# Customer Training Material

Lecture 2 Rigid Dynamics Procedure

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics

L2-1

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics

Steps in Case setup
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. Add rigid body analysis to project page Geometry definition Material definition Connections Meshing Solution settings Boundary condition/Loading Solve Post processing Motion load export

Customer Training Material

L2-2

Release 13.0 December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics

Points to Remember

Customer Training Material

• Inputs and outputs are forces, moments, displacements, velocities and accelerations. • All parts are rigid such that there are no stresses and strain results produced, only forces, moments, displacements, velocities and accelerations. • The solver is tuned to automatically adjust the time step. Doing it manually is often inefficient and results in longer run times. • Viscous damping can be taken into account through springs or joints (bushing, revolute, cylindrical joints)

L2-3

Release 13.0 December 2010

Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Analysis of Multibody Systems • Dynamic Analysis Customer Training Material – Study of time-dependent response of the system due to the action of time-varying loads/boundary conditions. – The time-scale of the loading is such that inertia and/or damping effects are considered to be important. Inc.0 December 2010 . Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. – Equation of motion to be solved: Ma  Cv  Ku  F (t ) External Force Inertial Force Elastic Force Damping Force ANSYS. All rights reserved. L2-4 Release 13.

All rights reserved. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. HHT method) ANSYS.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Analysis of Multibody Systems Customer Training Material • For ‘Rigid Dynamics’ analysis where all bodies are rigid bodies the Equation of Motion can be represented as: Ma  F (t ) – Rigid Dynamic Solvers Where the force vector includes Ku +Cv • Explicit 4th and 5th order Runge-Kutta method • If some components are assumed rigid while other components are assumed flexible then Ma  Cv  Ku  F (t ) – The inertial force term in the above equation applies to all components while the damping force and the elastic force terms refer only to the flexible components – FEA Solvers • Implicit (Newmark method. L2-5 Release 13.0 December 2010 . Inc. Inc.

Customer Training Material ANSYS. • The analysis tree will be configured for rigid dynamic analysis. L2-6 Release 13. All rights reserved. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.0 December 2010 . Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics A. Add Rigid body analysis • From the Toolbox. drag a Rigid Dynamics template to the Project Schematic.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L2-7 Release 13. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. Geometry • Geometry: – – – – Rigid dynamic analysis can handle 2D / 3D bodies. Inc. All parts are assumed rigid (no stress/strain). 3D bodies can be shells and/or solids. Inc. Customer Training Material ANSYS.0 December 2010 . Multibody parts (DesignModeler concept) are supported.

0 December 2010 . All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. L2-8 Release 13. ANSYS. • Parts are considered rigid so density is the only required material property. Material definition Customer Training Material • Solid geometry is used to define the model. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. • To begin a rigid dynamic analysis parts must have their stiffness behavior flagged as rigid.

rigid bodies are related to one another and to ground using joints/springs and/or contacts. All rights reserved.0 December 2010 L2-9 . • Joints are represented by their respective coordinate systems. Release 13. – Motions at each joint are defined with respect to a local reference coordinate system associated with each joint. • The body is represented by mass elements at the centroid.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics D. Inc. Joint Mass Mass ANSYS. Inc. Connections Customer Training Material • Joints are automatically created as per the proximity of the part. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. • Unlike flexible analyses.

L2-10 Release 13. ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. for 3D models. only the faces of the rigid body in contact are meshed because the volume mesh is not needed. – Similarly. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics E. • Rigid body meshing can be used for 3D contact.0 December 2010 . Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. mesher will create mesh on the surface/edges of the contact. Meshing Customer Training Material • Apart from node ( Mass21 element) at the centroid of the rigid bodies.

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics F. Inc. L2-11 Release 13. All rights reserved. Solution settings • The “Analysis Setting” branch contains the controls for setting up the analysis: – – – – Number of steps Time step controls Output controls Solver tolerances Customer Training Material • Note. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.0 December 2010 . Inc. additional steps are generally used when loads are applied or removed or when load histories undergo abrupt changes. Output controls allow the number of solution points to be specified ANSYS.

– Maximum time step: places a limit on how large time steps can become in the auto time stepping routine. L2-12 Release 13. If the time step is only slightly large (or too small) auto time stepping will correct this. All rights reserved. Inc.0 December 2010 . ANSYS.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Solution settings Customer Training Material • Rigid dynamic solutions employ explicit time integration. • Auto time stepping is usually recommended since determination of the optimum time step size is often problematic: – Initial time step: an initial time step that is too large will result in a message indicating accelerations are too high. – Minimum time step: stops solution if the required time step is below this value. Inc. whereas flexible analyses use implicit integration. • Required time step sizes are dictated by the highest frequencies of the system. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Usually used to insure time steps do not increase to where desired results are “stepped over”.

Inc. • Remote force • Support: Remote displacement ANSYS. – A joint can be dragged and dropped from the connections folder to automatically specify a joint condition. inertial loads (acceleration and/or gravity) are used. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. – Once inserted each joint in the model is available via the drop down list in the joint condition details. Inc. Boundary condition/Loading Customer Training Material • For rigid dynamic analysis.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics G.0 December 2010 . All rights reserved. • Joint conditions are used to apply all other loads as constants or time varying using tabular or functional definitions. L2-13 Release 13.

