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STATE OF THE ART SURVEY ON HOLOGRAPHY
AND MICROWAVES IN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Robert C. Grubinskas
Army Materials and mechanics Research Center
Watertown, Massachusetts
September 1972
D I S T R I B U T E D B Y :
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I . O R I GI N A T I N G A C T I V I T Y (Corporate author)
Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center
Watertown, Massachusetts 02172
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Unclassified
2 6 . GROUP
3 . REPORT TiTLE
STATE OF THE ART SURVEY ON HOLOGRAPHY AND MICROWAVES IN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
4. D E S C R I P T I V E N O T E S (Type o f r e p o r t a n d Inclusive dates)
5 A U T H O R (S ) (First name, middle Initial, TösTneme)
Robert C. Grubinskas
6- R E P O R T D A T E
September 1972
S a . C O N T R A C T O R GR A N T N O .
• >. P R O JE C T N O . P E M A
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I I . S U P P LE M E N T A R Y N O T E S 1 2 . S P O N S O R I N G M I LI T A R Y A C T I V I T Y
U. S. Army Materiel Command
Washington, D. C. 20315
1 3 . ABSTRACT
The object of this monograph is to trace the evolution of relatively new nonde-
structive testing techniques arising from the vigorously active fields of holography
and microwaves. Highlighted areas include the description of existing techniques and
a discussion of their capabilities and limitations. Receiving primary emphasis are
the applications of thes^ techniques to the evaluation of materials, structures, and
end items for quality assurance purposes. An extensive reference and bibliographical
section has also been included to increase the usefulness of this document and to
provide a launching point for further study. (Author)
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UNCLASSIFIED
S e c ur i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n
KE Y WO R D S
Nondestructive tests
Reviews
Holography
Microwaves
Resolution
Materials tests
Interferometers
Reflectometers
Vibration
Stress analysis
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Monograph by
ROBERTO. GRUBINSKAS
S eptember 1972
A p p r o v e d f o r p ubl i c r e l e a s e ; d i s t r i but i o n un l i m i t e d .
M A T E R I A LS M A N U F A C T U R I N G A N D T E S T I N G T E C H N O LO GY D I V I S I O N
AR MY MAT E R I ALS AND ME CHANI CS R E S E AR CH CE NT E R
Watertown, Massachusetts 02172
?'£
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D y'A Project M716350 PE MA
AMCMS Code 4931.OM.6350-XO51116
Materi als T esti ng T echnology
P r e s e n t e d a t t h e 1 3t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l M e e t i n g o f t h e T e c h n i c a l C o o p e r a t i o n P r o g r a m 's Wo r ki n g P a n e l 4,
S ub-Gr o up P , E v a l ua t i o n M e t h o d s f o r M a t e r i a l s a n d M a t e r i a l s i n S t r uc t ur e s , i n A n a h e i m C a l i f o r n i a ,
2 0-2 9 A p r i l 1 971 .
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ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER
STATE OF THE ART SURVEY ON HOLOGRAPHY AND MICROWAVES
IN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
ABSTRACT I
5
The object of this monograph is to trace the evolution of relatively new
nondestructive testing techniques arising from the vigorously active fields of
holography and microwaves. Highlighted areas include the description of existing
techniques and a discussion of their capabilities and limitations. Receiving
primary emphasis are the applications of these techniques to the evaluation of
materials, structures, and end items for quality assurance purposes. An exten-
sive reference and bibliographical section has also been included to increase the
usefulness of this document and to provide a launching point for further study.
!
&
F O R E WO R D
This report was prepared under a project entitled State of the Art Survey
on Holography and Microwave Technologies in Nondestructive Testing. This work
was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Army Materiel Command's Materials
Testing Technology Program, Department of Army Project Number M716350, AMCMS Code
Number 4931.OM.6350. This work, which spanned the time interv al from October
1970 to March 1972, was conducted with the twofold purpose of (1) contributing
to the support of the ov erall effectiv eness of the Army's Quality Assurance
Program and (2) prov iding inputö to the Technical Cooperation Program as under-
taken by Sub- Group P on Materials, Working Panel 4, on Ev aluation Methods for
Materials and Materials in Structures.
The author wishes to acknowledge and to express his gratitude to the follow-
ing indiv iduals and/or concerns for the prov ision of illustrativ e material: To
Mr. Paul G. Lingenfelder formerly with the Nav al Electronics Laboratory Center,
San Diego, California, for the use of Table II, Figures 2, 3, and 10 to 26; to
GCO, Inc., Plymouth, Michigan, for the use of Figures 28, 30, 31, 33 to 42, and
50; to Dr. Alexander Hammer, U. S. Army Weapons Command, Research and Engineering
Directorate, Rock Island, Illinois, for the use of Figures 29, 44, 48, and 49; to
Mr. Harry L. Ceccon, U. S. Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems
Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, for the use of Figure 32; to Dr. Charles M. Vest,
Univ ersity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, for the use of Figures 43 and 45 to
47; to Mr. Robert Aprahamian, TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, California, for
the use of Figures 51 and 52; to Mr. Byron B. Brenden, Holosonics, Inc., Richland,
Washington, for the use of Figures 54 to 67; to Miss Theresa M. Lav elle, Frankford
Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pennsylv ania, for the use of Figures 70 to 76 and 79 to 83;
and finally, to Mr. Lester Feinstein, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field,
California, for the use of Figures 84 to 87.
m
CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRACT
FOREWORD iii
INTRODUCTION 1
HOLOGRAPHY: GENERAL 1
OPTICAL HOLOGRAPHY 6
ACOUSTICAL HOLOGRAPHY 8
ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY .... 11
HOLOGRAPHY SUMMARY 11
MICROWAVES 11
SAFETY 16
REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY 17
LITERATURE CITED . 71
BIBLIOGRAPHY 98
JZ
INTRODUCTION
Concurrent literature searches were performed on the subjects of Holographic
and Microwave Nondestructive Testing. This work, which spanned the time interval
from October 1970 to March 1972, was conducted from the standpoint of assessing
the applicability of these technologies toward the evaluation of materials, struc-
tures, and end items for quality assurance purposes. The description of existing
techniques, their capabilities and limitations, and their adaptation to materials
evaluation in both laboratory and industrial environments represent the substance
of this monograph.
To supplement the examination of pertinent books and periodicals, literature
searches were initiated and performed by the DoD Nondestructive Testing Informa-
tion Analysis Center, the U. S. Army Foreign Science and Technology Center, The
National Technical Information Service, and the NASA Scientific and Technical
Information Facility. Additional information was also obtained through personal
contacts with researchers and equipment manufacturers.
The work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Army Materiel Com-
mand's Materials Testing Technology Program with the twofold purpose of (1) con-
tributing to the support of the overall effectiveness of the Army's Quality
Assurance Program and (2) providing inputs to the Technical Cooperation Program
as undertaken by Sub-Group P on Materials, Working Panel 4 , on Evaluation Methods
for Materials and Materials in Structures.
1
»
2
These latter inputs, which have
been combined and substantially amplified, form the basis of this monograph.
HOLOGRAPHY : GENERAL
Holography is a relatively new method of visualization possessing many unique
characteristics of scientific importance. It is a fascinating and rapidly expand-
ing field which is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the function of
being an academic curiosity to the function of assuming a prominent position as
an established and widely applied technology. Because of the enormous activity
and significant advancements which have been made in holography within the past
decade, the following discussion will, of necessity, be very abbreviated and
restricted in scope to only those aspects of holography that specifically relate
to the nondestructive testing of materials. The extent of this productivity is
directly reflected in the number of currently available Holographical Bibliogra-
phies and Surveys.
3-15
In addition, several references are available to the
reader who may desire to further acquaint himself with the origin and subsequent
development of this field from a historical viewpoint.
16
"
18
To begin, it would be best, out of considerations of completeness and reader
comprehension, to initially discuss what is meant by the term holography in a
broad sense, and subsequently, in a more comprehensive sense. Generally speak-
ing, holography is basically a technology which deals with a method of storage
for use with any type of wave motion — be it electromagnetic in nature such as
light waves, or nonelectromagnetic in nature such as acoustical waves — in which
both the amplitude and phase of the wave motion can be captured and conveniently
released at any later period. Because all of the information about the shape of
an object is embodied in the complex wave of radiation which emanates from it
when it is suitably illuminated, the holographic process allows one to record
this shape in permanent form in the hologram. Thus, at any later time, the shape
can be regenerated and used as a sort of three-dimensional template against which
any slight deviations in the geometry of the object can be compared.
