment and the use of these funds in final document to be filled with ROC. increase in capital of company and the shareholding pattern. There are some guidelines related to Green Shoe option by Security & Exchange Board of India. The details of the agreement shall be disclosed in the draft prospectus. no of shares proposed to be overalloted by company. which work immediately after listing and thus result in short term votality in post listing price. Lead Merchant bankers by constitutions with stabilizing agent. In the case of initial public offer by the unlisted company. The Stabilizing Agent shall borrow shares from the promoters or prs issue share holding to extend of proposed over allotment. . is required to allot for the shares to the extend of over allotment in the issue. It ensures price stability. the concept of Green Shoe option has been extended to all public issue in accordance with the provision of chapter VIII A of SEBI Guidelines. red herring prospectus and final prospectus.additional responsibilities associated with GSOs and talk about the lack of incentives. draft red herring prospectus. SEBI GUIDELINES RELATED TO GREEN SHOE OPTION GREEN SHOE OPTION It denotes an option of allocation of shares. shall determine the amount of shares to overalloted with public issue. -The max. --The period for which the company propose to avail of the stabilizing mechanism. An issuer company making a public offer of equity shares can avail of green shoe option for -Stabilizing the post-listing price of its shares. as a stabilizing agent who will be responsible for the price stabilization process. red herring prospectus and final prospectus shall contain following additional disclosures:. in excess of shares included in the public issue. The stabilizing agent (SA) shall enter into an agreement with the promoters or pre-issue shareholders who will be lend their shares specifying the max. post issue. The draft prospectus. --Possibility of allotment for the shares to the stabilizing agent at the end of stabilizing period A company shall appoint one of the merchant bankers from amongst the issue management team. draft red herring prospectus. the promoter and the pre issue share holders or incase of listed company having shareholding more than 5 % shares .

credited to the GSO Demat A/c(shares brought from markets by SA) The share brought from market and lying in GSO Demat A/c shall be return to promoter immediately in any case not later than 2 working days after the close of the stabilization period. The shares returned to promoter shall be subject to remaining lock in period as applicable to promoters holding. On the expiry of stabilization period. The SA shall also submit a final report to SEBI in specified format.allocation of these shares shall be on pro rata basis. quantity to be brought and the prices at which the shares are to be brought. The SA shall determine the timing of buying the shares. The stabilization mechanism shall be available for the period.. the issuer company shall allot shares to the extend of shortfalls in dematerialization form to GSO Demat A/c with in 5 days of closer of Stabilization period. The SA shall open a special account with the bank to be called SPECIAL ACCOUNT for GSO proceeds of ……. . The amount left in this account shall be transferred to investor‟s protection fund. For the money received from applicants against over-allotments in GSO shall be kept in GSO bank A/c for the purpose of buying shares from market during stabilization period. The SA shall submit a report to stock exchange on daily basis during the stabilization period. The SA and the company shall sign this report The SA shall maintain the register in respect of each issue and must retained for the period at least 3 years from the date of end of stabilization period. which shall not exceed 30 days from the date of trading permission. The SA shall remit an amount equal to issuer company from GSO Bank A/c. The register contains Each transaction effective.Company. in case of SA does not buy shares. The Prime-responsibility of SA shall be stabilizing post-listing price of share. was given by exchange(s).