Tutorial 1.


Viewing Models in 3D Space
Learning Objectives
After completing this tutorial, you will be able to: • Identify the 3D coordinate axes. • Identify the 3D coordinate planes. • Change the view and display features of an object in space using the 3D Orbit command. • Create user-defined views using 3D Orbit and VPOINT to display a 3D model. • Use orthographic and isometric views to display a 3D model. • ave and recall a previously created view. • ave and recall a previously created view configuration. • Create multiple tiled viewports in model space and adjust the viewpoint in each viewport to suit design needs.

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Competency !" #ast

3D Modeling is easier if the drawing screen is divided into two or more 2D orthographic views. This can be easily accomplished by using multiple tiled viewports.

Visualizing a 3D model can be difficult for two reasons. First the software does not generate a true perspective view with vanishing points hidden ob!ects or z"depth. #econdly drawings are displayed on a flat 2D monitor screen. These problems can be overcome by drawing the 3D model in multiple viewports each showing the model from a different orthographic view. Orthographic projection is a drawing method that displays a 3D ob!ect as a flat 2D image without any depth. $t is the most common pro!ection method used in the architectural and mechanical drafting. Displaying a 3D model in an orthographic view re%uires that the proper viewing direction be specified. $n order to do this you must first &now how the model is oriented i.e. 'sitting( in 3D space. $n )uto*)D the +"),is measures distances in the horizontal i.e. from left to right on the computer display. The -"),is measures distances in the vertical that is from the bottom to top of the screen. .ut this is only two dimensions. To create 3"dimensional ob!ects we need to specify the third or /"),is. The /"),is pro!ects into and out of the screen. 0ositive /"),is values come out the screen towards the user. 1egative /"),is values move away from the user into and even behind the computer screen.

Tutorial 1.1

Viewing Models in 3D Space


$n order to loo& directly at the top of an ob!ect called the orthographic top view the user loo&s straight down the /"a,is. This is the 'normal( way users wor& with *)D because most drawings are created in two dimensions not three. 2owever consider what a user would have to do in order to see the right side of an ob!ect. The viewer would have to loo& straight down the +"a,is as it e,tends in the positive direction to the right. $n the same manner to view the front view of the ob!ect the viewer would have to loo& along the -" a,is. 2owever the viewer would have to position oneself to loo& along the negative part of the -"a,is as the positive -"a,is e,tends bac&wards. ) user could manipulate Viewpoints within a single Viewport. 2owever it is easier to create several viewports then to create a specified viewpoint within each viewport. There are two entirely different types of viewports which are created for different purposes. $n this e,ample users will wor& entirely in the Model Tab. 3hen wor&ing in the Model Tab users create Tiled Viewports because they are fitted together li&e floor tiles.

Creating multiple tiled viewports with orthographic views
The following tutorial will guide you through the steps necessary to create multiple tiled viewports and to create orthographic views of a 3D model. -ou will create four viewports. -ou will use three to display the model in the standard orthographic views4 top view front view and right"side view. The fourth view which you will create in the top right"hand corner of the screen will display the model in an isometric view. 3hen you have completed the e,ercise you will save it so that it can be retrieved %uic&ly at a later time. 5. 2. 6pen the drawing file 3D Tutorial 1.dwg. -ou are loo&ing at the top view of a 3D model. Turn on the 3D coordinate a,es 7see Figure 5.5"58 &nown as the UCS icon by typing UCSICON at the Command: prompt and typing ON. From the VI ! menu select 3D O"#IT 7see Figure 5.5"28. 9se the mouse to rotate the view of the ob!ect.
&igure 1.1'1. %ireframe coordinate axis.



Introduction to 3D $odeling

&igure 1.1'(. &iew menu.

-ou will notice that the UCS icon switches to a red +"a,is a green -"a,is and a blue /"a,is. 3hen you e,it the 3D Orbit command the icon switches bac& to wireframe. To set the icon so that it always appears in color go to the VI ! menu and select S$%D then 3D !ire&rame or any shading mode 7see Figure 5.5"38. To go bac& to the wireframe a,is select 'D !ire&rame from the VI ! (S$%D menu.
&igure 1.1'3. hade commands in &iew menu.


