'As Solid as the Rock'?

Place, Belonging and the Local Appropriation of Imperial Discourse in Gibraltar Author(s): David Lambert Source: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Jun., 2005), pp. 206-220 Published by: Wiley on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3804519 . Accessed: 04/12/2013 13:38
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some come to 1997.Sidaway 2000 2002.uk revised manuscriptreceived 12 April 2005 Introduction Empire is firmly on the geographicalagenda at present. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see also Dalby 2003). can strike This content downloaded from 200. even thoughit is theonlyremaining OverseasTerritory of Gibraltar British has come to standas a symbolof formal colonyin Europe. locallyto articulate withitsapparently considers how a surviving colonysuch as Gibraltar.Gibraltar imperial resilience.130 on Wed. 'internal' colonialisms. periodizations complicates postcolonial population.notions of empire are being mobilized to understand contemporaryphenomena such as neoliberal globalization. American hegemony. a distinctive sense ofbelonging. loyal and assumptions. Surrey ofGeography. of a supposedly imaginations geographical multiple Britain.albeit in 1998). University TW20OEX Department email:d. decolonization(Hong Kong) or environupon the impinging mentaldisaster(Montserrat). fora review.'As solid as the Rock'? Place.such survivedthe post-SecondWorld War processesof TransInstBr Geogr NS 30 206-220 2005 ISSN 0020-2754( Royal GeographicalSociety(withThe Institute ofBritish Geographers)2005 as Martiniqueand Reunion (Aldrichand Connell empiretoo survives.ac. Harvey2003. which includes the Dutch Antillesand Aruba.75.lambert~rhul. theylive on back.paradoxically. humanitarianinterventionism and the 'War on Terror'(Smith2003.it seems.see Wainwright 2004. British The paper exploreshow such a place-basedimperialdiscoursehas servedto has been appropriated thecivilianpopulationand yet. Nor have the European empirescompletely vanishedfrom the world map.No longer the concernonly of historical geographers or thoseworking within a postcolonial frame.g.The empire. The British ways . Moreover. marginalize thepaper More generally. Ritchie 2003). belonging of imperial and the local appropriation discoursein Gibraltar David Lambert does the rarely agenda at present.in places like Bermuda. Winchester (theFalkland conflict becauseofmilitary prominence Islands). Binding 2003). borderdisputes.of Gibraltaris in the bi-continental The BritishOverseas Territory Kingdomof the Netherlands. The legaciesand continuities of the past are manifestly evidentin the military intrusions.19. Although oftendistant frommetropolitan theyare notabsentand imaginations. RoyalHolloway. even post-imperial when reduced to its 'last pink bits'. as well as amusing anecdotes for travelwriters(e. imperialism is firmly on thegeographical Although feature. categories. Although dramatically reducedin size. Yet.Seized in 1704. geographical provide spaces for meditationson contemporary Britishidentities(e. as one of these 'limpetcolonies' (Darwin 1988) that well as French 'Departmentsd'Outre-Mer'. a statusencapsulatedby thephrase'as solid as theRock'. imperialism discourse analysis key words Gibraltar contemporary place belonging postcolonialism ofLondon.g. Gregory 2004). separatistmovements and 'ethnic'conflicts of the 'colonialpresent'(Gelderand Jacobs1998.theBritish different Virgin Islands and British Antarctic Territory (Dodds 2002). These imperial remnantsprovide to the processesof decolonization a counter-point (Butler century in the second halfof the twentieth 2002). the older imperialformsare not merelyof historical or conceptual interest.

puttingthe ambiguous case ing the territorialclaim by closing the border with of Northern Ireland to one side . the border closure remains embedded in 2000.which. part 6).5 mile 0 Spain in 1704 by Anglo-Dutchforcesduring the War of Spanish Successionand annexedby Britain Strait of Gibraltar in 1711 (Bradford1971). 12 July Services. Information Accessed 8 April 2003). in 2002 the Foreign Secretary. Igenerallyaccepted to be the font of imperial Figure 2 Map of Gibraltar ambition' (Smith 1994.596.75.2). Local hostility to this was expressed This content downloaded from 200.130 on Wed. this only hardened local opposition to integrated is sometimesalso seen in colonial terms(Sidaway negotiations with Spain on the colony's future. fora discussion. althoughthe way in which colonizaof tion and colonialism have been constitutive (see Sidaway government to pursue more direct means of pressEurope should notbe underestimated 2000). With the end formal colonyin Europe today(Gold 1994.Jack Straw.gibraltar. Nevertheless.in which12 130 voted in favourof ertheless.Local oppositionto any transfer in a 1967referendum. 492). It was seized from 0. theissue of have been willing to negotiate about practical issues and brought overGibraltar sovereignty its 'decolonization'beforethe United Nations in concerning Gibraltar.though Gibraltar from 1969 to 1985 to isolate the commuinto the body of the United Kingdom. This led the then Franco 2002. Nevwas manifest of 95.169-216) Indeed. witha turnout of sovereignty has remained a sticking point. Yet. .gi.'As solidas theRock'? 0 300 miles 207 Spain Bisca Bay of France North Front Airfield Spain < Balearic X 0) = .19.though the issue the 1960s.> Madrid ~~~~~Islands Lisbon '_. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ceuta Melilla (Sp) (Sp) S~~~~~~~~Sb diterraean eSeraean * Govenor's Residence Algeria Gibraltar Rock of Gibraltar A Mediterranean Sea 1 Map oftheIberianPeninsula Figure Bay Fortress Headquarters of outcrop mainly ofa rocky It consists decolonization.8 per cent.gov.) Gibraltar (UK) /Morocco. may make it seem anomalous. nity. retainingthe link with Britain. low-lyingisthmus and is home to some 30 000 people (see Figures 1 and 2). of Franco's dictatorship and the emergence of a 1713 Although ceded under the terms of the Spain nevergave up its claim to democratic Spain. Its location in Europe. much to the chagrin and susto Spain picion of those in the colony itself. see Howe 2000.and only 44 for announced that the British and Spanish governSpanish sovereignty(Governmentof Gibraltar ments were in broad agreement on the principle of shared sovereignty over Gibraltar (Hansard.http://www. Gibraltar connectedto the Iberian Peninsula by a narrow.Gibraltar is oftenconsideredthe only remaining public memory and continues to feed Gibraltarian suspicion towards Spain (Gold 1994). successive British governments Treatyof Utrecht.

208 David Lambert .20 gg. Wallerstein 2003). As in 1967. 0 i~~iag Lo :!:!:i: g2 E~~~~~~~~~~i%:iE4ER~~~~tF:2000CES0:EN:.2#. Plae 1Mas dmontrtio agintAgo-SaihngtainMna 8Mrh20 arh'2002 honce in public rallies and demonstrations (see Plate 1). the .75. and a 'Keep Gibraltar British' campaign was launched to lobby against any deal and mobilize support in Britain against it.giiittigiig. On 7 November2002. undergoneformal the forms of colonialism they embody demand an overly and notonlyfrom attention geographical narrow (geo)political perspective.gti.2 in places of formalimperialism The persistence throwsintoquestionthe applicasuch as Gibraltar bility of 'post-colonial' to describe the present world (compare McClintock1995.E Ei i ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ag ' ai~~~~l l~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 2fl 0 SE igtig l-002 0Z giig~~~~~~~~~gi i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -g gii ti igit'|giigiigiigi'>stei 2'2' .:E: kind.00500 XEi!.constitutional tracing the political 'problem' of Gibraltarand posiassessing the validityof Spanish and British tions (e. Ferguson 2002. Gold 1994). :.The turnout was 87.2. As anomalies in a world that has largely such places and decolonization. The strength of such feelingsled to something of a retreat by the British government..:.d permission.given local opinion. 6 September 2003).~fi00205i:fi:2 Fle l' g 0 etH :200 neLgoiatinsModay18 e 1Mas emnstatonaginst Aonglo-Spanish ueaadteGbatrCrnce fJhn it th kndpemision (Reroucd Bugeja and th ibatr ofE JohnnyS~ with.9 per cent (Reportby the Committee of Observers2002). ' 'i'05ji'g i' g{it 000i i00R j i5000020H 50 i~~lllitES~gH000000S~fg::000gi.#(Reproduced. and whilstmany in Gibraltar remain concernedthat the joint sovereignty deal is 'still on the table'. Whilst most have been framed of Gibraltar treatments scholarly and legal concerns.19.serving interof historical is not onlya matter imperialism est or conceptualprecedentfor some new. Europe Minister.17 900 voted to rejectthe principlethat Britainand Spain should share sovereignty over Gibraltar and 187 voted in favour.Hardt and Negri 2000.thisis unlikelyto happen for 25-30 years (Denis McShane. . a Sa S lt i i .. Morris and Haigh 1992.speaking on BBC News. by diplomatic.however. the in a strength of local feelingwas made manifest referendum.g.2iE! i:Ef~~~~~fiNi i~~~eEA it~~~i40400 ite~~~~~~~~ti i~~~i:E a E *iiiglii~ . postmodernor AmericanEmpire(cf. Sidaway 2000 thatmodern reminder as yetanother 2002). Mann 2003. one governmentminister recently stated thattherewill be no deal without the agreement of the Gibraltarian people and conceded that. under the termsof the 1969 constitutionand withtheunanimoussupportoftheHouse ofAssembly.iig2. This time.it was not called by the Britishgovernment. it is not the aim here to judge between competing This content downloaded from 200.130 on Wed. g gSEe|. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but by the Gibraltar government.

