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**cluster head in wireless sensor network
**

Ravi Ranjan

Bharti School of Telecommunication Technology

and Management

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 INDIA

Email: ravi.ranjan.bsy@gmail.com

Subrat Kar

Bharti School of Telecommunication Technology

and Management

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 INDIA

Email: subrat@ee.iitd.ac.in

Abstract—Prolonging life time is the most important designing

objectives in wireless sensor networks (WSN). In WSN the total

amount of energy is limited, how to make best use of the limited

resource energy is a very important aspect in research of WSN. In

this paper we provide a method for determining the optimal num-

ber of cluster head for homogeneous sensor networks deployed in

different scenario using a reasonable energy consumption model.

In the ﬁrst scenario nodes are thrown randomly, which can

be modeled using two-dimensional homogeneous spatial Poisson

point process. In the second scenario, nodes are deterministically

placed along the grid. For these two scenario we calculate the

average energy spend in the network in each round according to

LEACH protocol for both single and multi-hop between cluster

head and sink (base station) as a function of the probability of the

node to become a cluster head. Then we ﬁnd optimal probability

of becoming a cluster head hence the optimal number of cluster

head that would lead to minimize the average energy spends

in the network for each round. Simulation results shows that

optimal probability of becoming a cluster heads that leads to

minimize energy dissipation in the network is not only depend

on the total number of nodes, but also depends on area of the

network A, packet length L and processing energy of nodes.

Index Terms—Wireless sensor networks (WSN), Cluster num-

ber, Stochastic geometry, Voronoi cell .

I. INTRODUCTION

Wireless Sensor Networks are dense networks of low cost,

wireless nodes with limited ability for signal processing that

sense certain phenomena in the area of interest and report

their observations to certain base station for further analysis.

Distributed sensor networks enable a variety of application in

both civilian as well as military domains [1]. An important

application of sensor networks is surveillance of battle-ﬁeld

or sensitive borders of countries. A simple way to monitor

such areas is to deploy sensors. Deployment could either be

deterministic, i.e., placing a node along grid points, or the

nodes could be deploying randomly. Because of sensor nodes’

self-constraints (generally tiny size, low-energy supply, weak

computation ability, etc.), it is challenging to develop a scal-

able,robust, and long-lived sensor networks. Much research

effort has focused on this area which results in many new

technologies and methods to address these problems in recent

years. The combination of clustering and data-fusion is one

of the most effective approaches to construct the large-scale

and energy-efﬁcient data gathering sensor networks [2] [3].

Clustering topology is an important technology to prolong

the life-time of the network. LEACH [4] which is the ﬁrst

clustering protocol has motivated the design of many other

protocols. It is a distributed algorithm for homogeneous sensor

networks where each sensor elects itself as a cluster-head

with some probability and cluster reconﬁguration scheme is

used to balance the energy load. Cluster heads aggregate the

packets from there cluster members before forwarding them

to sink. By rotating the cluster head role uniformly among

all nodes, each node tends to expend the same energy over

the time. The LEACH allows only single hop cluster and

direct communication between CH to BS considering energy

consumption only in data collection and transmission. In our

proposed algorithm, the energy consumption is considered at

all phases - in the CH election, aggregation,data routing and

maintenance. Further we consider two type of deployement

scenarios one is random deployment and other is grid de-

ployment and obtain optimal probability of node becoming

a cluster head using resonable energy model.We obtained

numerical result for optimal cluster probability which shows

that optimal values for these scenario will not only depend

on total number of node that was cosidered by leach but also

depends on trasmission range, packet length, circuit dissipation

energy, etc.

II. SYSTEM MODEL

In this paper we study the WSN scenario for homogeneous

sensor network. We have considered sensor nodes deployed in

two ways. In the ﬁrst scenario (which is more realistic) nodes

located randomly on the plane according to a homogeneous

spatial Poisson point process. In the second scenario nodes

placed deterministically along grid points. We consider that all

nodes are quasi stationary and dispersed into an 2-D square

area of size A = a

2

. Hence, the total number of nodes in such

area is also a Poisson random variable N with mean λA, where

A = a

2

. Let us consider that p is the probability that a sensor

node becomes a cluster head. Therefore, average number of

CH is np, where p is the total number of nodes in that area. So

in case of random deployment λ

0

= λp and λ

1

= (1 −p)λ are

the intensity of the corresponding(independent) Poisson point

process. In this case clustering leads to formation of Voronoi

cells with CH being the nuclei of these cells. In the case of

grid, λ

0

and λ

1

are simply the number of cluster heads and

basic nodes. In this paper we use the same approach as given

in LEACH protocol, in which any node may become a cluster

head with some random probability and the node (not itself a

CH) join the cluster of the closest CH. After the network will

form, CH aggregate all data collected from the member and

transmit the aggregated data to the base station (BS).