More specifically, holography is a method for producing three-dimensional
images of coherently illuminated objects by means of wavefront reconstruction
and involves the use of highly intense, coherent, and monochromatic waves or
beams.* It is a two-step technique, involving the processes of construction and
reconstruction wherein some incident wavefrontt is recorded and subsequently
reconstructed at a later time independently of its original source. For such a
reconstruction to be possible, all of the information about the incident wave-
front must be recorded; namely, its frequency, amplitude, and phase. As the fre-
quency in a holographic system is a constant, being specified by the coherent
wave source, the problem arises as to how the amplitude and phase information
may be recorded simultaneously and ail-inclusively. Since most of the existing
recording devices are square-law detectors, the amplitude is readily recordable,
but the phase is not. The manner in which the phase is rendered recordable is,
in actuality, the essence of holography.
For many years since its conception, progress in holography was severely
hampered due to the lack of radiation sources possessing the necessary degrees of
intensity, monochromaticity, and coherency. With respect to coherency, the term
is used to describe in a quantitative way the preservation of the uniformity of
phase between corresponding points of the wavetrain along and orthogonal to the
direction of wave propagation, or, more generally, between two or more points
located on either the same or different wavefronts within the wavetrain. These
constraints were overcome in large part with the advent of the laser and its
eventual application to the holographic process. The degree of the proliferation
which has also occurred in the field of laser technology is manifested by the
large number of commercially available lasers as is shown in the literature-
referenced chart of Figure l.
19
-
60
in this figure and the ones to follow, the
citation of pertinent literature references will occur at applicable sites
within the structure of the chart.
In the construction process, which is illustrated for the optical holographic
case in Figure 2, a known and reproducible reference wave is allowed to combine
and interfere with an unknown and complex wave, usually referred to as the signal
or object beam, that has been either transmitted through or reflected from some
object of interest to produce the incident wavefront. Because both of these
waves have been derived from the same source via division of either wavefront or
amplitude, they are mutually coherent and combine to produce an interference
fringe field corresponding to the sum of their complex amplitudes. The terms
division of amplitude and division of wavefront are used to designate the manner
in which two beams may be derived from a single source. In the division of
*The terms waves and beams are synonymous and will, hereafter, be used
interchangeably throughout this monograph.
tit should be noted that in holographic parlance, the term wavefront is used to
denote the instantaneous state of the two interfering beams on some two-
dimensional surface such as a recording medium. This usage is in contrast to
the conventional context where the term wavefront is usod to signify a uniphase
surface.
amplitude method (illustrated in Figure 1), the entire cross section of the beam
is intercepted by a suitable optical component such as a beam-splitting reflector
to produce two outgoing beams from one incoming beam by means of partial reflec-
tion and transmission. In the division of wavefront method, only a fraction of
the beam cross section is intercepted by a suitable optical component, such as a
prism, to produce a phase shift or slight change in direction of only that por-
tion of the intercepted beam while the remainder of the beam continues undeviated
along the direction of beam propagation. (The division of wavefront method is
illustrated in slightly modified form in Figure 17, where the modification con-
sists of transmitting the hitherto undeviated portion of the beam through a two-
dimensional object such as a photographic transparency.)
In the fringe field produced by the interaction of the signal and reference
beams, the fringe spacing is modulated or varied by the phase differences exist-
ing between the two waves. Therefore, the interference pattern embodying this
fringe field is essentially a phase-modulated amplitude distribution whose square
can then be recorded by a conventional square-law detector, such as a photographic
emulsion placed within the region of interference. The recording is called a
hologram. The angle between the signal and reference beams, labeled 6 in Fig-
ure 2, is usually referred to as the shearangle. The magnitude of the shear
angle and the wavelength of the light used, in turn, determine the orientation
and spacing of the fringes comprising the recorded interference pattern. The
angle < J > between the reference beam and the photographic plate is an additional
parameter, which, in combination with the other two, influences the resolution
requirements of the recording medium.
In the reconstruction process, which is illustrated in Figure 3, the holo-
gram is used as a diffraction grating. When it is illuminated with the reference
beam, three beams emerge — a zero order or undeflected beam and two first-order
diffracted beams. The diffracted beams produce the real and virtual images of
the object to complete the holographic process. In Figure 3, only the first-
order diffracted beam which yields the virtual image has been shown, the other
two beams having been omitted from the figure for the sake of clarity. If the
original object is three-dimensional, then the virtual image is a genuine three-
dimensional replica of the object possessing both parallax and depth of focus.
The real image, on the other hand, is pseudoscopic or depth-inverted in appearance.
Hence, the virtual image — also referred to as the true, primary, or nonpseudo-
soopio image — is the one which is of primary interest in practical applications
of holography.
Although optical holographic techniques have been the most extensively used
to date, holograph^ need not be limited to visible light. Here lies the key to
th^ great potential of this technique for nondestructive testing. Holography
can, in principle, be performed with any wave radiation encompassed within the
entire electromagnetic spectrum; with particulate radiation, such as neutrons
and electrons which possess wave-equivalent properties; and finally, with non-
electromagnetic radiation such as acoustical waves. The present and future holo-
graphic techniques applicable to nondestructive testing are indicated in Figure 4 .
As can be seen from the figure, the only techniques presently available for prac-
tical exploitation are those of optical, acoustical, and electron holography.
Since the interference pattern produced by the interaction of a beam scat-
tered from the object of interest and the coherent reference beam must be faith-
fully replicated during the construction process, the selection of a suitable
holographic recording material for a particular application is of utmost import-
ance. For optical holography, the diverse spatial variations in light intensity
constituting the interference pattern are recorded indirectly through the cor-
responding changes in the physical properties of the material comprising the
recording medium. In order to be effectual, the affected physical properties
must be capable of interacting with the reconstruction beam, in the second step
of the holographic process, to produce the desired image of the object. In gen-
eral, the interference patterns are usually preserved on or within the recording
medium in the form of either an optical density or phase-shift pattern. In the
optical density pattern, the recording material is classified as being absorptive,
an'i the stored interference pattern, the hologram, behaves as a density grating
which diffracts light by modulating the intensity of the incident reference beam.
In the phase-shift pattern, the recording material is classified as being nonab-
sorptive, phase-only, or more commonly as just phase. Unlike absorptive materials,
holograms formed using phase materials possess uniform optical densities and be-
have as phase gratings which diffract light by means of phase shifts produced by
localized variations in the thickness and/or refractive index of the recording
medium. In many actual cases, both amplitude and phase variations are present
in the same hologram.
Some of the conventional and unconventional materials which have been used
for holographic recording purposes are depicted in Figure 5. As can be seen from
the figure, these materials divide into the two major categories of absorptive
and pnase. It should be noted that photographic emulsions, the most commonly
used materials, which are basically absorptive can be transformed into phase
materials through suitable bleaching and processing techniques. For most of
these materials, the recording process is permanent and irreversible. In contrast,
certain other materials, such as the photochromies and electro-optic crystals,
are erasable, and hence are reusable. Holograms can be further classified accord-
ing to type, as shown in Figure 6, as being initially either plane/single-layer/
thin or as volume/thick; secondarily, as being either absorptive or phase; and
thirdly, as being either transmissive or reflective. Generally speaking, the
terms plane, single-layer, or thin are used to designate those holograms wherein
the interference pattern is recorded as a two-dimensional spatial grating on the
surface of the recording medium or in a medium whose thickness is small as com-
pared to the wavelength of the wave radiation being used to create it. Included
in the thin hologram category is the surface relief hologram where the fringes
comprising the interference field are recorded as surface deformations of the
recording material. Likewise, the terms volume or thick are used to designate
those holograms wherein the interference pattern is recorded as a three-
dimensional spatial grating within the volume of the recording medium whose
thickness is many times greater than the wavelength of the illumination source.
The resultant volume hologram is composed of planes of varying density or index
of refraction. Maximum diffraction efficiency is achieved during the reconstruc-
tion process when the Bragg condition for reflection is satisfied for discrete
values of reference beam angles of incidence and layer spacing. Additional de-
tailed information concerning holographic recording materials and hologram clas-
sifications can be found in the literature references cited in Figures 5 and 6.