such perspectivesserve others(Clayton2003.337).'As solid as the Rock'? 209 has not territorial claims. century. this paper seeks to enrich evident' manifestations of colonialismin contemdebates on and broaden the understanding of the poraryEurope (Colley 2002.. attention to thenatureof its colonialcondition however. Consequently. which has lost an empire. as India. This content downloaded from 200. colonialism crisis for the Britishstate (Nairn 1977. From this anti-or postcolonial Gibraltar (Robinson2003). the include'to decolonize of Our Gibraltar'.are more reflective Such perspectives. Yet perhapssurprisingly. The paper concludes by considering was. this last symbolical statusof 'the Rock'.see Howe 2003). 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .19. future. 357). the geographicalconstitution and articulation Party.a greatsadness. Hall et al.75. At thesame time.Labourgovernment thatthereis a geopolitics to the Of course. 184. such perspective.3 Instead. 'The Big Issue: Don't Let Spanish Grab Share thatkeyelements 18 July agreement 2002. payingparticular Shirlow2000). The perspectives includingthe Right-wing (e. us and there will be come to be appropriatedand transformed again .The oftheway in whichGibraltar primary focus is on the relationship between the sented within British imperial discourses than Britishmilitaryauthoritiesand the non-military the complexhistories and geographiesof theplace extract: population.a void in thecontinuity markerof the steadfastness. thisdespite its effacethe complexities as among the 'most obvious or of Gibraltar's colonial past recentdescription and present. lonial geographical perspectives. Indeed.4 This has been reflectedin metro. 1978.1982). There is broad Sun.149) some of the limits to this appropriation. 2003. over joint of the recentcontroversy (Bluntand McEwan 2002. the issue of Gibraltar those hidden spaces occupied. A nation. little Anglophilepopulation'attracts as its 'fiercely The restof the paper begins by considering and critical from progressive or empathy the sympathy relation ofGibraltar to recent debatesaboutpostco. (MacGowan 1978. Nash 2004).g. such metropolitan discourses have of which makes it feel secure the verythought storm.Support for the Britishclaim to Postcolonialism and cultures of 'loyalty' Gibraltaris most readily associated with those forwhichempireand past Therehas been a greatdeal of recentdebate about sections ofBritish society thespirit and purposeofpostcolonialgeographical militarysuccess remain touchstonesof national press (e. Considerthefollowing politan discoursesthatemphasize the mythic and No one will really begrudge this symbol. 354. Gibraltar onlyto privilege territorial conceptions thatfurther featuredon this postcolonialmap. does notseem controversiessurrounding Gibraltar. mayappearas an anachronistic some places. Take theRockaway from into a a deep vacuum. before returning to consider how places like Gibraltar Articulatedat a time that some saw as one of demand we thinkabout imperialism. which is often driven by the interests pine for empire.then it is equally infuriating and concernsof Euro-American centresof power those who do not. loyaltyand 'solidity' like the space leftwhen a toothyou'd of things British. see Paul 2001).once top dog.itself.. and investedwith sovereignty their own meaning.Clayton identity. Sidaway 2002. and thesortofcritical has often been repreresponsesthismight require. of the Gibraltariancivilianpopulation and thus neverlearntto appreciateis takenout and you realize have become centralto the articulation of local that neither your bite nor your smile is as good as it belonging. as thepaper goes sometimesto fall back on in a needs a sheet-anchor on to argue. by the colonial underclass' been used to articulateopposition to the 'new' and closerEuropeanintegration. and postcolonial pointto the in different perspectives ways. and thus 16)..130 on Wed.g. and certainhistoricalperiods. .if 'the Rock' and its 'loyal' population spread recognition symbol for those who formulation and applicationof postcolonialcritical remains a heart-warming for agendas. Bluntand McEwan 2002.the UlsterUnionistPartyand of Conservative colonial discourses in both the past and present' Right-of-centre thinktanks (e.69-70. PartofthereasonwhyGibraltar within a perhapsmake a small scholarly contribution to the an obvious candidate for consideration formulation of the sortof inventive solutionsthat postcolonialframeis thatwhat is oftenportrayed might help in thefuture. compareDodds 2002. (Crush1994. 1) and 'the recoveryof In the context has with Spain.g. such as and geographically absurd remnant populated by of past the nineteenth an unpleasantreminder attract more attention than LittleEnglanders.academics (Butler2002. there is a wide.such sentiments importanceof 'the Rock' to certainarticulations of Britishness.efface non-military corner-stone of Britishprestigeand onetimeprowess histories and narrow debate about Gibraltar's . Robinson 2003. Burnettc.

