Customer Training Material

Lecture 3 Connections

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L3-1

Release 13.0 December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics

Content
A. Overview B. Joints C. Joint Features
– – – – – – – – Reference co-ordinate system STOPS and LOCKS Nonlinear material definition DOF Checker Redundancy analysis Configuration Tool Assemble Tool Remote points/ Connection line

Customer Training Material

D. E. F. G.

Springs Generalized Contact Command Snippet Constraint Equations
L3-2
Release 13.0 December 2010

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics

A. Overview: Connections

Customer Training Material

• In dynamic analyses connectivity for rigid parts is handled via joints, springs and contacts to model relative motion between parts. • Parts can be connected with Spring which store mechanical energy and provide motion during unloading. • Generalized contact help to model impact and sliding between the parts • Joint features like Reference co-ordinate system, STOPS and LOCKS and helps to model joint motion accurately. • DOF checker and Redundancy analysis helps to avoid motion locking or erroneous motion of the assembly • Configuration and Assemble tool help to position the parts accurately and to animate motion ( kinematics) without solving.

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L3-3

Release 13.0 December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics

A. Overview: Misuse of contact

Customer Training Material

No Separation contact

Contact :Elapse time : 180 sec Joint : Elapse time : 112 sec !! Around 35% time saving
Revolute joint
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L3-4

Release 13.0 December 2010

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics

B. Joints: Types
• • • • • • • • • Revolute Cylindrical Spherical Translational Slot Planar Universal General Bushing (Next slide)

Customer Training Material

Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar

Universal

Translational Slot

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L3-5

Release 13.0 December 2010

All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. Inc. pivots with compliance – Vibration isolation ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L3-6 Release 13.0 December 2010 . Inc. Joints: Bushing • Bushing joint can model free motion in some directions. constrained in others • Elastic and damping forces in constrained directions can be defined • Benefits – Add flexibility at joints w/o large CPU cost – Add realism to rigid simulations Customer Training Material • Applications – Suspensions.

ANSYS. • Joint Kinematics: – Translation: • The mobile coordinate system translates in the reference coordinate system. Inc. – Can be body to body (BTB) or body to ground (BTG). Inc. All rights reserved. • Joints: – Are defined by translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOF).Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. – DOF are with respect to local reference and mobile coordinate systems associated with the joint. – Rotation: • Once translations have occurred the center of rotation is the location of the mobile coordinate system.0 December 2010 . L3-7 Release 13. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Joints: Creation Customer Training Material • Joints can be created manually or automatically.

It is recommended that all reference CS be defined as associative (covered on subsequent pages).0 December 2010 . – Locating and orienting the reference and mobile CS is therefore critical to joint performance. ANSYS. Inc. Exceptions: – General Joint – Slot Joint (Joint kinematics are such that translations occur before rotations. – For BTB joints any side can be reference and a mobile side. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. For this reason the kinematics will differ with the choice of reference and mobile bodies for the above joint types.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B.) • Joint Coordinate Systems: – As seen earlier the DOF of a particular joint is with respect to the joint’s reference coordinate system. All rights reserved. – A reference and mobile CS can be associative or non-associative. L3-8 Release 13. Inc. Joints: Manual Creation • Scoping: Customer Training Material – Joints can be scoped to single or multiple faces of the geometry for both BTB and BTG joints.

– The available motion (DOF) associated with each joint is with respect to this reference CS is displayed in the legend. – Joint details show a reference and mobile section. In body to ground joints the reference is the ground.0 December 2010 . Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Joints: Manual Creation • Example (BTG): – A reference coordinate system is shown at the centroid of the joint’s reference location.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. Inc. Customer Training Material ANSYS. – The legend indicates which directions are free (colors) and which are fixed (gray). Inc. L3-9 Release 13. All rights reserved.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. one defined as the reference body and the other as the mobile. • Red = Reference • Blue = Mobile Customer Training Material ANSYS.0 December 2010 .Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. L3-10 Release 13. All rights reserved. Inc. Joints: Manual Creation • Example (BTB): – BTB joints involve 2 bodies. Inc.