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Another important consideration in the holographic recording process is the
resolution requirement which must be met by the recording medium. The equation
describing this requirement appears at the top of Figure 7 which also contains
plots of spatial frequency versus shear angle for the plane-wave fringe approxi-
mation. The term plane-wave fringe approximat ion is used in reference to the
interference pattern produced by the interaction of two mutually coherent planar
beams. The resulting fringe pattern and its associated nomenclature is geomet-
rically depicted at the lower right-hand corner of the figure. As can be seen by
referring to the equation in the figure, the required resolution is a function of
wavelength (A), shear angle (0), and the angle between the reference beam and the
photographic plate (< (> ). These same parameters also determine the orientation of
the fringes within the recording medium. For the plots in Figure 7, the bisector
of the shear angle is assumed to be colinear with the normal to the plane of the
recording medium (6 /2 + < J > = 90°), or equivalently, that the angle of incidence
of the object beam is equal to the angle of incidence of the reference beam.
Under these conditions, the rectangular-like fringes are oriented parallel to the
bisector of the shear angle. Curves A and B bracket the visible light band which
contains the curves associated with the output wavelengths of those lasers which
have been most commonly used for nondestructive testing applications. The visible
light band is also included in Figure 8 with the fringe spacing (reciprocal of the
spatial frequency) being plotted as a function of shear angle for the same set of
boundary conditions. If spherical waves are used as is often the case in holo-
graphy, the spacing and orientation will vary across the recording medium with
the complexity of these variations increasing with the complexity of the inter-
fering waves.
As photographic emulsions have proven to be the most conventional holographic
recording medium used in nondestructive testing applications, a table exhibiting
some of the more important holographic characteristics of the most commonly used
photographic emulsions is included in Table I. The data for this table was ob-
tained from manufacturer's specifications and the literature (see References 1 7,
74-80, 1 08, 1 6 9-1 78). It should be noted that the resolution or resolving power
figures encountered in the literature will vary in accordance with the method
used to perform the measurement; i.e., by either the customary interference
method or by the holographic interferometric method. The results obtained with
the latter method are approximately two and one-half times as large as those
obtained using classical methods. In addition, these photographic emulsions are
sensitized with respect to wavelength so as to yield optimum results when used
in conjunction with a particular laser's monochromatic output. For those appli-
cations requiring the maximum in resolution capability, photographic emulsions
are deposited on optically-flat glass substrates. In less strirgent applications,
the photographic emulsion may be deposited on a film substrate of either sheet
or roll format.
A major prerequisite in the holographic recording process which must be met,
if the recording is to be made at all, is that the fringe pattern remain station-
ary during the exposure period. It should be recalled at this point that inter-
ference will occur between any two beams regardless of whether they are derived
from either coherent or incoherent sources. When interference does occur with
incoherent light, the resulting interference pattern will change rapidly with
respect to time because of the randomly changing phase relationships existing
between the two interfering beams. Such wavefronts are impossible to record.
With interference occurring between two mutually coherent beams, on the other
hand, the successive wavefronts (used here in the conventional sense) in a coher-
ent beam will be identical, and the phase relationships between corresponding
points in the two interfering beams will remain fixed so as to produce a station-
ary interference pattern which is readily recordable. To fulfill the requirement
for fringe stability in the recording process, it is necessary to impose controls
on the environment in which the recording is to be made. A table denoting rule-
of-thwmb tolerances for some of the most significant environmental variables is
included in Table II. Changes in the optical path length or movement of the film,
for example, produce fringe shifts. Optical path length changes, in turn, can be
produced by localized variations in density, temperature, pressure, and physical
movement or vibration of the optical bench and/or optical elements. The actual
tolerances listed in Table II are only representative as the actual tolerances
are dependent upon the particular circumstances of a given application. Each of
the tolerances has been calculated with the assumption that all of the other tol-
erances are zero. If several quantities do vary simultaneously, then the toler-
ance on each is smaller than that listed in the table. Also it should be noted
tha^ these tolerance values are more relevant to those applications involving
continuous-wave lasers as many of these requirements may be substantially relaxed
in those applications involving pulsed lasers. A series of optical reference
books which may be of use to the reader requiring additional optical knowledge
are included as References 179 to 198 .
:
OPTICAL HOLOGRAPHY
The specific geometric methods for hologram generation are delineated in
Figure 9. Generally speaking, there are only two distinct types of holograms —
the Fvesnel hologram and the Fraunhoferhologram. In Fresnel holography, the
object beam represents the Fresnel or nearfield diffraction pattern of the
object when it impinges on the recording medium. Similarly, in Fraunhofer holo-
graphy, the object beam now represents the Fraunhofer or farfield diffraction
pattern of the object when it impinges on the recording medium. All other holo-
grams are special cases of either one of these two categories. Since the differ-
ences between holograms and their special properties originate from differences
in the construction and/or reconstruction processes, the geometrical diagrams
associated with the hologram designations are an important part of their descrip-
tion and have been included herein for the purpose of illustrating the basic dif-
ferences in geometry of these specific methods for hologram generation. The
symbols for the relevant components comprising these geometrical diagrams are
included in Figure 10. The geometrical diagrams which depict both the construc-
tion and reconstruction processes are grouped in Figures 11 to 23. No further
attempt will be made here to describe these specific methods in more detail.
Instead, the reader can refer to the literature references which have been pro-
vided, with one exception, for all of the remaining elements shown in Figure 9.
In addition, suitably referenced geometrical diagrams describing methods for
hologram copying; for constructing holograms capable of reconstructing nonpseudo-
scopic real images of a given object; and finally, for the reconstruction of true
images are included in Figures 24 to 26.
When optical holography is applied to materials evaluation problems, the gen-
eration of a three-dimensional imige of the object, per se, is of little value.
Furthermore, for opaque materials, optical holography is strictly limited to sur-
face observations. Hence, if this technique is to be used for nondestructive
testing purposes, supplementary means have to be employed to either stress or
impart energy into the test object so as to faithfully produce surface manifesta-
tions of the parameter of interest. It is at this juncture that the technique
of holographic interferometry plays a significant role.
As in the conventional optical case, holographic interferometric measure-
ments can be made with great accuracy, i.e., to within a fraction of the wave-
length of the light being used. Whereas conventional interferometry is usually
restricted to the examination of objects possessing highly polished surfaces and
simple shapes, holographic interferometry is not. It can be used to examine
three-dimensional surfaces of arbitrary shape and surface conditions. Additional
points of contrast are as follows. Conventional interferometry must be performed
in real time; requires a critical alignment of optical components; and yields a
two-dimensional fringe-field readout. Holographic interferometry, on the other
hand, can be performed in either real time or at two different times; does not
require precise alignment of optical components (except for real-time applica-
tions); and yields a three-dimensional fringe-field readout. Because of the
three-dimensionality of the hologram reconstruction, a complex object can be
interferometrically examined from many different perspectives, wherein the angle
of view is limited by only the physical size of the hologram. Thus, a single
hologram reconstruction is equivalent to a multiplicity of conventional inter-
ferometric observations.
The techniques of holographic interferometry, which are depicted in Fig-
ure 27, can be reduced to two basic categories: time lapse and real time. In
the time-lapse approach, advantage is made of the fact that more than one holo-
gram may be made on the same recording medium. Examples of this approach include:
Double Exposure orDifferential Technique involves the recording of two
holograms — one of the object in its natural or undisturbed state, and the other
of the object in some changed or disturbed state. In the reconstruction process,
the two recorded object beams interfere with one another to produce a fringe
field wherein the contour and spacing describe the changes that occurred between
the two exposures.
Multiple Exposure orStroboscopic Technique involves the multiple recording
of certain predetermined positions of an object in periodic motion, usually at
the positive and negative amplitudes of vibration. In the reconstruction process,
fringes of high contrar.t are produced that enable the measurement of high ampli-
tudes of vibration. By appropriately timing the light pulses, the phase rela-
tionships of the antinodes may also be obtained.
Continuous Exposure orTime-Average Technique is an extension of the double
and multiple exposure methods to the limiting case involving the recording of a
continuum or infinite number of exposures of an object in periodic motion.
Because the holographic exposure time is usually much greater than the period of
object motion, the hologram is a record of the time-averaged irradiance distribu-
tion at the hologram plane. In the reconstruction process, an infinite number
of images, corresponding to the previously recorded infinite number of object
positions, are produced and interfere with one another. In the resulting fringe
field, the bright fringes correspond to nodal regions (i.e., regions of zero or
very small amplitudes of vibration) and dark fringes to antinodal regions (i.e.,
legions of large amplitudes of vibration). By employing appropriate fringe anal-
ysis techniques, the amplitudes of vibration for each point on the object's sur-
face may be determined. Because the fringe contrast decreases as the amplitude
of motion increases, the displacement amplitudes amenable to analysis by this
method cannot be too great.