All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Boundary condition/Loading • Joint conditions can be defined as constant.0 December 2010 . Inc. Customer Training Material ANSYS. • Tabular and functional data can be input in the details window. L2-14 Release 13. • Once entered in Simulation the data can be saved to the Engineering Data application. tabular or as a function. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. the table in Simulation or in the Engineering Data application.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. Customer Training Material ANSYS. L2-16 Release 13. – Individual joint conditions can then be specified.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Boundary condition/Loading: Joint Conditions • To Control joints during multiple steps: – Analysis settings details allow the number of steps to be specified.0 December 2010 . – A timeline and a table can be displayed for each joint condition. All rights reserved. Inc.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. Inc.0 December 2010 . L2-17 Release 13. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Boundary condition/Loading: Joint Conditions • Joint conditions can be deactivated or activated from the timeline/table using a right mouse click. RMB either Customer Training Material Place cursor in desired step on the timeline or in the table and RMB Note: anywhere within the step is fine ANSYS.

velocity or position (see below). Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Distance Velocity Velocity Translation Time ANSYS.0 December 2010 . acceleration. Time L2-19 Release 13. Inc. • Changes in velocities (translational or rotational) result in accelerations which are calculated internally. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Boundary condition/Loading: Customer Training Material • Changes in position or angle in a joint condition result in forces and accelerations in the body which are calculated internally. Inc. • Changes in joint conditions can result in discontinuities in force.

Where larger rotations are desired change to angular velocity over time. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.0 December 2010 . ANSYS. • It is recommended that prescribed rotations be limited to 2π or less. • Positional or angular discontinuities are non physical and will usually result in no solution or non physical results. All rights reserved. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Boundary condition/Loading Customer Training Material • Discontinuities in forces or accelerations are acceptable and the rigid solver will generally handle these with no problems. • It is generally not recommended to apply multiple joint conditions on a single joint. Inc. L2-20 Release 13.

L2-21 Release 13.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics H. Inc. • During (and following) the solve the solution information branch can be highlighted to check the solver output information. Inc. Customer Training Material ANSYS. Solve • Once setup is complete the solution can be initiated. • If warning or error messages are produced they will be indicated in the status bar and can be reviewed via the message window. All rights reserved.0 December 2010 . Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.

L2-22 Release 13. Postprocessing Customer Training Material • Rigid dynamic results are presented in either graphical. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics I.0 December 2010 . Inc. • Only result objects under “Deformation” and “Probe” are used. All rights reserved. tablular or animation formats. ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics I. Inc. L2-23 Release 13. Inc.0 December 2010 . All rights reserved. Postprocessing :User defined results • User defined results can be obtained from worksheet or can be entered using “User defined result “ tab Customer Training Material ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.

Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Postprocessing • Desired result displays are highlighted in the tree as with other analysis types. Inc.0 December 2010 . Customer Training Material Toggle ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. • The timeline displays graphically the same information as the table. L2-24 Release 13. – Note: check boxes above each column control the graphical content. All rights reserved.

• For results from a specific time. All rights reserved. place the cursor in the timeline/table and RMB to retrieve results. Customer Training Material RMB at specific location in timeline ANSYS. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L2-25 Release 13. Inc.0 December 2010 .Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Postprocessing • Results can be scoped to entire assemblies or individual bodies.

All rights reserved.Probes Customer Training Material • Probes can be inserted into the Solution branch allowing results to be extracted for specific locations or connections. Inc. • A shortcut for setting up joint and spring Probes is to drag and drop the item into the Solution branch. • Probes are scoped using joints. L2-26 Release 13.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Postprocessing. Drag and Drop ANSYS. Inc. geometry or coordinate systems.0 December 2010 . Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.

All rights reserved.0 December 2010 . and damping forces Relative displacement and rotations (cumulative).Joint Output • A variety of joint output is available: – – – – – – Customer Training Material Constraint forces and moments Stop and lock status Relative position Constitutive displacements and rotations Joint elastic forces. velocities. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Postprocessing . Inc. and accelerations – The components of the bases vectors at the two nodes in the deformed configuration ANSYS. L2-27 Release 13.

– Use CTRL or Shift key to make multiple selections from the tree. Inc. Customer Training Material • Select the desired result(s) from the tree to include in the chart. All rights reserved. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L2-28 Release 13.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Postprocessing • Charts allow further refinement to graphical/tabular data displays. Inc. • Charts will be inserted in the tree as children of the Environment. ANSYS.0 December 2010 .

– Note: activate/deactivate chart legend via a RMB. Customer Training Material RMB ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved.0 December 2010 .Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Postprocessing • Chart display for position result. L2-29 Release 13. Inc.

– Note. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Postprocessing Customer Training Material • Chart showing Velocity probe and position result plotted on the same chart. ANSYS. L2-30 Release 13. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. the Y axis is normalized when dissimilar results are plotted. All rights reserved.0 December 2010 . Inc.

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Postprocessing • Animation controller: Start/Stop Number of Frames Animation Speed Customer Training Material Results Distribution Save . All rights reserved. Inc. ANSYS.avi animation file • Animation results may be distributed evenly over the entire result or actual result points can be used for the animation. Inc. – The more frames used the smoother the animation but time to display animation is increased. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.0 December 2010 . L2-31 Release 13.