A. Node architectures and energy models

A wireless sensor node typically consists of the following

three parts: (a) Sensor component (b) Transceiver component

(c) Signal processing component. The following assumptions

have been made for each of these components:

• For the sensor component: Sensor nodes are assumed

to sense a constant amount of information every round.

Energy consumed in sensing is E

sense

(L) = γL, where

γ is the power consumed for sensing a bit of data and L

is length of information in bits. In general, the value of

L is constant.

• For transceiver component: A simple model for the radio

hardware energy consumption is used.

E

tra

(L, d) = L· E

elec

+

_

L · ε

fs

· d

2

; d < d

o

L · ε

mp

· d

4

; d ≥ d

o

(1)

E

rec

(L, d) = L · E

elec

(2)

where d

o

=

_

(ε

fs

/ε

mp

)

• For signal processing component: This component con-

ducts data fusion. The energy spent in aggregating k

steams of L bits row information into a single stream

is determined by

E

{Aggr}

(k, L) = kδL (3)

The main energy dissipation of each node includes transmitter

(receiver) electronics and transmit ampliﬁer. WSN application

is extensive which leads to complicated network environment.

Many uncertain factors are possible which will affect the

energy dissipation of the network. So we will use reasonable

energy consumption model to balance the energy load of the

network.

From the Eq.1 the energy dissipation is depend upon size of

each cluster. If the area of the region is ﬁxed, then the size of

each cluster is determined by the number of CH.In our case

np is the number of CH so energy dissipation depends p hence

we have to ﬁnd optimal value of p that minimize total energy

dissipation in the network.

B. Connectivity and coverage

To provide sensing coverage of region and successful use

of multihop communication for sensor network the condition

for the network connectivity and the area coverage must be

ensured[6]. Let λ be the intensity of poisson process and p

be the reliability probability of each node. The connectedness

probability of nodes and coverage of area is given as follows:

P

connected and region is covered

≥ 1 −(1/γr)

2

· e

−πθ

2

pr

2

λ

(4)

We assume that all nodes are reliable i.e. p=1 and that the

sensing range of nodes is r. In a network dimensioning

problem a parameter () is provided such that the connectivity

and coverage probability be at least (1 − ). Therefore, we

require

λ ≥

1

πθ

2

pr

2

log

_

1

εγr

2

_

(5)

for all γ, θ > 0 : γ + 2θ = 1, We consider r

2

< 1 for which

r.h.s of the Eqn.(4) above minimizeed as a function of θ under

the constraints of γ + 2θ = 1. so we can rewrite the

u(θ) =

1

πv

2

pr

2

log

_

1

ε((1 −2θ)r)

2

_

(6)

It is noted that u(θ) approaches ∞as θ approaches 0 as well as

1

2

. Hence, there is a point in between where u(θ) is minimized

since u(.) is continuous and lower bound by 0. Hence, the

constrains in(4)reduces to constraint of the form:

λ +θ ≥ u(θ) = a (7)

where a is completely determined by , p,andr. In the case

of grid , the total number required is exactly λ. Hence the

connectivity requirement for unit area takes a form:

λ

0

+λ

1

=

1

r

2

(8)

C. Data Aggregation model

We used most common model for data aggregation that

assumes a cluster head collects the packets from all the nodes

in its cluster, and after processing and fusion produces a single

packet. It is further assumed that irrespective of the number of

nodes in the cluster,the size of the size of aggregated packet is

constant,i.e., does not depend on number of packets that were

aggregated during data fusion.