in turn. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The discussions that followed of decoloconceptions revealed thatverydifferent nization were at play. 285) DavidLambert mightbe thoughtof as having some of the charofa 'colonialunderclass'(Crush1994). Similarly.. A second formof colonialismis centredon the relationshipbetween the Britishmilitaryauthorities and the non-military communitythat began to develop in Gibraltarafterthe previous Spanish populationhad fledat thetimeof its capture. Yet.are morerevealing distasteful anachronism about the contested politics of national identityand imperial legacy in metropolitan Britainthan the politics and cultureof Gibraltaritself(see Ward 2002). Thiswas reflected in British military and colonialattitudes towardsGibraltar's civilians: [T]his is not a subjectpeople in the classic sense. acteristics The overlapping patterns of colonialism also serve to complicatethe way in which Gibraltar might be imagined to be 'post-colonial' in the future.Forinstance. with further European integration the most likely solution tothedifficulties with Spain.. theidea thatGibraltar embodies colonial loyalty is more to do withthe fantasies of British nostalgia. Militaryconsiderations have been of primary importance duringmost of Gibraltar'sBritish and it is only since the history end oftheSecondWorldWar thatitscivilianpopulation has come to have a real influencein local decisionmaking. A problemwiththisapproach is thatit is based of decolonization as indeon an understanding withan independent state. BBC Radio 4. thereis a colonial relationship thatrelates to the seizure of Gibraltar fromSpain by AngloDutch forcesin 1704 and its transfer to Britain under the termsof the 1713 Treatyof Utrecht. albeita 'white'native. or integration pendence. therewas no internaldemand fordecolonization the issue of the colony's futurewas in Gibraltar.overlapping and contestedpatternsof colonialismthere.the non-British soon became the native.162).or as a .then. term.The reality is thattoday'spolitical leaders in Gibraltar see 'loyalty'as a much more provisional and 'two-way' affair(Peter Caruana. Chief Ministerof Gibraltar. In these contexts. as a contested and failsto recognizedecolonization term. findsits can be said in generalthatpostcolonialism in strugglesfor anti-colonial politicalcounterpart this is usually In the case of Gibraltar.Constitutionally.Postcolonialperspeccomplexand contested tivesneed to recognizethis.130 on Wed.those fromthe UK and Gibraltar of a colonial of the inhabitants that the interests were of paramount importance(Garcia territory 1994). This lack of autonomy and dismissive imperial attitudes towards theresident population was similar to that in other parts of the empire (see Vallejo 2001) and suggeststhattheGibraltarian population This content downloaded from 200. liberation. Gibraltar has never been part of the UnitedKingdomand has neverhad electedrepresentationat Westminster. but. (Stanton 1996b.perhaps through the creationof a 'Europe of small nations' (Gold 1994). or some could also mean integration decolonization otherassociationwith the imperialstate (Aldrich unlikeelsewhere and Connell 1998. in the developmentof a A further complication critical postcolonialagenda in relationto Gibraltar features can be seen to exhibit is thatthe situation as colonialisms. interviewon 'Today' Programme. These debates were animatedby the questionofwhom or whatwas colonized:SpanishterriFar from there being ofGibraltar? or thepeople tory and of decolonization a definite. including Mediterranean colonies such as Malta and Cyprus (Garcia 1994). see Howe 2003). 25 July 2003). British metropolitan discourses have. both perspectivesthose that view Gibraltarwith nostalgia. Whilstthe Spanish representativesargued that any disruptionof national integritywas incompatible with the territorial oftheCharter oftheUnited purposesand principles argued Nations. Although in the Britishempire. broughtbefore the United Nations in the early 1960s by Spain. withinthe homogenizing spiritof the British imperial ethos in its heyday.localGibraltarian opinion is farfrom theEuroscepticism ofsome of their metropolitan allies. served to shape what Gibraltarhas come to stand for.has obscured the complex. Firstly. settler thatare similarto (former) in Australia.75. they were not reduced to bondage by forceof arms.Canada and New Zealand (Sidaway 'postcolonial'denotesnot 2000).As RobertAldrich and JohnConnell note.This is importantbecause although the and betweenpostcolonialperspectives relationship it postcolonialpoliticsis farfromstraightforward. This. singularnarrative of thus one political contextfor the articulation is itself a decolonization postcolonialperspectives. This might taken to mean integration in termsof the colonial suggestthatit is primarily might involvingSpain that Gibraltar relationship objectwithina postbe consideredan appropriate colonialperspective. with Spain.19.210 colonial wrongsand a manifestation of the worst aspects of British nationalism and culture(Phillips 1987.

44)5 Associatedwith Gibraltar's history. Anonymous 1704. Ifone wereto followthisline of reasoning. personality totallysubjected to the military for which Drinkwater 1785.Even at the time of Although the political situation there has not capturefromSpain. Russell 1965. Lewington 1925). emptiedof its originalSpanish population. althoughits relianceon ideas of authenticity and belongingneeds to be subjectto interrogation.in CatherineNash's words.by the colonial underclass' (Crush 1994. the 'postcolonial politicsof belongingare verydifferent in different places'. 61.As a result. She continues: ship with Spain. In thislight. popular saying'as solid as the Rock' (see Bradford has been the portrayal of the local population as continues 1971. Philalethes 1725. place and fuelnotions came to prominence. whentheissue ofGibraltar first ofnostalgia (or anachronism). the 'reductionof soldiers to pawns' and has been artificially 'repopulated' with demographic a 'high focus on leadership' (Keegan 1978. and invested with their own meaning.'the creationof positivesenses of to geography'can locationand attachment settler of local articulations by disentangling be facilitated belonging from Britishimperial discourses and ofthosehidden to 'therecovery hencecontributing spaces occupied. To do so.75. groupshavingno political of theirown and for example.130 on Wed. Stephens 1870. one writernoted that its first witnessed theviolenceofNorthern theneed Ireland.g. 5). discourses 337). Crucially. Such mythology artificial. diminishits symbolicimport.Hughesand Migos 1995).Thereis something to be said forthisargument.this military laryin the 1969 borderclosure.149) and captureas 'an emptyglory'(Barnett value has been questionedrepeatedly its strategic (e. (Nash 2002. we need to recognize that. rather Gibraltar'sstatus owed more to 'Rhetorick to develop agendas thatare capable ofcontributing than Logick' (Anonymous 1704.19.but rather of the Gibraltarian ficiality in terms of Gibraltar projections to questionBritish of discoursesof imperialnostalgiaand anachronistic distaste. discourseofmilitary This base. thenthe 'indigenous'populationwould be thoseSpanishpeople who fledGibraltar when it was capturedin 1704. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . reasontheydo not constitute a humangroup of a type McGuffie 1965. it could be argued that the civilian community of Gibraltar is not a 'colonial underclass'but settlers. pieces"'. For example. This mythic to moreprogressive accounts ofbelonging is crucial.but serves as a problematic label forthe continuing relationships between indigenous and non-indigenouspopulations(see Moore-Gilbert 1997.in othercontexts (I am thinking hereof Northern Ireland) theresolution ofpolitical conflict dependson thecreation of positivesenses of settler locationand attachment to geography. glory. Yet. to Britishnational sense of Gibraltar'scentrality This is vital because a recurrent theme in many and imperialdiscourseshas come to be described Spanish governmental pronouncements. Although steadfastness resilience. discourse has been an emphasis on which found its physical corol. modern military historians have described its 1970. thebasis oftheseimperial mustbe considered. While it may be more politicallyprogressivein one context to suspend senses of settler claimsto belong. this has done little to Such comments are apposite for Gibraltar.10).261). The 'Gibraltar tradition':imperial discourses of the Rock This content downloaded from 200. this paper does not seek to such Spanish discoursesabout the artiinterrogate population. and thatseekingto make a critical intervention in the colonial relationship between this population and the Britishcolonial/military establishment is to confusethetwo. sieges oftenprovide the very narrativestructure (Anonymous 1968. forrecounting This perspective. especially as in the Tradition'and is articulated the 'Gibraltar during the Francoistperiod. appropriate forthelegitimate exciseof self-determination.'As solidas theRock'? 211 place in themythGibraltar occupies an important empireas a symbolof military ology of theBritish and strength. authority.227) so much the changed relationship between these formerDominions and Britain.Wilson 1984.albeit one alienateGibraltarians was a 'naturalfortress' and block theimagination of thatGibraltar their in terms future of a moreproductive relation. in debates at the United Britishperceptionsof the to shape contemporary Nationsin the1960s.Crucially.has only served to the physicalgeographyof the place and the idea .and thus to help clear space for the nostalgia'(Blunt of a more 'productive articulation 2003). the populationwas described Central to the perpetuation of the 'Gibraltar as having beenimplanted merely to servetheinterests Tradition' has been its codification within the of theBritish fortress: withit 'typical"battle history.improved through tunnelling and fortification. but also since 1975.