In the real-time approach, a hologram is first made of the object in its
natural or undisturbed state. The hologram is then reconstructed and precisely
repositioned so that the virtual image is exactly superimposed upon the object.
Thereupon, the object is disturbed in either a static or dynamic manner. With
the hologram being used as an observation window, it is possible to observe the
resulting interference pattern produced by the interaction of the recorded object
beam (also referred to as the stored or frozen beam) with a modified, real-time
object beam (sometimes referred to as the live beam). With this method, it is
possible to observe differential, stroboscopic, and time-averaged fields. For
time-varying fringe fields, the time averaging is performed by the observer's ey .
Holographic interferometry has been successfully used as a noncontacting
tool for strain and vibration studies, depth-contour mappings, and transient/
dynamic phenomena analyses. In the area of nondestructive testing, holographic
interferometry has been used to detect and locate disbonds within honeycomb-
sandwich structures; disbonds between steel cylinder and diffusion-bonded
aluminum cladding; flaws within either passenger car or aircraft tires; cracks
in pr~;~ctile bodies; and also to separate hollow turbine blades according to
wall thickness. Holographic interferometry has also been used for monitoring
stress corrosion cracking and for the determination of Young's modulus.for glass.
Complete holographic test systems are presently commercially avai^ .ble from
approximately twelve manufacturers, while the necessary components required to
custom build a system are available from a multitude of sources. The overall
price of a laboratory test system varies in direct accordance with the sophisti-
cation, capabilities, and object size and spans the price range of $1,500 to
$25,000. Highly specialized industrial holographic analyzers are also available
at proportionately higher prices. Photographic examples of holographic testing
systems and materials evaluation applications can be found in Figures 28 to 52.
These photogiaphs are augmented by either self-explanatory or annotated captions*
so as to obviate the need for any further prolonged discussion here in the body
of the text. As for the interferometric results, it should be noted that the
greater the fringe density, the greater is the surface deformation which pro-
duced it.
ACOUSTICAL HOLOGRAPHY
Acoustical holography is another endeavor which has been vigorously pursued
for nondestructive testing purposes, since sound, unlike light, is capable of
penetrating opaque objects. Acoustical holography, like optical holography, is
a two-step technique involving the processes of acoustical hologram construction
and reconstruction. In the construction process, the acoustical hologram may be
*In these captions, the frequently used designation Holographic Nondestructive
Testing appears in abbreviated form as HNDT.
■ v
formed either directly by the interference of an acoustical object beam with an
acoustical reference beam in the acoustical domain, or indirectly via the inter-
action of a piezoelectrically detected acoustical object beam with an electron-
ically simulated reference beam. With respect to the reconstruction process
which must occur in the optical domain in order to be seen, the particular method
involved will be the determining factor as to whether the reconstruction process
occurs coincidentdlly with or ensuing tc the process of construction. The speci-
fic methods used for acoustical hologram generation are depicted in Figure 53.
In addition, representative geometrical diagrams portraying these methods have
also been included as integral supplements in Figures 54 to 60 and 64 as the
differences between these methods stem predominantly from differences in the
geometrical arrangements of the components used to construct the acoustical
holograms. As can be seen from Figure 53, the various techniques developed
thus far fall into two general categories; namely, real-time and raster-scanning.
For the most part, acoustical analogs of existing optical holographic methods
have been employed wherein the acoustical portion of the system is submerged
in a liquid medium, usually water, and the electro-optical portion required for
readout purposes is situated externally to the liquid tank. Although higher
acoustical frequencies have been used in specialized instances, the majority of
work, for practical testing applications, has been performed in the 1-10 MHz
frequency range.
Real-Time Acoustical Holography: In the construction process, the acousti-
cal hologram is formed on a liquid surface as a relief pattern of variable height.
The simplified surface conditions and equations associated with this approach are
included in Figure 54 . A basic liquid-surface system for acoustical holography
is shown in Figure 55. This figure is augmented by Figures 56 and 57 which illus-
trate the physical nature of the liquid surface relief pattern — the acoustical
hologram — and the types of readout obtainable with this method. It should be
noted that the technique shown in Figures 56 and 57 preceded in time the one
illustrated in Figure 55, and hence did not incorporate improvements such as the
use of the small isolation tank and acoustical lenses. The relief pattern is
produced by the interference effects of two interacting beams of either continu-
ous or pulsed ultrasound — one which has been transmitted through the test object,
the dbg eat beam, and the other, the reference beam, which has been directly
transmitted to the liquid surface. Reconstruction of this acoustically formed
hologram occurs simultaneously for all practical purposes and is accomplished by
reflecting light, incident from above, from the surface. A spatial filter is
used to achieve a separation of the resulting diffracted light into components
for viewing and recording purposes. Because all of the liquid surface elements
comprising the acoustical hologram vre formed at the same instant, the reconstruc-
tion process can be accomplished in quasi real-time. This important characteris-
tic enables test objects undergoing examination to be continuously moved and
rotated for defect enhancement purposes and the resulting dynamically changing
images to be recorded by appropriate auxiliary instrumentation. The use of acous-
tical lenses results in the further enhancement of image quality and permits the
interrogation in depth of preselected subsurface layers of test object material.
For this method, the maximum obtainable acoustical field of view to date is of
the order of five and one-half inches. Finally, this method is presently re-
stricted in the acoustical domain to the application of the through-transmission
mode and is, for the most part, subject to the attendant limitations of this
particular technique.
Raster-Soanning Acoustical Holography: This method of acoustical holography
can be further subdivided into two basic approaches — electronic raster scanning
and mechanical raster scanning as in Figure 53. In this method, energy must be
transformed initially from acoustical to electronic, and subsequently from elec-
tronic to light. In the construction process, ultrasonic fields which have been
either transmitted through or reflected from the test object are sensed by piezo-
electric detectors. These detectors may be of relatively moderate surface area,
such as those that are used as receiver faceplates for electronically-scanned
ultrason'-c image converter tubes, or they may be of the point-receiver type, such
as those that are used in mechanical raster-scanning systems. The manner in which
an acoustical hologram is constructed by the mechanical raster-scanning technique
is illustrated in Figure 58 . By detecting ultrasonic fields of interest using
piezoelectric means, the requirement for effecting the interaction of the object
and reference beams to produce interference may be accomplished in either the
acoustical or electronic domains. For the acoustical domain option, a real acous-
tical reference beam is used, while for the electronic domain option, a simulated
electronic reference beam is used to interfere with the electronic signal derived
from the piezoelectrically-transformed acoustical object beam. Upon achieving
interference, the resulting electronic data is appropriately processed and used
to modulate the intensity of either a point light source, the electron beam of a
television display monitor or of an oscilloscope, or the writing element (single-
turn wire helix) of a facsimile recorder. For the electronic raster-scanning
systems, the electron beams of both the ultrasonic image converter tube and the
television display monitor are in synchronization with one another, while for the
mechanical raster-scanning systems, the point light source or the oscilloscope
electron beam is scanned in synchronization with the piezoelectric receiver.
The end result is the generation of an optical transparency which serves as the
hologram (the optical equivalent to the acoustical hologram) for reconstruction
in the optical domain. An example of a mechanical raster-scanning approach
employing an electronically-obtained simulated reference beam for acoustical
hologram construction is the synthetic aperture method wherein the object beam
for the electronic domain is piezoelectrically derived from only a single scan-
ning transducer, usually of the focused variety, being operated ir. the pulse-echo
mode. With this method, it is possible to obtain, within limits, depth-indicative
acoustical holograms of subsurface layers of the isonofied test object. Addi-
tional examples of mechanical raster-scanning methods, as per Figure 53, are
included in Figures 59 and 60. Examples of raster-scanned acoustical holograms
are shown in Figures 61 to 63, and the subsequent reconstruction process is
depicted in Figure 64 .
In terms of reduction to practice, both the real-time and raster-scanning
acoustical holographic methods are capable of achieving the resolution expected
on the basis of the wavelength and hologram aperture used. While mechanical
raster-scanning methods are two-step processes, the real-time liquid surface
method is essentially a one-step process — the processes of hologram construction
and reconstruction occurring almost simultaneously. In addition, while it is
possible to generate acoustical holog~' • with commercially available equipment
employing the electronic raster-scanning method, the only complete acoustical
holographic systems designed specifically for materials evaluation applications
available to date employ either the inherently simple real-time liquid surface,
or synthetic aperture mechanical raster-scanning methods. The cost of complete
systems such as these is presently of the order of $4 0,000.