any manipulation of the model in the Geometry window will also be reflected in both auxiliary windows.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. Joints: Body Views • ‘Body Views’ toggle button: – Displays reference and mobile parts in separate auxiliary windows for a joint.0 December 2010 . Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. Inc. (Auxiliary windows operate synchronously of the main graphics window ) ANSYS. (Auxiliary windows operate independent of the main graphics window ) • ‘Sync Views’ toggle button: – When the ‘Body Views’ button is engaged. Customer Training Material L3-11 Release 13. All rights reserved.

edge. • The “Sync Views” feature maintains alignment with the main graphics window in each body view. without inadvertently selecting other parts of the assembly. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. only the reference or mobile body selected from the main graphics window is active. Customer Training Material ANSYS. Joints: Body Views • Within the reference or mobile window. etc. L3-12 Release 13.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B.0 December 2010 . • Easy to click on the desired surface. Inc.

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. Customer Training Material ANSYS.0 December 2010 . All rights reserved. Inc. Joint: Automatic Creation • Automatic joint creation is much like the automatic contact creation • To create joints automatically right click on the “Connections” branch and choose “Create Automatic Joints”. L3-13 Release 13. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. – Can be used to define revolute or fixed joints automatically. – Is configured via the “Connections” details window – Options dialog can be used to set default behavior. Inc.

0 December 2010 . Joints: Initial Conditions Customer Training Material • For rigid dynamic analyses the joint DOF define the relative motion between parts. • For rigid analyses relative velocities are at rest. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. • Zero translational values = coincident reference and mobile CS. Inc. the initial velocity is assumed to be zero. ANSYS. • Unless defined otherwise by joint conditions. • Zero rotational values = coincident axes for the reference and mobile CS. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L3-14 Release 13.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.0 December 2010 . • Constraints implemented using the Lagrange Multiplier method 1 e3 X1 e1 2 X2 O ANSYS. L3-15 Release 13. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. Inc. Joints: Motion • Two nodes with 6 DOFs at each node =>12 DOFs • The relative motion between the two nodes is characterized by 6 “relative degrees of freedom” – 3 Translational relative dofs – 3 Rotational relative dofs Customer Training Material Example: Translational relative degree of freedom e2 • Constraints on these relative degrees of freedom generates different kinds of “Joint” behavior. All rights reserved.

Inc. L3-16 Release 13.RY DOF = 0 . Joints: Motion Example: x-Axis Revolute joint • Displacement Constraints: Customer Training Material u I  uJ – will make X. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.0 December 2010 .RZ DOF = 0 • Rotation around the X axis: • Relative rotations are characterized by Cardan Angles ANSYS. Z DOF = 0 • Rotational Constraints: . Inc. Y.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics B. All rights reserved.

Joint Features: Reference Coordinate Systems • Associative Reference Coordinate Systems: – The reference CS is automatically placed in a sub branch of the joint. – In the example at the right notice the Y axis orientation is defined by “Default”. This results in a non associative CS. – To insure a CS is associative the location and orientation must be explicitly specified. Customer Training Material ANSYS. – It is recommended that all reference CS be defined as associative when geometry update and/or joint configuration is to be used. – Existing geometry or coordinate systems may be used to locate reference CS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc.0 December 2010 .Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. All rights reserved. Inc. L3-17 Release 13.

Inc. ANSYS. • The reference coordinate system will become “active” for modification (see next page). first click in the “coordinate system” field in the joint details to activate the apply/cancel buttons.0 December 2010 . All rights reserved. Joint Features: Reference Coordinate Systems Customer Training Material • To modify reference coordinate system orientation. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L3-18 Release 13. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C.