in thecontext ofthepost-Second by some military who believed thatthe governors. Even modestconcessionswere opposed resilience.a concerned 'typical'landscapes or landscape models.75. As well as a surprisingly populationbecameonlypartially dependenton the prescientobservation.through of nonrecognition whichhad just givenup an Empireto have at least military was misplaced and would serve interests one of its ex-coloniesreally anxious to retainits only to undermine and value its military security linkswiththemother country' (H. Howes 1991). in addition to lament (homesickness) rather than a temporal 7000military 1971.It becomes a place through whichBritish sizes the importanceof certainspaces as 'lieux de troopspass and perform than heroicdeeds. Useful here is Ian (Spurr 1993).quoted (e. Gardiner1856.one British writer Migrants and aroundtheMediterranean came from commentedthat 'the "old rock" will probablybe theyintermarried Spanish with the neighbouring thelast foreign possessionyieldedby GreatBritain' population and Britishsoldiers.feature of imperialdiscourse. memoires' residence.such sentimentprefigures military and Gibraltar'ssubsequent demographic the sense of nostalgia(or distaste)now associated history entrepot itsstatusas a commercial reflected withGibraltar. the British colonial/ have come to serve as the perfect cure (or cause) military largelyregarded the nonestablishment because. In addition to the membersof the Britishgarrison. it remains a place military populationas an appendix to Gibraltarian throughwhich certainversionsof British identity the fortress developmentwas and constitutional have been articulated and a touchstone of imperial veryslow. with its implication ofsolidity and strength.Hills 1974).tied to ideas of terra bols of Britishimperialism. as a lieu de memoire. Rock (Finlayson 1996a). ifwe recognizethatnostal. rather . It in Bradford 1971. Drawing on PierreNora.whereas Baucomis generally with across the isthmus(Bradford1971). By 1815. munityfled and settledin the area of San Roque 19). despitethe thenover 'The fortress came first':the effacement of factthatthe civilianpopulationwas by 18 000 (Garcia 1994). aside fromthe endeavours of transient context. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . this (Anonymous 1844. Gibraltarretains its nullius and projects of clearance and settlement iconic status in the present. de lieu memoire (Baucom a as as much mistress. Similarly. Thismetonymical rendition is an extremely significant markerof the effacement of non-military histories and geographiesthatwill be discussedlater. The popularembeddingofthe'Gibraltar Tradition' Stanton (1996b) has characterizedGibraltaras a has shaped British policy towards the colony. a place ofcontinuing identity-enchanting (sic).It also relatesto Gibraltar's statusas an iconiclandscape: DavidLambert politiciansand forBritish makingit verydifficult diplomatsto talk openly about exchangingit for othercolonial possessions or some otherstrategic value has declined advantage.soldiers.(Jackson1987. With time. and identity-transforming Withits capturein 1704.Gibraltar new populationbegan to develop in Gibraltar.it may effort Gibraltar into a colony. was not until 1921 that the firstelections for a newlycreatedCityCouncil took place. 'total institution' in which the dominance of the This content downloaded from 200. Gibraltar. C.28) of indigenouspopulationsis a common effacement Oftencompared with ships. the mid-nineteenth century. Allen. zone a contact and settlement. the colonized Gareth Drawingon theworkofErvingGoffman.rather to transform havebeen'heart-warming' for somepeoplein 'a nation thana merefortress . see also Finlayson1996b).Yet.the local Spanish comaura lingers. or is made to appear' (Baucom 1999. crouchedbetweenthe Atlantic and the Mediterranean. (Bradford personnel longing(Blunt2003). the reductionof Gibraltar Baucom's (1999) studyof thephysicaland imagina. has The mighty Rockis theveryimageofan enormous lion. it has also been neverjust been a 'naturalfortress'. Indeed.even as itsstrategic (Hills 1974). World War processes of decolonization. Anotherconsequence has been that populationhas been marginalized thenon-military hiddenby the loomingshadow of the consistently. Baucom empha. (Thackeray 1846.places 'where an identity-preserving. Indeed.198-9).g. home of landscape a and set there to guard the passage for its British The 1999).212 These physical and military registers coincide in the description of Gibraltar as 'the Rock'. v).130 on Wed. in is important because of its mythic uniqueness.after all.to 'the Rock' effacesits human geographiesand tivelocationsof Englishidentities in their imperial histories.19. lions and othersym. the civilian gia should properly be understood as a spatialized population had reached 10 000. Over time.thenGibraltar can be seen to Despite its growing size.

According to Stanton. Of these. The evacuation was just one example of the marginalization of the perspectives and histories of the colonized population that is at the heart of British discourses of the Rock. were able.75.emphasisadded) (Quoted in Anonymous Stanton makes a similar case for the present day: of colonialisminvolves To some degree all psychology takesthisto a . echoingcomments made in the previous century. such attitudes are concomitantwith Gibraltar's statusas a 'total institution' .whilstsimultaneously dismissingthe civilian population as 'Levantines . the effacement of non-military presences and the long-standing view that the 'fortress came first' (Finlayson 1996a). 280.but not even in this have they Their songs. without Gibraltar. commerce and have not themselvesproduced English literature either a poet or a novelist. The moststriking physicalexampleoftheeffacementof the non-military populationwas the mass evacuationthatoccurredduringtheSecond World War. 102). Navy or Air Force This content downloaded from 200.this attitudesurvives to the presentday. the possibilities of such anti-colonial perspectives are severely limited because local civilian identities have been shaped by the imperial military history of the Rock.It is no contradiction formilitary accountsto celebrateits defenceby British troopsand so elevate its iconic status.especiallywith fearsthatFrancoistSpain would join the Axis. to go to bullfights. Yet. Their primarylanguage is AndalusianSpanish. not of the most scrupulous stock or standards' (Bradford 1971. according to some observers. but theGibraltarian forms of mimicry colonial/military establishment has been evident in the tardiness of constitutionaldevelopment.whenthey watchSpanishtelevision only).19. but only on that denotatory(sic) level which is wholly adequate for of They know nothing and local legislation. nine-tenths of the land was in the hands of the War Department.almost 17 000 civilians re-established. the limited concessions granted to civilian authoritysince the start of the century were rescinded and total militaryauthority was In addition. In part. the novelist Anthony Burgess.'As solidas theRock'? 213 (Stewart 1967) and today the Ministry of Defence remains the largest landowner.thisreflected the attitudes and practicesof the colonial/military thatcontinued establishment to question how much a civilian population belonged on the Rock. withmanymetropolitan British migrants and military personnelviewing'the Gibos' as 'no more than English-speaking"Spicks"' (Stanton 1996b. there were stilldelaysin thereturn oftheevacuees.275.130 on Wed. cuisine are Spanish (tea and chips are for visitors and used. As fairly typicalof the description of colonized populations in the contextof British imperial history.We talkofOur Rock.serveto underline and . Along with retarded constitutional development and practices of military surveillance within a 'total' institutionalframework. what has always been needed is a sense of anti-colonialism' (Social Action Committee of Gibraltar 1968). this has been mirroredby the inscriptionof Gibraltar as the Rock. All this has served to problematize Gibraltarian notions of belonging and the accompanying political agendas: We boast of being free people but we live on land which does not belong to us. the physicallandscape of the place and the very atmosphere. For example. this reflects Britishimperialist attitudestowardsa populationthatwas mainlyCatholic and of mixed Mediterranean origin. was scathing: The trouble is that this is about the limit of their Britishness. there especially since the Second World have been efforts.Our Town. In response to this military dominance.At thestart oftheconflict. to Gibraltarsubsided and the war came to an end. about these consultingus.the 13 000 women. to enter into negotiations 1968) ofGibraltar (Social ActionCommittee things. In consequence. even as theywere in the 1967 votingto retaintheirlink with Britain referendum.at leastuntilrecently the general marginalization of non-military perspectives in the governanceand representation of the place. This dominanceis also apparentin the military inflection of Gibraltar'shistory.. Vallejo 2001). In part.They speak English.. to articulate non-military political and cultural agendas of belonging in the shadow of the fortress: 'What is needed in Gibraltar.they They cry theiridentity. beingdescribed as 'useless mouths'(quoted in Finlayson1996a. who served in Gibraltar during the Second World War. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Indeed... childrenand elderlywere a cause of considerable forthemilitary concern authorities. dances and asserted a culturalidentity. Military concernswere heightened by Italy's entry intothewar and the fallof France.Our but at any time Britaincan decide. history. Gibraltar's population stood at 20 000. War.mainlyto Britain. judged to be a hindrance at war were to a fortress Even as the threat evacuated. a reflection military of British but this is merely 1968.2). We elect our own but the Governoris allowed to keep representatives his reserve powers.