10
Regarding practical nondestructive testing applications,
619
~
639
much of the
developmental work was performed with laboratory-type test specimens. However,
the real-time liquid surface method is currently being applied to detect delamina-
tions and inclusions in graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy lamina; debonds in metal-
nonmetal and metal-metal structures including honeycomb-sandwich panels; voids in
diffusion-bonded structures; and fatigue cracks in steel. Acoustical holography,
like acoustical imaging, provides optimum test results using objects possessing
simple surface geometries. Objects possessing complex surface geometries still
constitute significant impediments to the more widespread application of this
technique. However, efforts are now being made to mitigate these impediments
through the development and application of cylindrical and mosaic-type acoustical
transducers. Several representative examples of results obtained using methods
of liquid-surface acoustical holography are shown in Figures 65 to 67.
ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY
Only a few pertinent comments will be made at this time concerning the
remaining holographic technique, electron holography, for the sake of complete-
ness. Although electron microscopy has become one of the most important tools
of modern day science, electron holography has within the short time span of
twenty years caught up with electron microscopy as an imaging method. This
accomplishment was made possible by a significant breakthrough made in 1968 by a
group of J apanese scientists.
107
Electron holography now has a resolution equiv-
alent to that obtainable with electron raicroscopy. As for utilization, the spe-
cific application is the ultimate determining factor as to which of these two
methods should be used. In certain instances, electron holography would be
preferable, while for others, the method of choice would be electron microscopy.
HOLOGRAPHY SUMMARY
In summary, holography has undergone a rebirth and maturation during the
decade of the sixties. Further advancements remain to be made in the areas of
the development of new and improved coherent sources of radiation; the develop-
ment of new and improved holographic recording materials exhibiting increased
sensitivity, higher resolution, faster speed, greater dimensional stability, more
faithful reproducibility of multicolor scenes, and reusable capabilities; the
development of improved fringe interpretation techniques; the development of
improved techniques for increasing the range of variation in sensitivity of holo-
graphic interferometric methods; and, finally, the improvement and .simplification
of the reconstruction process involving the suppression of image granularity and
the utilization of limited coherent white light sources. The ultimate success
of holography as a practical scientific tool will be directly dependent upon the
contributions derived from the continuing explorations of world-wide research
and the attainments of further progress in areas of current application.
MICROWAVES
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation comprising a not-too-
rigidly defined frequency band of 0.225 to 100 gigahertz (1 GHz - 10
9
Hz) and a
11
corresponding wavelength band in free space of 133.3 to 0.3000 centimeters.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, the microwave frequency band is bounded by the
lower frequency radiosvave band on the one hand, and by the higher frequency infra-
red band on the other. The microwave frequency bands are delineated in Figure 68 .
In certain respects, microwaves beiiave like light waves in that they travel in
straight lines, reflect, refract, diffract, interfere, and scatter according to
the laws of optics. Differences in behavior do arise due to differences in wave-
length — microwaves typically possessing wavelengths some one hundred thousand
times larger than light. As a direct consequence, microwaves tend to interact
with objects and materials on a macroscopic scale and light on a microscopic
scale. Unlike light, microwaves are capable of penetrating most nonmetallic
materials and structures, reflecting and scattering from internal boundaries, and
interacting with the molecules of materials. Although its significance as a ma-
terials testing method was recognized in the early 1950*s, microwave technology
was not extensively put into practice as a nondestructive testing tool until the
1960's. This advancement was made possible by the advent of more adequate equip-
ment for the generation and measurement of microwave energy.
To date, all microwave techniques have employed either continuous-wave or
frequency-modulated modes of radiation, as the problems associated with the
reduction-to-practice of pulse reflection techniques similar to those used in
ultrasonic testing are quite formidable. Ar. insight into these problems can be
obtained by merely considering the distance that a microwave pulse would occupy
in free space. Since the velocity of propagation of electromagnetic radiation
is 3 x io° meters per second, a 1-microsecond pulse would occupy 300 meters in
I space, a 1-nanosecond (10-
9
second) pulse 30 centimeters, and a 10-picosecond
j (10
-11
second) pulse 0.3 centimeter. Thus, with present day technological know-
how the attainment of a bona fide range resolution capability for flaw detection
purposes in microwave nondestructive testing, although highly desirable, is a
| physical impossibility. Whereas magnetrons, klystrons, traveling wave tubes,
i paramagnetic oscillators, and molecular oscillators may all be used for the gen-
t eration of microwaves, it has been the klystron which has proven to be the work-
' horse of microwave nondestructive testing. In materials testing applications,
shorter wavelength radiations spanning the wavelength interval of 0.5 to 20 cen-
timeters (1.5 to 60 GHz) have been employed in order to achieve improvements in
defect-size resolution.
When microwaves penetrate a nonelectrically conducting material, they are
influenced by only three parameters of the material — two electromagnetic, the
dielectric constant and the loss tangent, and one geometric, the shape and dimen-
sions of the material. The dielectric constant, also referred to as the permit-
tivity, is in actuality a frequency-dependent parameter that is a measure of the
amount of electrostatic energy that can be stored per unit volume of material
when a unit voltage is applied and, as a consequence, is intimately associated
witli the polarization characteristics of the material. Polarization always occurs
to some degree whenever microwaves penetrate dielectric materials, since electri-
cal charge within the material is displaced due to the influence of the electric
field associated with the microwaves. The other electromagnetic materials prop-
erty, the loss tangent, is a measure of the amount of power which is lost as heat
whenever a dielectric material is subjected to a high frequency electromagnetic
field. Both the dielectric constant and loss tangent are functions of material
composition, structure, homogeneity, orientation, moisture content, and other
12
similar factors. These relationships lead to a number of interesting practical
microwave nondestructive testing applications. As for the shape and dimensions
of the material, if the surface geometry is too irregular, the physical extent
too small, or the thickness too great, then deleterious effects, such a.~ undesir-
able surface reflections, objectionable edge effects, a distortion of beam direc-
tivity, and excessive self-absorption by the material of microwave energy, may
be encountered.
The specific geometric methods that have thus far been employed in micro-
wave nondestructive testing are illustrated in Figure 69 and include:
Transmission where microwave energy passing through the material is accord-
ingly modified by the internal condition of the material.
Reflection where the microwave energy reflected from either the surface or
from within the material is correspondingly modified by either the surface or
internal condition of the material.
Scattering where microwave energy penetrating the material is randomly
reflected and/or diffracted by scattering centers, such as cracks, voids, inclu-
sions, and foreign material, situated within the parent material.
Interferometry where two or more sets of microwave wavetrains simultaneously
traveling in either the same or opposite directions naturally interfere with one
another as in the classical case, or where two sets of microwave wavetrains are
deliberately made to interact with one another to produce interference as in the
holographic case.
Block diagrams of the equipment associated with the specific geometric
microwave methods are included in Figures 70 to 76.
Microwave signal data displays for nondestructive testing applications are
shown in Figure 77. In certain established test approaches, the amplitude and/
or phase of a microwave signal is measured and/or monitored using either meters,
oscilloscopes, or recorders. In more sophisticated test approaches, a spectral
analysis is performed on the detected microwave signal to yield additional inform-
ation concerning flaw parameters and physical properties. As in other nondestruc-
tive testing techniques, methods are available for displaying the data in
pictorial form in an attempt to yield perceptible defect profiles and simplify
the interpretation of microwave test results. These methods include:
Field Scanning where a microwave field is probed with a scanning pickup horn
moving in synchronization with an intensity-modulated writing element of the
recording instrumentation, such as the single-turn wire helix of a facsimile
recorder or the electron beam of an oscilloscope. The end result is a plan view
display of the cross section of the microwave field containing variations in con-
trast which are in direct proportion to the strength of the detected signal.
Cholester-ic Liquid Crystals where a mapping of the entire microwave field,
or a large fraction thereof, is obtained in color with liquid crystals by their
ability, upon exposure, to convert the microwave energy absorbed as heat into a
temperature-dependent wavelength readout. Because of the nonunifortuities inherent
r.
13
» —- ■ mm*
within the microwave field, the surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal detec-
tor — a thin layer of liquid crystals deposited on a t'.iin black substrate — will
be differentially heated in direct accordance with the variations of intensity of
the microwave field to yield a color pattern, representing the desired mapping.
The color change is reversible with respect to temperature and may be effected
over a narrow and variable temperature range.