Inc. Joint Features: Reference Coordinate Systems Customer Training Material • When the reference CS is active click on the desired axis to change its direction. Local X axis selected New CS orientation Local -Z chosen as new direction ANSYS. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. • Any of the 6 coordinate direction can then be chosen for the new direction. L3-19 Release 13.0 December 2010 . – Existing geometry can be selected for alignment as well. All rights reserved.

issue the SECSTOP command. Inc. Inc. Customer Training Material ANSYS. L3-20 Release 13. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. – To specify minimum and maximum values.0 December 2010 . Joint Features: STOPS • Can be defined in Workbench and/or using APDL command • STOPS or Limits can be imposed on the available components of relative motion between the two nodes of a joint element. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.

Inc. • Issue the SECLOCK command to define lock limits in MAPDL Customer Training Material – The same option to define values. can be imposed on the available components of relative motion between the two nodes of a joint element. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. will be available for LOCK also ANSYS. Inc. – When the LOCKS are activated on a particular component of relative motion. L3-21 Release 13.0 December 2010 . that component remains locked for the rest of the analysis. Joint Features: LOCKS • LOCKS or Locking limits. as of STOPS.

• A well-defined mechanism usually has one rigid body dof as below. 3-Bar Mechanism L3-22 Double Slot Release 13. then lock-up or not converge. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Joints – Over-constraint Customer Training Material • An over-constrained model may solve successfully initially. Inc.0 December 2010 . Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. Revolute to Ground Revolute to Ground Revolute to Ground Slot to Ground Revolute Rigid Body to Body Cylindrical Slot to Ground Pendulum ANSYS. All rights reserved.

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. The out of plane UZ dof is redundantly constrained. The body to body joint can be a cylindrical joint. L3-23 Release 13. Joints – Over-constraint Customer Training Material • Is the planar mechanism below over-constrained? • Answer: Yes it is. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.0 December 2010 . ROTZ Revolute Y Rigid Link Rigid Link X ROTZ Revolute to Ground UX Slot to Ground ANSYS. Inc. Inc. which does not constrain relative UZ. All rights reserved.

L3-24 Release 13. .Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. Joint Features: DOF Checker Customer Training Material • The Worksheet view for the Connections branch displays a “Joint DOF Checker”. • Example: – 2 links – Each link = 6 DOF • Two joints are added to the linkage: – BTG Revolute – BTB Revolute • Continued . ANSYS. Inc. . All rights reserved. • If the total free DOF is less than one this could indicate an over constraint condition.0 December 2010 . Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc.

0 December 2010 . Customer Training Material ANSYS. L3-25 Release 13. Inc. Joint Features: DOF Checker • Recall the revolute joint is defined as: – Free DOF = ROTZ (5 DOF constrained) – Worksheet view for Connections calculates free DOF based on the joint definitions. All rights reserved. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. Inc.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. ANSYS.0 December 2010 . L3-26 Release 13. Joint Features: DOF Checker Customer Training Material • In cases where an over constraint condition is detected a message will appear in the Worksheet view: • Following a solve a list of any redundancies that existed is given in the Solution information branch. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. Inc. L3-27 Release 13. Inc.0 December 2010 . All rights reserved. Joint Features: Redundancy Analysis Customer Training Material • Detects Redundant Joint Definitions that prevent proper Joint Force calculation • Improves Preparation of models for the flexible solvers ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.

Inc. Joint Features: Configuration Tool • With the desired joint highlighted the “Configure” button allows manual manipulation of joints (see next page). • After manually moving the joint the “Set” button allows the joint to be initialized in its new location. Inc. ANSYS. • The context menu (RMB) for each joint allows the reference/mobile parts to be flipped. multiple “sets” can be stacked as they are applied to multiple joints.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. – Note. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. All rights reserved. • The colored bar(s) on the configuration triad can be moved using the cursor.0 December 2010 L3-28 . Customer Training Material • The “Revert” button sets the configuration back to its original orientation. Release 13.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. ANSYS. All rights reserved.0 December 2010 . L3-29 Release 13. Inc. • To change its initial position first activate the “Configure” icon. Customer Training Material • Notice the configure handle appears for the selected joint. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. Joint Features: Configuration Tool • Example: • The simple pendulum model shown here is modeled in its “at rest” position.