4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (Garcia1994.but they have been British. To this extentit could be seen as representative of Gibraltarian psychologicalsubservienceto Britishcolonialism by attempting to transform an eventin whichthey had no volition into an active demonstration of patriotism. after Minister dominatedthe local politicalscene until 1988 and of the campaignforconstituwas at the forefront The tional change and increasedself-government. In 1942.'wogs and dagos'. This had a decisive impact on the Gibralan arcane folklore concerningthe symbols of the tarians. and in terms reminiscentof. and I could go was born in Gibraltar my grandfather . thatmostextreme of totalinstitutions. propagating 1996b).basking in all the symbolismsof characteristic societyin general(Stanton of British Britishness. 285-6) like the Scots or the Welsh.by underlining theevacuown affairs. Prefiguring the experiencesof later migrantsto Britain(Paul 2001). According to Burgess and Stanton. and in a fortress thisis understandable. a sense oftheirdistinctiveness: promoting regiments (formsof knowledgelong forgotten by all The fellowship among the displaced Gibraltarians but thosedirectly involvedin such matters back in the of all walks withBritons grewas theycame intocontact mothercountry). more appropriative. Yet.xi). but this the first timetheycould be seen as being what littlelocal control Moreover. to Gibraltar (Hassan 1966) Firmlyanchored to Gibraltar's colonial history. Under the leadership of Chief first JoshuaHassan. dressing up in navy-style blazers. (Howes 1991. by Bursocietyput forward image of Gibraltarian the significance gess and Stantonunderestimates It is truethat of such local politicaldevelopments. who became Gibraltar's theAACR largely the 1964 elections. had over their Gibraltarians ation was also the immediateimpetus for local political organization. An ambivalent militarylegacy Civilian ambivalencetowardsmilitary power was most clear in the local response to the war-time evacuation.The significance metropolitan This content downloaded from 200. back until1728 when my people came to Gibraltar [Tihere is no question of any other loyaltythan to and to Her MajestytheQueen.75. . (Stanton thattheywere not like them. 423). a locally embedded 'fifteenth of the Rock could example of how the mythology of civilian be turned into both a demonstration resilienceand used to garner continuingBritish of such a support. But this was more than a mythology it was history.190. footnote 52) and theyled one commentator to state that peculiar extreme.siege mentality. Such attitudes were not new in Gibraltar.214 DavidLambert dominanceof Gibraltar has produceda thoroughly colonized.202) patriotic are farmorestrong in relation feelings naturally to Gibraltar than to the British Isles .19.theevacuation was also a politically and culturally transformative event for Gibraltar. of a crucialfeature was certainly 'loyalty'to Britain to articulate especially and ideology. the Association of Civil Rights(AACR) was forthe Advancement foundedout of a dual concernon thepartof those forthewelfareof theevacuees and leftin Gibraltar for their own subservientposition in fortress Gibraltar(Garcia 1994). foreword to Finlayson1996a. the military of the Rock.217) A consideration of these tensions affords one way to explore civilian responsesto the imperial discourses of theRock. Hassan's oppositionto Spanish territorial theUN in thelate1960sprovided before appearances of thisposition: thechiefexpression was bornin Gibraltar. of whom with Gibraltar myallegianceby means of my allegiance prideI render and to Britain. especiallyon account of theirSpanish and Italian surnames. Yet.or dismissed as 'natives' (Hills 1974. This is the psychology of the mental of life duringtheirexile. AACR strategy claims. [Gibraltarians arel pro-British but not pro-English.such claimsare not onlysomewhatreminiscent of theVictorian condescensionthatwas a key feature of British imperial culturebut they also underestimate the tensions between militaryand civilian power that have existed since at least the mid nineteenth century. myfather I was bornin Gibraltar.the military were Gibraltarian too. also something the closureof theborderwithSpain by the Franco from 1969to 1985was describedas the government siege' (Gold 1994).. and as theycame to realise hospital. Such tensionsare a commonfeatureof 'last colonies' like Gibraltar (Aldrichand Connell 1998.In otherwords. a sign to theworldofwhat 'our people suffered withloyalty and dignityin their firmdetermination to help the MotherCountry in her hour of need' (Hassan.' The evacuation has sometimesbeen used to exemplify Gibraltarian sacrifice. reference through belongingwas oftenarticulated to.theymay 1996b. .. of Britishmilitary mere reflection For instance. many evacuees were treated contemptuously as 'eye-ties'.130 on Wed.

history-writing Joe in 1995. Althoughthe discourse of whitenessis not absent in the articulation of Gibraltarianpolitical claims .. the recent 'Keep Gibraltar British' campaignmade heavy use oftheiconicstatusoftheRockand statements such as 'Britishsince 1704'. museum displays to tell the storyof its 'children' this Crucially. forsocial reform. such as those that make up the 'GibraltarTradition'.(Stanton1996b.the thenChiefMinister. the assertion of a Gibraltarian presence and a local 286. Some have made an occasional sieges. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . My people sharea commonhistory.the excludedfrom narratives of Gibraltarian-ness Mediterranean originsof muchits populationmay have made it more difficult to sustain.people of North Africanand Asian descent were and are usually . and instead are fundamentally and open to reinterpretation revisioning (Coupe 1997).my have settledhere now have theirown character childrenare a part of me now . and theirstruggle the part of the museum workedhard to articulate community: belongingofthenon-military and hardlife.For example. our bond is too greatforit to be broken. a Gibraltarian Museum.My two hundredyearsof struggle [A]fter children. the Gibraltarianarticulation of imperialdiscourseis merely about the Rock fromthe Many authorshave written and viewpointof its floraand fauna.we are inseparable.thoughforat least reference This content downloaded from 200. The importance of such local appropriationof the Rock should not be underestimated: of civilianbelongingon the Rock The articulation imperial of British the local appropriation through and moreconfident to a broader.75. nationalist(Garcia 1994).In the termsoutlinedby Burgessor Stanton. 118-41).the is not simply a local claimingof this mythology that but an assertion sign of a colonized mentality.giventhatthe'Gibraltar or mimicking. the Gibraltarians Wing articulated a version of history that serves to embed and emplace the civilian population on the Rock. Elementsof thiscan be seen and language. appears.the product of generationsof people who . Its community lobbied againstBritish 'sell out' in the 1960s and 1970s by deploying argumentsabout theirwhite ethnicity (see Dodds 2002.are more than historicalnarrativesof dominance. reflective Tradition'has effacedthe civilianpopulation.emphasisadded) politics of belonging. the classical name for as narrativedevice in the the Rock of Gibraltar. is related discourse assertiveshiftin the culturalpoliticsof Gibraltar fromthe early1980s. All this suggeststhatmyths. To this extent.19. imperial account of Britishargumentsabout the significance of Gibraltar Gibraltar's history in terms of sieges and military were never meant toextend to thecivilpopulation. For instance.viewed 31 of life. 'loyalty' and 'Britishness'were established with reference to place and the local appropriation of the 'GibraltarTradition'. May 2003) In this way. This sits in contrast with the older parts of the museum that provide a more traditional.. too has become a major site for History-writing have seen themselves at thecentre between of struggles nations. (Museumdisplay.'As solidas theRock'? 215 Yet. and way traditions.thinking themselves the catch.we can no longerbe separated. The opened a new part of the Gibraltar Wing' was 'to tell the aim of the 'Gibraltarians people'. yetthey endeavours.130 on Wed. 'Britishimperial' historyis actually local history it is a much more significant too. Bossano. even thoughthis evokes a colonial and military in whichGibraltarian history civilianshave been largelyeffaced (see Figure3). Instead. One local writer has written in which Gibraltar'shistory This is exactly what has happened with the about the historicalmodes has usually been narrated in the following terms: of the Rock: discourses 'never meant' mythology forthe non-military populationhave been used to articulatecivilian identityand belonging.its military to its civilianpopulation. thanit first of appropriation form Articulatingcivilian belonging Figure 3 Stickerfromthe 'Keep GibraltarBritish' campaign move is particularly apparentin contrast with the case oftheFalklandIslands.its fortifications role. This was achieved of theGibraltarian story throughthe use of 'Calpe'. in public history.