Photographic Emulsions where a microwave-field mapping is obtained in either
black-and-white or color by using appropriately prepared photographic films as
sensing elements. As with the cholesteric liquid crystal method, the differen-
tial heating effects associated with the microwavt field are relied upon to pro-
duce the thermal gradients required for the recording, which in this case is
irreversible. The film is usually subjected to an initial and incomplete expo-
sure to uniform illumination with light, coated with a thin film of developer,
and then placed into the microwave field to undergo further development. Because
the rate of development of a photographic emulsion is temperature-dependent, those
regions of the film that are exposed to more intense microwave radiation will
experience greater heating effects and will consequently develop more rapidly
than those regions exposed to less intense levels of microwave radiation. When
the exposure is completed, the degree of darkness within the recording will vary
in direct accordance with the intensity of the microwave field.
Holography where the visualization of a highly frequency-stable microwave
field is accomplished through a two-step method involving the processes of con-
struction and reconstruction. In the construction process, a known and reproduc-
ible microwave beam is allowed to combine and deliberately interfere with an
unknown, mutually coherent, and complex microwave beam. The known beam is refer-
red to as the reference beam, the unknown beam is referred to as the object beam
and is derived from the same microwave source. The resulting interference pattern
is then recorded using a suitable recording medium. When a real microwave refer-
ence beam is employed to create interference in the microwave domain, recording
media exhibiting temperature-sensitive characteristics such as cholesteric liquid
crystals and carbon-impregnated paraffin have been found to be satisfactory. For
this type of approach, the construction process is completed by generating an
optical transparency of the microwave hologram, where the optical transparency
is in actuality an optical hologram. The necessity of effecting a hologram
translation from the microwave to the optical domain can be obviated by using an
alternative approach. In this case, an electronically simulated microwave refer-
ence beam is allowed to interfere with an electronically transformed object beam
derived from a probe being used to scan the microwave field of interest. The
resultant signal created by the interference, now occurring in the electronic
domain, is used to modulate the intensity of a point light source moving across a
photographic plate in synchronization with the probe. The end result is the pro-
duction of a single optically scanned hologram containing extraneous information
in the form of a recorded, raster-scanned, line pattern. In the reconstruction
process, coherent light from a laser is used to illuminate the optical hologram
to yield an image of the object. Because the wavelength of the laser light is
of the order of 10"
5
times smaller than that of the microwave radiation, the
reconstructed image is reduced by the same ratio and necessitates the use of an
auxiliary optical system for viewing purposes. The reduction in image size also
substantially diminishes the three-dimensional aspects normally associated with
reconstructed holographic images. The techniques of holographic interftrometry
14
may also be effectively employed for microwave visualization applications. In
conclusion, holography essentially differs from the previously described methods
in that the former methods utilize only amplitude information while holography
utilizes both amplitude and phase information. Thus a microwave field is more
completely portrayed with the holographic method. The methods of microwave
visualization are still very mich in their infancy with respect to nondestructive
testing applications and it is likely that considerable development along these
lines will be made in the immediate future.
An example of a microwave holographic system is shown in Figure 78 and will
be discussed in detail to further familiarize the reader with the holographic
method. In this particular technique,
672
a layer of carbon-impregnated paraffin
coated with a thin aluminum reflecting surface initially serves as the object in
the initial step involving the generation of a double-exposure optical hologram
(a holographic interferogram). An optical hologram is generated in the conven-
tional manner by recording the interference pattern produced by the interaction
of the reference beam with an object beam which is reflected from the undistorted
wax plate. The laser is then turned off and the microwave generator is turned on.
The output microwave beam is divided into two mutually coherent beams by the
directional coupler — a microwave reference beam which is used to directly illu-
minate the wax plate (the microwave holographic recording medium), and a micro-
wave object beam which is used to directly illuminate the test object and to
indirectly illuminate the wax plate to produce interference in the microwave
domain. The microwave interference pattern is recorded through the distortions
occurring at the wax surface resulting from the thermal expansion profile being
produced b
v
the differential absorption of microwave energy. The microwave is
then turne< *.r after a suitable exposure interval and the laser is turned on
after the *.« plate has cooled. A second exposure is then made of the distorted
wax surface (the microwave hologram) and recorded on the original partially ex-
posed optical hologram. In the optical reconstruction process, an image of the
object is obtained accompanied by interference fringes resulting from the fact
that each of the recorded holograms produces its own individual image and that
the light waves associated with each of these images mutually interfere with
one another.
The ways in which some of the specific geometric methods of Figure 69 have
been used in combination with some of the signal data displays of Figure 77 are
illustrated without any further comment in Figures 79 to 8 3.
A novel noncontacting method of measuring the depth of thin slots and cracks
in both ferrous and nonferrous metals using microwaves is currently being devel-
oped
68 9
'
690
'
698
and will now be described, as there are many situations for which
conventional nondestructive methods of measuring crack depth are insufficient.
The technique utilizes the principle of eigenmode degeneration caused by surface
discontinuities. Microwave power in the higher modes, such as the TEQI cylindri-
cal or TMQI cylindrical, is generated in a circular waveguide and directed
against a target surface which lies within the Fresnel zone of the coupling
aperture. A slot or crack on the surface causes the power in the higher order
mode to degenerate to the fundamental TEJ J cylindrical mode which is then meas-
ured when the signal is passed through an appropriate filter to a meter or re-
corder. The system is depicted in Figures 8 4 and 8 5. The experimental data
taken by irradiating aluminum and steel specimens containing mechanical calibrated
15
slots with either TE
0
i or TM
01
cylindrical modes are shown in Figures 8 6 and 8 7.
In both cases, the signal amplitude was referenced to the signal strength pro-
duced by the deepest slot irradiated with the TE
01
mode. The uncertainty band
in these figures arises from the lack of a good calibration procedure.
Microwave nondestructive testing techniques have been successfully used as
a noncontacting tool for the detection of flaws such as inclusions, voids, and
delaminations within nonmetallic structures; the measurement of contour, eccen-
tricity, motion, and displacement involving either metallic or nonmetallic
parts; the measurement of the thickness of coatings of one nonmetallic material
over another or of a nonmetallic coating on a metal; the measurement of thickness
of materials and structures bounded by parallel surfaces; the measurement of
the degree of cure of plastic materials; the determination of moisture content
of materials; the determination of the orientation of both metallic and nonme-
tallic fibers in fiber-reinforced nonmetallic materials; and the direct meas-
urement of the dielectric constant and loss tangent, just to mention a few
applications.
673
"
737
In spite of these impressive capabilities, microwave non-
destructive testing is still handicapped by the following inadequacies; analysis
of data can be difficult if more than one influencing variable is present; pre-
cise positioning of components is necessary to minimize interference effects;
high frequencies which yield greater resolution are also more severely influenced
by minor variations in materials properties; no standardized procedures are
available for testing purposes; and finally, the method is still being explored
and developed. Complete microwave nondestructive testing systems are currently
commercially available from three manufacturers while the necessary components
required to custom build a system are available from a multitude of sources.
The overall price of a laboratory test system varies in direct accordance with
the sophistication, capabilities, and accessories required and spans the price
range of $2,000 to $25,000.
SAFETY
This technical monograph will now be concluded with a few remarks on the
subject of safety. Generally speaking, whenever new technologies are introduced
into recognized fields of endeavor, questions inevitably avise concerning the
existence or nonexistence of safety hazards. The specific parallel in the case
of this monograph is the introduction and reduction-to-practice of the relatively
new technologies of holography and microwaves in the established field of non-
destructive testing. For the most part, the hazards associated with the partic-
ular form of radiation are those which are of utmost concern. Once a safety
hazard is recognized, adequate protective measures are taken to prevent unneces-
sary exposure of personnel to injurious levels of radiative intensity. In order
to control the intensity of radiation, it is first necessary to place controls
on the source of radiation. Once this is done, maximum permissible levels of
exposure have to be determined. Other corrective actions involve the medical
surveillance of personnel; the use of protective devices; the registration,
supervision, and control of the radiation source; and finally, the reporting
of accidents.
For optical holography, the effects of laser radiation are essentially the
same as light generated by more conventional ultraviolet, infrared, and visible
16
„f
■ vv-'j-w-üv:."-?-*"^.
1
*'' ?
light sources. The unique biological implications attributed to laser radiation
are generally those resulting from the highly intense and characteristic mono-
chromatic nature of laser light. Several of the existing regulative documents
pertaining to holographic safety
538 _5
'*
1,7
'
t0
are extremely interesting and should
be read by anyone who becomes involved in holography. As for acoustical holo-
graphy and microwaves, the output levels of the radiation sources, as used in
nondestructive testing applications, are sufficiently low, and consequently do
not pose any radiation hazards' to personnel. In contrast, for microwave applica-
tions involving radar and communications systems, the power output capabilities
of microwave generators are substantial and effective precautions are necessary.