0 December 2010 . • To cancel a set orientation use the “Revert” icon. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Customer Training Material • With the initial position specified the new location can be locked in using the “Set” icon. ANSYS. Joint Features: Configuration Tool • Using the left mouse button the joint can be configured to the desired initial position. All rights reserved. Inc. L3-30 Release 13.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C.

All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. • The desired increment can be set using “Tools > Options > Common Settings > Graphics Interaction” Customer Training Material ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Joint Features: Configuration Tool • For more precise control during joint configuration depress the CTRL key on the keyboard. L3-31 Release 13.0 December 2010 . Inc. Inc. • This places configuration into snap mode.

Joint Features: Joint Configuration • Joint configuration can be used to modify the initial position of parts for proper assembly alignment using the mobile coordinate system. Customer Training Material Revolute: Body to Ground Revolute: Body to Body ANSYS. Inc.0 December 2010 . one of the links must be moved into its initial position. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C. • At right. Inc. L3-32 Release 13. • Changing the initial position details for the joint’s “mobile” component to “Override” will expose the Mobile Coordinate System. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.

ANSYS. • If the alignment is acceptable the Set option will lock the parts in place. Inc.0 December 2010 . L3-33 Release 13. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. Joint Features: Joint Configuration Customer Training Material • By scoping the mobile CS to the appropriate location the Configure option can be used to align the parts.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C.

Inc. Joint Features: Joint Configuration Customer Training Material • The joint can be further configured as described earlier and the “Set” icon used to finalize placement. L3-34 Release 13. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. ANSYS.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C.0 December 2010 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc.0 December 2010 . CAD parts Define Connections Assemble ANSYS. Joint Features: Assemble Tool Customer Training Material • The Assemble feature allows you to bring in CAD geometry that may initially be in a state of disassembly. All rights reserved. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L3-35 Release 13. you can actively assemble the different parts and Set them in the assembled configuration for the start of the analysis. • After importing the CAD geometry.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics C.

L3-36 Release 13. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Workshop : 1 Customer Training Material • The main objectives of this workshop are threefold: – Demonstrate the new “Assemble” feature for joints – Demonstrate the new “Stops” feature for joints – Compare the results between two models using different coefficients of “Restitution” ANSYS. Inc.0 December 2010 . All rights reserved.

ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.0 December 2010 .Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics D. All rights reserved. • Springs are defined like joints using reference and mobile sides. Inc. – A zero length spring is invalid (no line of action). Inc. L3-37 Release 13. • Springs are defined as “loaded or unloaded” . • Springs can include damping (function of velocity) and stiffness. Springs: Overview Customer Training Material • A spring is an elastic element that regains its original shape after being compressed or elongated. – The location of the reference/mobile sides determines the line of action of the spring. tension or compression loading conditions are included in the definition of a spring. that is. • Although spring definitions appear in the Connections branch and can be BTB or BTG they do not represent a path to ground.

All rights reserved. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics D. – Preload : • Load • Free length – Scope – Reference and mobile locations as well as offsets.0 December 2010 . ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L3-38 Release 13. Springs : overview • Spring Details: – Type : Longitudinal or Torsional – Behavior : • Both • Tension only • Compression only Customer Training Material – Stiffness and damping. Inc.

Springs : Scoping • In the example shown a BTG spring is scoped to one face of the part.0 December 2010 . Inc. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Customer Training Material ANSYS. L3-39 Release 13. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics D. • Notice the spring’s initial configuration is referenced to the global CS.

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics D. L3-40 Release 13.0 December 2010 . Customer Training Material ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc. Springs : Scoping • The spring’s reference and/or mobile location can be modified in the spring details. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. • Locations can be with respect to global or local coordinate systems.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved.0 December 2010 . Customer Training Material ANSYS. Inc. L3-41 Release 13. Springs: scoping • Alternatively the reference location can be scoped to existing geometry.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics D.