the increasingly ambivalent relationship to Britain has been reflected in attemptsat promoting and a local linguisticformthat has codifying yanito.Garcia 1994).248) . (Garcia1994. As a result. Gibraltarians of every age and backgroundhad been Accordingto a former governor. 'panzistas'. 59) This content downloaded from 200. 'language about the put lie to comments Such developments identities by the hisof Gibraltarian determination of theRock.Imperial a reflection is being put to work in the cause of local history debtsof thepurposeis to 'construct agendas.agenda of the Foreignand Commonwealth and Cantos 1995. Whereas Englishwas promotedas a sign of a British/nonSpanish identity afterthe Second World War. thenearer will be theday whenGibraltarians win world wide recognition as an independentnation.As one former wroteof the early 1980s: 'you could feel population (e. of Britishmilitaryhistory'.a new The more that is published about Gibraltar'shistory. but also to old colonial Britain'(quoted in thisworkis often identified as HenryHowes's The Garcia 1994. who he believed ment.g. Morris and Haigh Minister the embryoof what we 1992). There are now two yanito dictionaries (Cavilla 1978.77). the political tionofGibraltar from 1704 (Garcia 1994). been variouslydescribedas Spanish-English 'codethana localized form switching' (rather ofSpanish) and thearticulation ofa 'new English'(Kellermann 1996 1997). smugglers.unquestioning pro-Britishstance. some being inclinedto look upon themas hybrids.7Like more recentwork. Too closely associated with an Gibraltarian: Theorigin and development ofthepopula.as well as a broaderinterest writing of a mustclearlybe seen in terms in local heritage. Howes soughtto disprovethe who had 'no softspot forBritain and Cantos1995.8 of Gibraltarian This has been countered in an emerging local body artificiality tensionswithBritain of historicalwritingon Gibraltar'spolitical and also be relatedto morerecent ecclesiastical histories (Caruana 1989.As lation' (Howes 1991.19.130 on Wed. a growing sense of Gibraltarian Howes's book was a deliberateeffort Garciaexplains: to establish Joseph the non-military historicalpresence in Gibraltar.with subservienceto Britain.and a partymore nationalist was put in controlof the than any of its predecessors ofGibraltar. people withno identity or cultureof theirown.it was written climateand Bossano was electedChiefMinister in context of the continuing efforts of theAACR to 1988.v) DavidLambert of identity' as a marker has been instrumentalized nor Spanish but Gibraltarian British thatis neither 1996.What withimperialhistory and localizationsugof transformation such forms and politicalagencultural gestis thatGibraltarian as Burgessdid. people without a history. Jackson1987.. this can be seen as the beginningof what thereexistedin Gibraltar to A resistance nationalism.and his Gibraltar nationalism..then by the bonded together crucialrole in establishing Gibraltar's politicaland continuingtroubleswith Madrid and finallyby the cultural identity: ambivalentattitudeof London.207).In this way.Gibraltarians toriesand myths of impehave been involved in the appropriation on firmly rial discoursesby emplacingthemselves the Rock. Hilary Beckles (1987) has termed'historiographic could call Gibraltarian decolonisation'. Firstpub.216 one author Gibraltariansociety consisted solely of British armyofficers and their families. foreword to Hughes and Migos 1995.ix) in thatlimestone Rock cranny every permeated solidarity at the end of the 1980s.emergenceof a more avowedly nationalist Spanish Foreign pathetic to theinterests and agendas of thecivilian in local politics.In particular. (Caruana 1989.language has also become crucial in this shift in Gibraltariancultural politics. Significantly.202) government Finally. Writers in more recenttimes have indeed recognizedthe existenceof civiliansupon the Rock. This is more than passive identification but also its co-option. or thatit has in additiona Spanishpopu. the forerunner of Spain.Instead. bastards. firstby evacuation.Vallejo2001)and a weeklynewspaper column writtenin yanito. .75. (Kellermann Such developmentsin public history.historyand language. 193).257) (Jackson commonlyheld notion that 'Gibraltarhas only a could notbe trusted' SocialistLabour Partyembodied Garrison.'old theoriesof perfidious Office uation (Finlayson1996a). Spanish claims about the reactionto long-standing But theymust identity. Along with the publica.especially the revival from the late 1970s of on the Albion' centring as well as accountsofeventslike thewartime evac.hegemony of the AACR collapsed in this new in lished in 1951and re-issuedin 1991. Often allegiance and bonds of interests'(Ellis 2003. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Whilstthe AACR had come to be associated Bossano was a man win increasedautonomyfromthe British govern. (Jackson. such work has a .which led to the tionof the Gibraltar from1994 and (Jackson Heritage Journal strand a spate ofbooks written by outsidersthatare sym. as 'merely das cannotbe dismissed.

As a 'natural'fortress. 15 July issues of territory Representative 2003). ofpolitGibraltarian 'theresolution have been concerned campaigners that In a place such as Gibraltar.22 October2002). nostalgiaand physicalsymbolism. Leaving aside themerits theless. 'sell-out'and itscivilian population existedaroundissues ofmetropolitan of seemingly thiswas little importance. agendas.yet overly and sovereignty. Yet. accessed 6 May 2004).'As solidas theRock'? 217 too small to form WithGibraltar pean Parliament.thereis always the possi. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ments of Britishmetropolitan thenon-military presparty politics and politics.about thepopulation. dramatized.It has been the tendency gibraltar-gov. and national identity. Metropolitan discoursesalways threaten loyaltyand imperialnostalgia. Gibraltar constituency.9 This has occurredthrough Unionist vote ('The Today' programme. The second examplerelatesto therecentdebates Doreen Massey has famouslycautionedagainst about Gibraltar's ofthelocal' as 'almost of 'thespatiality inclusionin elections to theEuro.World War and that a similar set of concerns populated landscapeof myth.the priationsfrommetropolitandiscourses can play 'Keep Gibraltar British' campaignhas had to work a part in creatingperspectiveson Gibraltarand hardto avoid Gibraltar with Spain and Britainthat move beingpaintedas a narrowly its relationship Right-wing issue (interviewwith Albert Poggio. 227). historiesof Gibraltarhave been elided.10 a particulardanger ence.Four.articulations of belongingthatinvolve the approeigntyhas been one of few foreignpolicy issues priation and transformationof metropolitan where the party can claim success since being discourse.but things have also takenon a morenationalist hue. More generally. beyond a focus on narrowlydefined. Disentangling Britishness.what was apparentin theUUP's go beyond passive identification Gibraltarinto with the military efforts was an attemptto integrate mythology and physical symbolismof the Rock an external politicalagenda based on assumptions and involvea moreactiveand transformative arti. the issue mightbe used to articulate 'Euro-sceptic' ical conflictdepends on the creationof positive to geograpolitics.11 Unsurprisingly. this rejectedby nationalist politiciansin the province. and to largelyefface build cross-party alliances.75.Radio publichistory. For instance.130 on Wed. paper has shown that the local appropriationof with the Social Democratic and Labour Party imperialdiscoursehas become a significant bizarre' theproposalas a 'geographically aspect describing of the articulationof civilian belonging in con. a numberof in its own right.19. perhaps 'captured'. and thus stave off thethreat ofmetropolitan 'sell out'.rather forexample. this paper has sought to denaturalize removed from office in 1997. Inevitably. This content downloaded from 200. a Euro-constituency soughtto constituencies of existing representatives have Gibraltarincluded in theirown. althoughtheseculturaland politicalforms Northern Ireland.By highlighting Labour government'sproposals for joint sover.as loyal(ist)and pro-Union.The non-military thepoliticsofbelonging.the meaning of Gibraltarian cultureand history. In the highly charged contextin which senses of settler locationand attachment local approsymbols such as the Union Jack and notions of phy' (Nash 2002. Two brief target foroppositionto thesepoliticaland cultural exampleswill suffice. the Rock is a de. thefactthatsome Gibraltarians citing has come to stand as a symbolof British imperial were evacuated (and born) there in the Second resilience. empireand 'sell out' are deployed. thanCatholic. imperialmyth.therejection between Gibraltar and Britain. Gibraltar's in theUK. is often bilitythat these local expressionsmay be seized Both examplesunderlinehow Gibraltar upon. many of these bids were tied up with local party politics. The seizureof imperialdiscourseand its local appropriation has mirrored theassertion ofpoliticalautonomy.Although it of such discourses and agendas to circumscribe has always sought to steer clear of the entangle. culation of belonging.the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) called for Gibraltar'spopulation to Conclusions: Capturing the fortress Ireland be counted among those of the Northern From its capture over 300 years ago.by certainmetropolitan used to articulate British fantasiesof nationalism.empire metropolitan campaign launched in 2002 (see http://support. is made to serve as a proxy for forms.political stuntmerelyaimed at strengthening the temporary Gibraltar. of history-writing and language. oppositionto the postcolonialframe. that has provided the centralrationalefor has been too close an associationwith the British this paper's considerationof Gibraltarwithin a Conservative contemporary Conservative Party.uk.Gibraltar The firstconcerns the 'Keep GibraltarBritish' British debates about Europe.Never.and to stand as a to beleaguer local appropriations.