III. OPTIMAL CLUSTERING ANALYSIS FOR TWO

DEPLOYMENT SCENARIOS

A. Random Deployed network

WE begin the solution by ﬁrst considering an actual net-

work, in which the primary energy will dissipates on three

parts: cluster formation process , data routing process and the

maintenance of the network. For LEACH protocol, clustering

process starts at the beginning of each round with some node

electing itself as CH with some random probability. After

becoming a CH it sends control information to the network; the

member nodes receives the information and decides to which

cluster they belong to. In second process the member sends the

collected sensed data to the CH they belong, the CH aggregates

these data and send it to the sink node. In the third process

CH sends real time control information to the network, the

member receive that control information and update its own

information. The third process goes along with the ﬁrst two

processes. Now we will ﬁnd energy spend by the network

in three different process for which we need to consider

results from stochastic geometry [5]. When the deployment

is random, each cluster form a Voronoi cell associated with

each CH as nuclei. We ﬁrst ﬁnd the expected number of

member nodes in a typical Voronoi cell associated with a

particular CH. We then ﬁnd expected number of member

outside circle of radius r around a CH for the purpose of

ﬁnding average relaying load on a critical node. We follow the

approach used in to determine the expected number of member

associated with CH nodes. Let σ(Π

1

) denotes the sigma

algebra generated by the point process corresponding to the

CH nodes. Since member as well as CH nodes deployed using

a homogeneous point process, we can shift the origin to one

of the CH point and use Campbell’s theorem and Slivnyak’s

theorem to compute the expected number of member node

in a typical Voronoi cell. Let Π

0

denotes the Voronoi cell

associated with CH node located at origin , and {x

i

∈ Π

0

}

denotes the set of all the member points. Then, 1

{xi∈Π0}

is

the indicator function which is one when a member node i

lies in a cell Π

0

. Let E[N

v

] be the expected member in cell

Π

0

where

E[N

v

|N = n] ≈ E[N

ν

] = E[

{xi∈Π0}

1

{xi∈Π0}

]

= E

_

_

E

_

_

{xi∈Π0}

1

{xi∈Π0}

| σ(Π

1

)

_

_

_

_

=

ˆ

2π

0

ˆ

∞

0

e

−λ1πx

2

λ

0

xdxdθ

The event that member point located at (x, θ) belongs to the

Voronoi cell Π

0

is equivalent to the event that there is a

member point in a small area xdxdθ located at (x, θ), and

there is no other CH point in a circle of radius r around that

member point. From this, we get

E[N

v

] =

λ

0

λ

1

(9)

Using similar approach, we can ﬁnd the expected number of

member node located within a distance of r from CH node as

follows:

E[N

v

(r) = E[

{xi∈Π0}

1

{xi∈Π0,|xi|<r}

]

= E[E[

{xi∈Π0}

1

{xi∈Π0,|xi|<r}

| σ(Π

1

)]]

=

´

2π

0

´

r

0

e

−λ1πx

2

λ

0

xdxdθ

which gives

E[N

v

(r)] =

λ

0

λ

1

(1 −e

−λ1πx

2

) (10)

These E[N

v

(r)] number of critical nodes relay data of

E[N

v

] −E[N

v

(r)] member node that are located outside the

circle of radius ‘r

**in the same Voronoi cell. Now total length
**

of the segments connecting to member node point to the

CH(nuclei) in a Voronoi cell, assume as L

v

, where |x| is the

length of the vector x ∈ R

2

. Then

E[L

v

| N = n] = E[L

v

] =

λ

0

2λ

3/2

] (11)

Hence, the average length of a member points to its CH may

be expressed as

r =

E[L

v

| N = n]

E[N

v

| N = n]

=

1

2

√

λ

1

(12)

As we have described, in each round, the energy spend in the

network can be divided in to three parts,(1) cluster formation

process (2) data routing process (3) network maintenance

process, so according to radio model of ﬁrst order,

1.In the cluster formation process:

E[E

CH1

| N = n] = E[L

ctr

E

Tr

(L

ctr

, R

max

)

+

{xi∈Π0}

L

ctr

E

Rx

+

L

ctr

E

DA

+L

ctr

E

Tr

(L

ctr

, D

i

) | N = n]

(13)

where, the expected value and mean square of distance

between CH and BS is given by

E[D

i

| N = n] =

´

A

1

A

_

x

2

i

+y

2

i

dA =

´

A/2

1

A

_

x

2

i

+y

2

i

dA = 2/A

´

π/4

0

´

a/ cos θ

0

r.rdrdθ = 0.765a

E[D

2

i

| N = n] =

´

A

1

A

_

x

2

i

+y

2

i

_

dA =

2

3

a

2

and maximum

value of transmission range is R

max

=

_

0.917 ln(

7

α

)

p1λ

; α

denotes the probability that node do not join any CH.