Inc. L3-42 Release 13. All rights reserved. ANSYS. Springs : Stiffness/Damping • Longitudinal spring stiffness and damping are input in the working unit system. Customer Training Material • Scoping can be accomplished using Named Selections rather than geometry. – Note: for pure damping a stiffness of zero can be used.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics D. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc.0 December 2010 .

Spring behavior • Behavior: 1.0 December 2010 . Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L3-43 Release 13. Inc. Tension and compression longitudinal Spring ( Both) as a linear spring. Compression only Spring to enable the representation of stops/barriers or absorber systems 3. All rights reserved. 2. Compression only Tension only Customer Training Material ANSYS. Tension only Springs to represent the effects of cables. Inc.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics D.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Customer Training Material • Preload : Free Length – The actual length is calculated using spring end points from the Reference and Mobile scoping. Spring: Preload • Springs can be Preloaded by defining the specific Load value or with Free Length • Preload: Load – A positive value creates tension and a negative value creates compression. Inc. ANSYS.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics D. Inc. All rights reserved. L3-44 Release 13. – The spring will be under tension or compression depending upon whether the Free Length is smaller or greater than the spring length.0 December 2010 . respectively.

L3-45 Release 13.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics Workshop 2 Customer Training Material • This workshop consists of setting up and solving the assembly shown here. All rights reserved. A moment load is applied to the drive wheel. Inc.0 December 2010 . Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. ANSYS.

Inc. Inc.0 December 2010 .Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics E. Generalized Contact • Robust collision detection – New algorithm based on non-linear points trajectories – Can handle high velocity / small gap / large time step • Frictionless contact • Other contact types are beta release Customer Training Material • Event Based Time Integration – No time step reduction needed before collision occurs • Newton Shock Theory – Coefficient of Restitution on each pair – Instantaneous velocity redistribution • Energy Conservation – But losses can be specified ANSYS. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. All rights reserved. L3-46 Release 13.

Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics E. Generalized Contact: Restitution factor effect • Newton Law for shock is easy to use – Based on one single value (coefficient of restitution) V+-V. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L3-47 Release 13.8 Total energy conservation A fraction of total energy is lost at each shock ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc.= -(1+r)V– But no forces available during shock • Energy “Jump” is a way to measure the shock Restitution factor = 1.0 December 2010 .0 Customer Training Material Restitution factor = 0.

Inc. L3-48 Release 13.0 December 2010 . Generalized Contact • Very Robust for collisions – Algorithm based on trajectories intersection – Allows large time steps Customer Training Material This image cannot currently be display ed. ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics E.

Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. L3-49 Release 13.0 Customer Training Material This image cannot currently be display ed. All rights reserved. Inc. ANSYS.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics E. Generalized Contact • Cam / Roller type of problems • Recommended for Simple Geometries in Release 13. Inc.0 December 2010 .

Inc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. ANSYS. L3-50 Release 13. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics E. Inc. Generalized Contact Customer Training Material This image cannot currently be display ed.0 December 2010 .

jc. Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. All rights reserved. L3-51 Release 13. Inc.Find(_jid) Pitch=2. Command Snippets: Advanced Joint Definition Customer Training Material • Extends the use of the Rigid Dynamics solver via command snippets • Based on IronPython language • Example: Definition of screw joint from a cylindrical joint jc=CS_Joint. Inc.ReplaceByScrew(Pitch) ANSYS.0 December 2010 .Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics F.

Inc. All rights reserved.Introduction to ANSYS Rigid Body Dynamics F. sometimes Contact is not required – Constraint Equations can be enough – Through Command Snippets for Rigid Dynamics • Based on IronPython language Gears via Constraint equations (from 2 Revolute Joints) Non-linear spring/damper (from Spring.0 December 2010 . Proprietary © 2010 ANSYS. Inc. Command Snippets: Advanced Joint Definition Customer Training Material • Further use of advanced features in Rigid Dynamics solver via command snippets to define complex joints • When Parts are rigid. then define non-constant stiffness) ANSYS. L3-52 Release 13.