even though the of 1967and 2002 suggesta certain referendum results In particular. tokensand to mere territorial Melilla and Gibraltar rather thanplaces with markers of politicalsincerity. thoseliving predominance of attitudes. 10 For example. personalcommunication).but also provide a further impetusforthinking creatively about how to approachitsmanifestations and legacies. Such seeminglyanomalous places not only reveal the persistenceof formalempire. 2004. this reduces Ceuta. sparking Tireless. (Nash 2004.15 December2004. Similarly. 'Last colonies' such as Gibraltar. This content downloaded from 200.130 on Wed. 3 For similar reasons.121) Such perspectivesalso serve as a useful warning against automatically viewing articulations of belongingin Gibraltarian politicalcultureas conservativeexemplarsof imperialist In this mimicry. See Stanton (1996a). The decision to avoid 'native' or ofGibraltarian does notreflect a dismissal 'indigenous' claims to the territory. and to see claimsto rootedness. light. was brought local protests. See Butler and Kavanagh(1983). 9 This could be seen clearlyduringthe local celebraof Gibraltar's tions of the tercentenary capturefrom Spain. 'Loyalty' may be a politicalmeans to achieve otherforms of decolonization. basis (TheGuardian.such as increased autonomyand influenceover diplomaticnegotiations. and testthe limits of the sympathyof postcolonial scholars.218 David Lambert Spanish government.Similarly.can unsettle some of the postcolonialcertainties about identity.19. led by Jose 2 Indeed. symbolism and mythto articulate local belonging.Sometimes a contrast is drawn betweenSpain's refusalto countenanceMoroccan claims to these and the maintenance of its claim on Gibraltarin order to attack Spanish 'double standards'. 11 For example. Notes I Perhapsthemostfamousexampleof thiswas the so- called 'Falklandsfactor'. this paper will not consider theSpanishenclavesof Ceuta and Melilla. 5 Therewere similarities betweenthesesentiments and in theRightaboutthe2002referendum thoseexpressed wing Spanish press. then. and 'colonized'. or the community's identity but a refusal to be sucked intoa politicsof authenticOf course. See http://news.uk/l/ accessed 2 March hi/world/europe/242095. own thatdeserve attention in their complexhistories right. in Gibraltar and Asian descentare of NorthAfrican oftenexcluded frompublic and political discourse. 4 When referring to the population of Gibraltar.the term'civilian'may ityand belonging. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .75.Yet. whichhelped securevictory fortheConservative Party in the1983British elections. 17 December2004). Director colony'sfirst 8 The situationbears comparisonwith the Falkland Islands.Special report:Gibraltar. which have seen the development of the the expansion of the local FalklandIslands Journal. Althoughthe militaristic of 'the connotations Rock' and the apparent loyaltyof its population may seem to place it outsidethescope of such critical perspectives.Both run counterto the cautions sounded by Massey and Nash. 2003.151). imply too great a sense of unity.stm. HMS when the damaged British to Gibraltar forrepairs.this is not a 'pro-Gibraltarian' paper if this is narrowlydefinedby politicalagendas that are aligned with the Euro-scepticism and nationalist imperialnostalgiaof the British Right.http://www. efforts were made to fromall the main political include British politicians fromacross parties.Nor is this an 'anti-Gibraltarian' piece if such a stance is predicated on notions of the artificiality of the population that are complicitwith simplisticdiscourses of authenticity and belonging. butalso forpostcolonial agendas. See The Times. this 'civilian' paper will use termssuch as 'non-military'. strong 7 Howes was not a Gibraltarian but was appointedthe of Education. belongingand attachments to place as perpetuating regressive colonialgeographies ofbounded places and pure cultures.see press statement by Lord Kilclooney. Nash queriesthe tendency to value unquestioninglygeographies of fluidity as progressive and effectively postcolonial. of a nationalarchive(Klaus museumand thecreation Dodds.trades unionistsand journalists of the politicalspectrum(Reportby the Committee Observers 2002). it is important to recognizethat decolonization is multipleand contested. Gibraltar throws up problems notonlyforpoliticians and diplomats.bbc. resistance and anti-colonialism. butrather theselective appropriation and instrumentalization ofimperial history. has been demonstrated 6 Thisambivalence morerecently nuclearsubmarine.has acknowlmustbe pursuedon a trilateral edged thatnegotiations 'Spain givesGibraltar vetopower'. and to thespirit and function of postcolonial perspectives.org.uup. 26 July accessed10 January 2002.when a panel ofobservers was gathered to overseethe2002 referendum. the current Luis Rodriguez Zapatero's Socialists. thecultureof 'loyalty'in Gibraltar is farmorethan anglophilic mimicry. necessarily reactionary' by progressive and critical academicsand others(Massey 1991.co.