To view the orthographic top iew of the ob!ect type VPOINT at the command prompt and enter a view point of ; ; 5. The ob!ect will be automatically sized to fit the drawing area 7see Figure 5.5":8. 9se the mouse wheel 7or )OO*8 to shrin& or enlarge the ob!ect.

Tutorial 1.1

Viewing Models in 3D Space


&igure 1.1'). 'op view of 3D object.


) viewpoint of ; ; 5 means that the viewing point is located on the / a,is one unit above the origin 7; ;8. 3hat happens when the / value is changed to any positive number other than one< 3hat affect does a negative number have< 2ow does this change your 'eye( position< =. #witch to a !ight"side View of the ob!ect by e,ecuting VPOINT again and specifying a viewpoint of 5 ; ; 7see Figure 5.5"=8. 3hat value of VPOINT would you specify for a #eft"side View<
&igure 1.1'*. (ight side view of 3D object.


Finally display the Orthographi $ront View by e,ecuting VPOINT and specifying a viewpoint of ; "5 ; 7see Figure 5.5">8.

3hy is the + value negative< 3hat would be the affect of specifying a value of positive one for the + value<


Introduction to 3D $odeling

&igure 1.1'+. )ront view of 3D object.


To save this view go to the VI ! menu and select N%* D VI !S. 0ic& the Named Views- command. This will open the View dialog bo,. 0ress the N ! button and enter a view name. Ma&e sure that the Current displa. radio button is selected and deactivate the Save UCS with view chec& bo, then press O/. 1otice that the new view name appears in the list of previously saved views. 0ress O/ again to go bac& to the drawing 7see Figure 5.5"?8. A,ecute 3D Orbit and rotate the view to some new display. 1ow you can %uic&ly return to your saved view by going bac& to the VI ! menu "B N%* D VI !S "B Named views- command and selecting the view name from the list. )lternately while you are in the 3D Orbit command you can right"clic& to open the 3D Orbit option menu. From this list you can select Saved Views at the bottom.


&igure 1.1',. &iew dialog box.


From the VI ! menu "B VI !PO"TS "B N ! VI !PO"TS. This will open the V%&'(O!TS dialog bo, 7see Figure 5.5"@8.

Tutorial 1.1

Viewing Models in 3D Space


&igure 1.1'-. &iewports dialog box.


From this we can choose the desired arrangement of tiled viewports and also select whether the views will be setup for a two"dimensional drawing or a three"dimensional drawing with the Setup0 drop"down list. The selected view arrangement is shown in the preview area 5;. #elect the 1our0 2ual viewports. 1otice that when the Setup0 is 2D the preview area shows all the views as current. This means that if this viewport arrangement was selected the four viewports would show whatever is the current view in the display. 3hen the Setup0 is 3D the view orientation switches to top front and right with a S& isometric view in the top right. $f one of the preview viewport windows is selected with the mouse the Change view to0 drop"down list changes to reflect the current selection. The selected viewport orientation can now be changed to any other orthographic view or isometric view shown in the drop"down list. Deave the viewports in the default Top $ront !ight S& isometric arrangement.


Introduction to 3D $odeling

&igure 1.1'.. )our viewports set to three orthographic and one isometric display.


To save this view configuration enter a name in the New Name0 space in the dialog bo, and press O/.

The drawing window should immediately switch to the tiled viewport arrangement that was chosen 7see Figure 5.5"C8. The )OO* scale in each viewport is set at &)tents. ) viewport can be activated by pic&ing inside the viewport with the mouse. -ou can tell which viewport is active by moving the mouse over the viewports. The *cti e viewport will display the CursorE the %nacti e viewports will display the (ointer +arrow,. The active viewport is always the one that you will wor& in. 52. )ctivate the %sometric Viewport 7the top right viewport8. 1otice how the cursor changes. #elect the 3D Orbit button from the toolbar and change the display to some other viewpoint. )ctivate one of the orthographic views as follows4 VI ! menu "B VI !PO"TS "B 3 VI !PO"T. The active view will now fill the drawing area. To return to the four"viewport arrangement simply go bac& to the VI ! menu and select VI !PO"TS. 0ic& N%* D VI !PO"TS and pic& the name you gave the configuration. The drawing will switch bac& to three orthographic and one isometric view.

53. 5:.

Tutorial 1.1

Viewing Models in 3D Space