[E

nonCH1

|N = n] = E[E

Rx

+L

ctr

E

DA

| N = n]

+E[L

ctr

E

Tx

(L

ctr

, |x

i

|) | N = n]

(14)

2. In the actual data routing process:

[E

CH2

| N = n] = E[

{xi∈Π0}

E

Rx

(L

data

)

+

{xi∈Π0}

L

data

E

DA

+ E

Tx

(L

data

, D

i

) | N = n]

(15)

[E

nonCH2

| N = n] = E[

{xi∈Π0}

[E

Rx

(L

data

, | |x

i

|) | N = n]

(16)

And 3. In network maintenance process:

E[E

CH3

| N = n] = E[

{xi∈Π0}

E

Rx

(L

ctr

)

+

{xi∈Π0}

L

ctr

E

DA

| N = n]

(17)

where D

2

is distance between two CH which we can take as

2R

max

[E

nonCH3

| N = n] = E[E

Tx

(L

ctr

) +E

Tx

(L

ctr

, |x

i

|)] (18)

1) Direct communication: In the protocol that uses direct

communication CH sent its aggregated data directly to the base

station. So for total energy in each routing round using above

energy model discribed can be calculated as

E[c] = nλa

2

[A(1 −P) +B

1 −P

P

+CP +DP

2

] (19)

where A = ((4E

elec

+ 2E

DA

)L

ctr

+ (2E

elec

+E

DA

)L

data

),

B = (L

ctr

(

fs

πλ

)+L

data

(

fs

πλ

), C = (L

ctr

(5

fs

R

2

max

+4E

ele

+

28

15

mp

a

4

) +L

data

(E

elec

+

28

15

mp

a

4

)), D = n(E

elec

+E

DA

)

Since above Equation do not have closed form so we have to

use simulation results for determination of p

opt

.

2) Multihop communication: For multi hop communication

the aggregated data will be relayed by the other CH. Now for

the connectivity of the inter-cluster overlay, the transmission

range of the CHs should be at least two or more cluster

diameters. Here we have consider the homogeneous sensor

network hence the same radio range R = 4r [7]. Hence the

average distance between CHs and BS is

¯

h =

_

Di

4r

_

.The total

amount of energy sent in the network can be calculated as:

E[c] = A· p +B· (1 −p) +C·

(1−p)

p

+D· p(1 −p)

+E· p

1

2

+F· p(0.765

√

np −1) +G

(20)

where A = L

ctr

(2nE

elec

+

4

9

mp

na

4

), B = L

ctr

(5nE

elec

) +

L

data

(2E

elec

), C = L

ctr

(

1

3

fs

a

2

) + L

data

(

1

6

fs

a

2

),

D = L

ctr

(n

2

(E

elec

+ E

DA

)), E = (L

ctr

+

L

data

)(

√

n(0.1.743

fs

a

2

)), F = (L

ctr

+L

data

)(nE

elec

) and

G = L

ctr

(2nE

DA

+

1

3

fs

a

2

) +L

data

(nE

DA

)

B. Grid deployed network

Now we consider network in which nodes are placed along

grid point with distance r between them. If all nodes are

reliable, this grid will trivially provide connectivity and take

the following form:

λ =

1

r

2

(21)

1) Direct communication: For this case we calculate the

total energy spent in the nework as

E[c] = A· p+B· (1−p)+C·

(1 −p)

p

+D· p(1−p)+E (22)

where A = L

ctr

(n(3E

elec

+

8

9

mp

a

4

)) + L

data

(n(E

elec

+

4

9

mp

a

4

)), B = L

ctr

(5nE

elec

+ L

data

(2nE

elec

), C =

L

ctr

(

1

3

fs

a

2

)+L

data

(

1

6

fs

a

2

), D = L

ctr

(n

2

(E

elec

+E

DA

)))

and E = L

ctr

(2nE

DA

+

1

3

fs

a

2

) +L

data

(nE

DA

)

2) Multihop communication: To calculate the energy dissi-

pation in multihop case we can consider the network as spatial

coherence region called basic observation area[7].In[7], the

average number of hop counts is given as

¯

h =

√

np

2

with np

is even, and

¯

h =

√

np

2

(np−1)+1

np

otherwise. So the total amount

of energy spent can be calculated as:

E[c] = A· p +B· (1 −p) +C·

(1−p)

p

+D· p(1 −p)