Gibraltar ClaytonD 2003Critical 14 286-304 and colonialgeographies British imperial History in Anderson K.gi) nostalgia: Palestine..19. London 3 7-14 Journal Heritage Anonymous1968 New SpanishRed Book[translated the making of a peopleMedSun. mentof the population of Gibraltar geography Sage. Press. a decolonization and geog. University ina postcolonial phy of Barbados in Marshall W ed Emancipation II: A Melbourne a solution seriesof lectures in Spain'sshoe:thesearch for to commemorate the150thanniversary of Gold P 1994A stone Press. and New York camefirst: thestory ofthe observations on theusefulness and importance of thatplace FinlaysonT J 1996a Thefortress Printed forBenjamin duringthe Second World of Gibraltar Tooke. London Baucom 1 1999Out ofplace:Englishness. into Garcia J 1994 Gibraltar: English] Ministerio de AsuntosExteriores. Kellermann A 1996 'When Gibraltarians witha description with Gibraltarian identity and accountof thatgarrison. Pile S and ThriftN eds Howes H W 1991 The Gibraltarian: and developtheorigin Handbook tocultural from1704 MedSun.Princeton GelderK and Jacobs NJ Beckles H 1987 Black people in the colonial historiogra. we're of thelate siegeof Gibraltar. Jefferson T.Grendon DarwinJ1988Britain London anddecolonization Penguin. representation Anonymous 1704A narrative theriseand demise oftheBritish ofSirGeorge Rooke's latevoyage FergusonN 2002 Empire: to theMediterranean Basic Books. B. Critcher and law thestate.London of GibraltarInformation Government BluntA 2003Collective Accessed8 April2003 memory and productive www. No publisher Palmerston theLordViscount and thelocaHonourable empire. Blunt A and McEwan C eds 2002 Postcolonial C. EnvironmentGregory and Planning D: Society and Space21 717-38 Oxford IraqBlackwell.London in Irish coloniallegacies Howe S 2000 Irelandand empire: Caruana C 1989 The Rock undera cloud Silent Books. University Davis. London eds 1978 Policingthecrisis:mugging. Anglo-Indian D 2004 Thecolonial present: homemaking at McCluskieganj Afghanistan. 1509-1970:a military. tions Australia: sacredness ofidentity Princeton University JM 1998Uncanny Press.Jackson S W G F 1987 The Rockof the Gibraltarians: raphyin Godlewska A and SmithN eds Geography Rutherford NJ Farleigh. the quite unique!' Constructing from earliest local periods No publisher. Clarke J and RobertsB geographies Hall S.gibraltar. and ofGibraltar history to empire Blackwell. I. London Keegan J1978Thefaceofbattle Macmillan.uk)Accessed6 May 2004 DrinkwaterJ 1785 A history speak.'As solidas theRock'? 219 and empire Ellis M 2003 'The cane-landisles': commerce References georgicand pastoralpoetry in late eighteenth-century and AldrichR and Connell J1998 Thelastcolonies in Edmond R and Smith V eds Islandsin history Cambridge London43-62 University Press.London civilianpopulation Anonymous 1844 Thetraveller's Books. London Hughes Q and Migos A 1995Strong Coupe L 1997Myth Gibraltar London Routledge. 1600Britain.1982Gibraltar: Burnett MA the final Bow Publicabetrayal? Cambridge Press. London354-68 Colley L 2002 Captives: and theworld. Gibraltar empire 1850Jonathan as theRock ofGibraltar Cape. Byan oldinhabitant Finlayson T J 1996b Gibraltar'sfirstelection Gibraltar Cowie.Witha description of Gibraltar. Gardiner G S R 1856 Reporton Gibraltar to theRight political addressed andsocialsurvey respectfully a fortress and colony. WarGibraltar with observations on the surrounding country.130 on Wed.Bridgetown of Gibraltar to the problem 131-43 Liverpool BindingT 2003Anthem Services (http:// Picador. ExchangePublications. London Oxford HarveyD 2003Thenewimperialism ButlerD and Kavanagh D 1983 TheBritish election general Oxford a history of1983No publisher. London world I. Dodds K 2002 Pink ice: Britainand the South Atlantic Keep Gibraltar British campaign(http://support. Oxford 333-50 Jackson S W G F and Cantos F J 1995 The fortress Dalby S 2003 Geopolitics. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .gov.Jolland and Co. London Harvard HardtM and NegriA 2000Empire M c. Penguin. where he commanded and thelessons forglobalpower as admiralof order world theConfederate fleet.securityand America's new the politicalbiography of Sir JoshuaHassan democracy: war Geopolitics 8 61-86 Gibraltar Books. emancipation Liverpool University University of the West Indies. University tions. Robert ofGibraltar London ofcontention: Hills G 1974Rock ButlerL J2002Britain andempire: adjusting toa post-imperial Hale.London empire gov.Oxford University and culture Oxford history Cambridge Howe S 2003 Internal decolonization? Britishpolitics Cavilla M 1978Diccionario traumaTwentieth Century Yanito as post-colonial since Thatcher MedSun.Grendon hand-book forGibraltar. Hartofa fortress Press. London the help of English.andidentity nation ofMelbourne. 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New York April2003 RitchieH 1997Thelastpink bits: travels through theremnants Ward S ed 2002 Britishcultureand the end of empire oftheBritish Press. last gasp of empirein Ward S ed British culture and the Stewart J D 1967 Gibraltar: end ofempire London Manchester University Press. London of London NairnT 1977Thebreak-up ofBritain.London and Roosevelt's geographer empire: Massey D 1991 A global sense of place in Space. The TimesSpecial report: PanoramaPublishing.London dictionary Vallejo T 2001 TheYanito PhillipsC 1987TheEuropean tribe Faberand Faber.Basingstoke Quarterly 108 149-60 space and social science society.London empire oftheBritish This content downloaded from 200.DocumentA/C. J. Stanton G 1996a Mediterraneanethnoscapes: migrant 1945-1990: theeternal Moroccans and the Gibraltarquestion Unpublished triangle Routledge. theprelude Cambridge146-56 McClintock leather: A 1995Imperial race. Winchester London PenguinBooks.19.Oxford relics to thesurviving Russell J 1965 Gibraltar journeys besieged. Smith G 1994 Politicaltheory London geography. T. London Social Action Committee of Gibraltar 1968 Editorial 18 March/April McGuffieT H 1965 ThesiegeofGibraltar. politics Sidaway JD 2000Postcolonial 24 591-612 in HumanGeography and identity in Gibraltar essay Progress Heidelberg Kilclooney Lord 2002 Press statement 26 July(http:// Sidaway J D 2002 Postcolonial geographies: surveyin Blunt A and McEwan C eds Postcowww.The Guardian17 December2004 on theimportance ations 2002 ofthat place.1. MartinR and SmithG eds Human Gregory Macmillan.130 on Wed. practices.uup. andneo-nationalism PhD thesisUniversity crisis.org) explore-review Accessed 10 January 2003 London 11-28 Continuum. Gibraltar London Reportby the Committeeof Observers2002 Reportby WainwrightJ 2004 American empire: a review essay and Space22 465-74 D: Society the Committeeof Observersof the 2002 referendum Environment andPlanning theUS in power: I 2003 Thedecline ofAmerican November (http://www.gov. Cultural rock:a mis-anthropology NLB. B 1997Postcolonial Moore-Gilbert theory: contexts. journalism. In a letter toa Member ofParliament.4/SR.220 David Lambert varieties in Oliveira S M ed Thelinguistic construction of Shirlow P 2000 Fundamentalistloyalism: discourse. 4 Dec 2013 13:38:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Harlow Prentice ofdefence Revill G eds Landscapes sociolinguistics in PortugalServiqo de Publicaqbes de 86-101 Universidade de Evona. Manchester University London ofEnglish dictionary Robinson J2003 Postcolonialising geography: proverbs tacticsand Wilson F P ed 1984TheOxford pitfalls Singapore Journal ofTropical Geography 24 273-89 ClarendonPress.Peele. 17 December. in colonialdiscourse of empire: Batsford.Evona 73-8 an exploratory geographies: KellermannA 1997 A new new English: language.gi) Accessed 8 Wallerstein a chaotic world New Press. of California University gender toglobalization Polity. and its sieges of Gibraltar London 104-27 Stephens F G 1870 A history London Paul K 2001 Communities Provost. United and Goodwin M eds Envisioning Nations. . Crang P Nations General Assembly. A and human geographyin sham! A delusion! A snare! Arthur Stockwell. London StantonG 1996bMilitary Nash C 2002 Cultural geography:postcolonialcultural Studies 10 270-87 of the Town of the petitioner geographies Progress in HumanGeography Hassan J (1966) Statement 26 219-30 of the United Nash C 2004 Postcolonialgeographies:spatial narratives of Gibraltar before the 4th committee of inequality and interconnection in Cloke P. By a gentleman of the navy Printed for 15 December2004 Gibraltar. of GreatBritain. LewingtonW J 1925Impeachment: lonialgeographies Gibraltar as a fortress. . of Britishness: in the migration the keystone JohnMurray.679 geographies Arnold.London politics Verso.Manchester to GrandCairo Cornhill 180-99 from ThackerayW 1846 A journey Philalethes 1725 Gibraltar a bulwark London No publisher.gibraltar. resistance and identity politics in Gold J R and socialandpersonal identity: First international on conference Hall. Containing someconsider. Press.Manchester Empire Hodder and Stoughton.75. SocialAction 1779-1783B. Spainand Gibraltar. in respect toourtrade The Sun 18 July in general . S 2003 Outposts: 1779-83 Heinemann. MacGowan J 1978 The truth about Gibraltar Army D.placeand Smith N 2003 American Press. gender andsexuality Berkeley in thecolonial contest Routledge.London Duke University Morris D S and Haigh 1992 Britain. London Spurr D 1993 The rhetoric and imperialadministration travel writing. Mann M 2003Incoherent 54-77 empire Verso.