AS for microwave safety, the reader is referred to the two representative publi-
cations included in the Reference/Bibliography Section of this monograph for
additional reading.
738
"
739
REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY
Attempts have been made, wherever possible, to facilitate the acquisition
of reports and certain literature publications through the inclusion of accession
numbers. On the /hole, the accession number will be prefixed by either of three
designations —AD, N, or A. Documents possessing accession numbers prefixed by
AD or N are available at a nominal cost from the National Technical Information
Service (NTIP), Springfield, Virginia 22151, while those with the A prefix are
available from the Technical Information Service, American Institute of Aeronau-
tics and Astronautics, Inc., 750 Third Avenue, New York, New York 10017. Cer-
tain other documents may also be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents,
U. S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, D. C. 204 02.
17
P h o t o g r a p h i c E m ul s i o n s
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A . C o n s t r uc t i o n
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29
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N o n p s e ud o s c o p i c R e a l I m a g e o f a Gi v e n O bje c t 1 31 7-31 9)
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32
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m o d e l h o l o g r a p h i c i n t e r f e r o m e t e r a p o we r f ul n e w t o o l f o r r e s e a r c h e r s , d e s i g n e r s , a n d qua l i t y -a s s ur a n c e e n g i n e e r s i n m a n y f i e l d s .
A m o n g i t s e s t a bl i s h e d c a p a bi l i t i e s a r e n o n d e s t r uc t i v e d e t e c t i o n o f s ubs ur f a c e d i s c o n t i n ui t i e s i n m a n y ki n d s o f m a t e r i a l s , v i br a t i o n
a n a l y s i s , c o n t o ur m a p p i n g , a n d d i s p l a c e m e n t m e a s ur e m e n t s .
F i g ur e 2 6, C o m m e r c i a l La bo r a t o r y -M o d e l H o l o g r a p h i c I n t e r f e r o m e t e r
1 9-066-1 98 / A M C -71
33
F i g ur e 2 9. H o l o g r a p h i c A n a l y s i s E qui p m e n t
19-066-375/AMC-71
F i g ur e 30. C o m m e r c i a l H o l o g r a p h i c
T r a n s d uc e r A n a l y ze r
19-066-186/AMC-71
A powerful tool for desi gn and quali ty control of acousti c transducers, the GCO
seri es 2000 Holographi c T ransducer Analyzer can be used to: di splay head-flexure
modes, measure di splacement over enti re vi brati ng surface, i denti fy resonant
frequenci es; locate separati ons i n rubber-to-metal bonds, r e v e a l subsurface defects
i n rubber gaskets, etc.
34
- *- ^M
i
S ubsurface defects i n honeycomb-sandwi ch structures are located wi th accuracy, reli abi li ty, and
speed on thi s holographi c analyzer. T hi s model can test a contoured or flat panel up to 25 square
feet i n projected surface area i n 40 mi nutes or less. A choi ce of thermal, vi brati on, pressure, or
vacuum stressi ng may be appli ed. B oth the real-ti me vi ew and the correspondi ng permanent record
are i nterpreted di rectly, wi th the si ze, shape, and locati on of the defect clearly superi mposed i n
the natural posi ti on on the i mage of the test panel.
Fi gure 31. Commerci al Holographi c Honeycomb Panel Analyzer
19-066-189/AMC-71
35
*mä
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T h e GC O M o d e l P T -1 2 H o l o g r a p h i c T i r e A n a l y ze r , s h o wn a bo v e , e m p l o y s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t i m e -l a p s e , d o ubl e -e xp o s ur e ,
h o l o g r a p h i c i n t e r f e r o m e t r y . T h e a n a l y ze r i s c a p a bl e o f i n s p e c t i n g t i r e s r a n g i n g i n s i ze f r o m a m i n i m um o f 1 2 i n c h e s r i m
d i a m e t e r t o a m a xi m um o f 45 i n c h e s o ut s i d e d i a m e t e r a t a r a t e o f be t t e r t h a n 1 2 t i r e s p e r h o ur wh e n a uxi l i a r y s e m i -
a ut o m a t i c o p t i o n s a r e e m p l o y e d . T h e i n s p e c t i o n p r o c e d ur e c o n s i s t s o f p r o d uc i n g a d o ubl e -e xp o s ur e h o l o g r a m o f
e a c h qua d r a n t o f t h e i n n e r wa l l s o f t h e t i r e un d e r g o i n g e xa m i n a t i o n . T h e f i r s t e xp o s ur e i s m a d e o f t h e t i r e i n i t s
i n i t i a l s t a t e o f s t r e s s - t h e t i r e h a v i n g be e n m e c h a n i c a l l y p r e -s p r e a d a t t h e be a d s - a n d t h e s e c o n d e xp o s ur e i s m a d e
f o l l o wi n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a s l i g h t v a c uum . D e f e c t a n o m a l i e s a r e m a n i f e s t e d by m i n ut e c h a n g e s i n t h e i n n e r -wa l l
t o p o g r a p h y o c c ur r i n g a s a r e s ul t o f t h e p r e s s ur e d i f f e r e n t i a l e xi s t i n g be t we e n t h e un v e n t e d t i r e d e f e c t s a n d t h e
e v a c ua t e d t i r e t e s t i n g c h a m be r .
F i g ur e 32 . C o m m e r c i a l H o l o g r a p h i c T i r e A n a l y ze r
36
mt mm
T he GCO Model 4158 Holographi c T i r e A n a l y ze r can analyze pneumati c ti res of up to 33 i nches i n
di ameter and up to 12 i nches wi de. T he analyzer consi sts of a pneumati c, servo controlled,
vi brati on i solati on system ana surface p l a t e ; a ti re holdi ng and stressi ng fi xture; and a holographi c
i nterferometer i ncludi ng a heli um-neon laser. T hi s model can conveni ently and completely analyze
three or four ti res an hour for all subsurface separati ons and constructi on features. T he ti re holder
i ndexes to four equal posi ti ons, and each hologram analyzes the tread and both si dewalls of the
ti re si multaneously.
F i g ur e 33. C o m m e r c i a l H o l o g r a p h i c T i r e A n a l y ze r
5 7
«kr f .
Fi gure 34. HND T -Passenger Car T i re
1 9-065 -1 93/ A M C -71
B oth si dewalls and the treads are si multaneously analyzed for all hi dden separati ons and
structural features by the GCO Model 4158 Holographi c ND T ti re analyzer. T hi s holo-
graphi c i nterferogram of an 8.25 x 14, four-ply ti re dramati cally reveals a shoulder
separati on between the li ner and the fi rst ply plus a separati on between the fi rst and
second pli es i n the tread regi on. T hese flaws were brought out by natural creep, after
i nflati on to 50 psi , and double-exposure holographi c (three-di mensi onal) i nterferometry.
Fi gure 35. H N D T -A i r c r a f t T i re
19-066-197/AMC-V1
Vacuum/memory stressi ng and double-exposure holographi c i nterferometry were used
for nondestructi ve testi ng of thi s ?5 x 6.75/18-PR ai rcraft ti re. S eparati ons were
(clockwi se from top) at fi rst-wi re turnup (1/2-i nch deep), si dewall (0 15-i nch deep),
and second-wi re tumvp (0.4- to 0.5-i nch deep).
58
Mi
D ouble exposure holographi c i nterferometry and mi ld thermal stressi ng clearly and reli ably
revealed unbonds between a steel cyli nder and di ffusi on-bonded alumi num claddi ng.
Fi gure 36. HND T -S teel Cyli nder wi th D i ffusi on-B onded Claddi ng
59
I
A l l f o ur p r o g r a m m e d f l a ws (e a c h 2 i n c h e s s qua r e ) i n t h i s h o n e y c o m b-s a n d wi c h p a n e l we r e s h a r p l y o ut l i n e d by v a c uum s t r e s s i n g a n d
d o ubl e -e xp o s ur e h o l o g r a p h y wi t h a p r e s s ur e r e d uc t i o n be t we e n e xp o s ur e s . T h e qua r t e r -i n c h a l um i n um h o n e y c o m b wa s bo n d e d
be t we e n bo r o n -e p o xy s ki n s (wi t h 0. 04-i n c h -t h i c k t i t a n i um d o ubt e r be t we e n t h e c o r e a n d t h e f a r s ki n ). T h e s e c o n d d e f e c t f r o m t h e
r i g h t wa s c a us e d by c r us h e d c o r e . T h e o t h e r s we r e m i s s i n g a d h e s i v e (f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t ): be t we e n f a r s ki n a n d d o ubl e r , be t we e n
d o ubl e r a n d c o r e , a n d be t we e n c o r e a n d n e a r (1 0-o l y ) s ki n .