+E· p

1

2

+F· p(

√

np −1) +G

(23)

where A = L

ctr

(2nE

elec

+

4

9

mp

na

4

), B = L

ctr

(5nE

elec

) +

L

data

(2E

elec

), C = L

ctr

(

1

3

fs

a

2

) + L

data

(

1

6

fs

a

2

), D =

L

ctr

(n

2

(E

elec

+ E

DA

)), E = (L

ctr

+ L

data

)(

√

n(

4

3

fs

a

2

)),

F = (L

ctr

+ L

data

)(nE

elec

) and G = L

ctr

(2nE

DA

+

1

3

fs

a

2

) +L

data

(nE

DA

)

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this section, we verify the optimal probability obtained by

stochastic geometry, for direct and multihop communication

in the random and grid scenario in section III into a square

area of length 100 m with 100 node. We found that at the

optimal probability p

opt

is the value at which the energy costs

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

0.089

0.09

0.091

0.092

0.093

0.094

0.095

0.096

0.097

0.098

Probabilty of becoming a CH

T

o

t

a

l

e

n

e

r

g

y

s

p

e

n

t

i

n

a

r

o

u

n

d

Fig. 1. Total energy spent versus the probability of becoming CH for direct

communication for random deployement

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.11

Probability of becoming CH

T

o

t

a

l

e

n

e

r

g

y

s

p

e

n

t

i

n

a

r

o

u

n

d

Fig. 2. Total energy spent versus the probability of becoming CH for multi-

hop communication for random deployement

in the system is minimum via simulation.The value of p can

computed by numerical analysis. The simulation results shows

the total energy spent in a round is minimized at probability

p = 0.5, 0.46 for direct communication and p = 0.36, 0.32 for

multi-hop communication for same area. We also observed

options value

Lctr 20bytes

L

data

1000bytes

E

elec

50nj/bit

E

DA

50nj/bit/signal

fs

10pj/bit/m

2

mp 0.0013pj/bit/m

4

TABLE I

SIMULATION PARAMETER

that for same n if area will increase then it leads to increase

in p

opt

which is constant for LEACH.

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

0.09

0.095

0.1

0.105

0.11

0.115

Probability of becoming a CH

T

o

t

a

l

e

n

e

r

g

y

s

p

e

n

t

i

n

a

r

o

u

n

d

Fig. 3. Total energy spent versus the probability of becoming CH for direct

communication for grid deployement

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

Probability of becoming CH

T

o

t

a

l

e

n

e

r

g

y

s

p

e

n

t

i

n

a

r

o

u

n

d

Fig. 4. Total energy spent versus the probability of becoming CH for multi-

hop communication for grid deployment

V. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper we try to ﬁnd optimal probability of a node

to becoming a cluster head that leads to minimize the overall

energy spent in the network for a more complex and general

scenario. We formulate the optimal way for determining

number of CH for different scenario with the objective of

guaranteed connectivity and minimizing the total energy spent

in the system. We found that the optimal parameter values for

these scenario and complex model will not only depend on n

that was cosidered by leach but also depends on trasmission

range, packet length, circuit dissipation energy, etc.

REFERENCES

[1] I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarsubramaniyam, and E. Cayirci, “Wireless

Sensor Networks: A Survey, ” Computer Networks, vol. 38, pp. 393-442,

Mar. 2002.

[2] O. Younis and S. Fahmy, “Distributed clustering in ad-hoc sensor net-

works: a hybrid, energy-efﬁcient approach”, in Proc. of INFOCOM’04,

March 2004

[3] A. Boulis, S. Ganeriwal, and M. B. Srivastava, “Aggregation in sensor

networks: an energy-accuracy trade-off,” Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks

Journal, Vol. 1, 2003, pp. 317-331

[4] W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan and H. Balakrishman, “Energy-

efﬁcient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks,” in

Proc. Of IEEE HICSS, January 2000.

[5] S.G. Foss and S.A. Zuyev, “On a Voronoi Aggregative Process Related to

a Bivariate Poisson Process,” Advances in Applied Probability, vol. 28,

no. 4, pp. 965-981, 1996.

[6] V.P. Mhatre, C. Rosenberg, D. Kofman, R. Mazumdar,N. Shroff, ”A min-

imum cost heterogeneous sensor network with a lifetime constraint,”IEEE

Transactions on Mobile Computing,Vol.4, pp.4-15,june 2005.

[7] L-C Wang, C-W Wang, and C-M Liu,”Optimal Number of Clusters in

Dense Wireless Sensor Networks: A Cross-Layer Approach, ” IEEE

Transaction on vehicular technology, Vol. 58, no.2, feb.2009

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