F i g ur e 37. H N D T -H o n e y c o m b-S a n d wi c h P a n e l
1 9-066-1 9?/ A M C -71
Qe bo n d s a s s m a l l a s 1 / 4-i n c h i n d i a m e t e r we r e r e a d i l y d e t e c t e d by d o ubl e e xp o s ur e h o '' y a p h y o f a r ubbe r -t o -a l um i n um l a m i n a t e . A
un i f o r m v a c uum wa s a p p l i e d t o t h e t e s t p a n e l , a n d t h e r ubbe r c o n t i n ue d t o "c r e e p " i t wa s r e t ur n e d t o a t m o s p h e n c p r e s s ur e . T h e
r e s ul t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l m o v e m e n t i n e a c h d e bo n d r e g i o n wa s c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d i n t h e h o l o g r a m a s a s e r i e s o f c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s .
F i g ur e 38 . H N D T -R ubbe r -t o A l um i n um La m i n a t e
1 9-066-1 96/ A M C -71
40
I n a t i t a n i um h o n e y c o m b-s a n d wi c h p a n e l , t h r e e d e bo n d s we r e d e t e c t e d by *m a l s t r e s s i n g a n d
r e a l -t i m e h o l o g r a p h i c i n t e r f e r o m e t r y .
F i g ur e 39. H N D T -T i t a n i um H o n e y c o m b-S a n d wi c h P a n e l
1 9-066-1 8 7/ A M C -71
41
- • - — -*
A f i g ur e -e i g h t f r i n g e a n o m a l y a r o un d t wo c e l l s be l o w t h e c e n t e r o f t h i s p h o t o g r a p h r e v e a l s a
s i n g l e -c e l l -wa l l d i s bo n d be t we e n t h e s e c e l l s i n a d i f f us i o n -bo n d e d , t i t a n i um , h o n e y c o m b-s a n d wi c h
s t r uc t ur e . T h i s v i v i d d e l i n e a t i o n o f i n d i v i d ua l h o n e y c o m b-c o r e c e l l s a n d t h e l o n e f l a w wa s p r o -
d uc e d by r e a l -t i m e h o l o g r a p h i c i n t e r f e r o m e t r y a n d i n t e r n a l -p r e s s ur e s t r e s s i n g o f t h e p a n e l (wh o s e
c e l l s i n t e r c o n n e c t ). T h e c o m p l e t e l y n o n d e s t r uc t i v e t e s t r e qui r e d o n l y a f e w m i n ut e s o n a GC O
M o d e l 3378 H o l o g r a p h i c S a n d wi c h -S t r uc t ur e A n a l y ze r .
F i g ur e 40. H N D T -D i f f us i o n -Bo n d e d T i t a n i um H o n e y c o m b-S a n d wi c h S t r uc t ur e
1 9-066-1 91 / A M C -71
42
An alumi num honeycomb sandwi ch panel, wi th two debonds between ski n and core, was non
destructi vely analyzed by holographi c methods: vacuum stressi ng (300 mm of mercury) i n real
ti me (lei tj and acousti c vi brati on stressi ng (31.5 kHz) and ti me-average holography (ri ght).
Fi gure 41. HND T -Alumi num Honeycomb-S andwi ch Panel
19066195/AMC-71
43
^ - —
An alumi num honeycomb-sandwi ch structure wi th a T -extrusi on was mi ldly stressed by heat. T hi s
realti me holographi c i nterferogram reveals two debonds under the T secti on, one between the
T secti on and the ski n, and the other between the ski n and honeycomb core. Flaws such as these
ran be located even when there are no ai r gaps between the debonded pjrts.
Fi gure 42. HND T -Alumi num Honeycomb S tructure wi th a T -E xtrusi on
19-066-188/AMC-71
44
. _ -. _~ - ■ M M A a t t M r i t f B*
1mk
F i g ur e 43. H N D T -R ubbe r -t o -M e t a l La m i n a t e : H o l o g r a p h i c I n t e r f e r o m e t r i c R e s ul t s o f a 0. 065 -I n c h R ubbe r -t o -M e t a l
La m i n a t e wi t h P r o g r a m m e d V o i d s U s i n g a H e a t S t r e s s i n g M e t h o d .
1 9-066-376/ A M C -71
r
-
V .
■ 4 L ' i
1. » ' .
p ' mS&k--
• S[ *>*v "
pa, *:.,; - , v '" '',
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w
't
1
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' * V
1
|| Voids
WbÜS^^^B-,
k3 E3
1
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l «i
F i g ur e 44. H N D T -A l um i n um H o n e y c o m b P a n e l : F r i n g e P e r t ur ba t i o n
D ue t o a 1 -1 / 2 I n c h S qua r e D e bo n d i n a H o n e y c o m b P a n e l .
1 9-066-373/ A M C -71
45
m I
F i g ur e 45 . H N D T -A l um i n um H o n e y c o m b P a n e l : H o l o g r a p h i c I n t e r f e r o m e t r i c R e s ul t s O bt a i n e d U s i n g T wo D i f f e r e n t
O bje c t -Lo a d i n g M e t h o d s : (A ) V i br a t i o n T e c h n i que (B) V a c uum T e c h n i que
19-066-465/AMC-71
F i g ur e 46. H N D T -A l um i n um H o n e y c o m b P a n e l : H o l o g r a p h i c I n t e r f e r o m e t r i c R e s ul t s D e p i c t i n g A r e a s o f D i s bo n d U s i n g
V a c uum -Lo a d i n g T e c h n i que : (A ) 1 . 5 -I n c h D e f e c t (B) 2 -I n c h D e f e c t . A H i g h e r V a c uum a n d O p t i c a l M a g n i f i c a t i o n wa s
U s e d t o P r o d uc e I n t e r f e r o g r a m (A ).
19-066-466/AMC-71
46
F i g ur e 47. H N D T -D e t e c t i o n o f R a d i a l M i c r o c r a c ks i n H i g h -S t r e n g t h A i r c r a f t S t r uc t ur a l S t e e l
1 9-066-378 / A M C -71
F i g ur e 48 . H N D T -C r a c k D e t e c t i o n i n a 1 75 M M P r o je c t i l e : I n t e r f e r o m e t r i c H o l o g r a m R e c o n s t r uc t i o n o f a 1 75 M M
P r o je c t i l e wi t h a C r a c k N e a r F us e P l ug .
1 9-066-377/ A M C -71
47
-- -*-«k*i MM *m
F i g ur e 49. H N D T -V i br a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s o f a M e t a l P l a t e V i br a t i n g a t 1 . 775 KH Z
1 9-066-374/ A M C -71
48
t M i M M Ü
0° 60
c
1 2 0° 1 8 0°
E xa m p l e s o f t h e us e o f h o l o g r a p h i c i n t e r f e r o m e t r y f o r v i br a t i o n a n a l y s i s : t h e up p e r row o f photos
o f t i m e -a v e r a g e h o l o g r a m s o f a v i br a t i n g p l a t e (1 , 2 m o d e ) s h o w t h e e f f e c t o f varyi ng t h e phase of
r e f e r e n c e -wa v e p h a s e s h i f t . T h e l o we r p i c t ur e s o f t i m e -a v e r a g e holograms o f a vi brati ng cyli nder
s h o w m o d a l p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e h i g h l y s y m m e t r i c a l (l e f t ) and unsymmetri cal (ri ght).
Fi gure 50. HND T -Vi brati onal Analysi s of a Metal Plate and Cyli nder
1 9-066-1 LÖ/ A M C -71
49
. ——»—»——-
H T T T T
I M t f c jU kl I n
(a)
(c )
NDT of aluminum core, aluminum facesheets honeycomb panel. Flaws were
introduced by removing the core from the front facesheets with a drill
from the rear of the panel. A propagating transverse wave was caused
to propagate by impacting the panel from the rear with a spherical pendulum.
(a) Top view of panel showing the core
(b) Front view of the honeycomb panel
(c) Holographic interferogram showing the defects in the panel,
5 0
F i g ur e 5 1 . H N D T -A l um i n um H o n e y c o m b P a n e l : P ul s e d H o l o g r a p h i c N o n d e s t r uc t i v e T e s t i n g
1 9-066-1 2 5 6/ A M C -71
ü —i «—^»~i -
MMHWi
.
a . H o l l o w T ur bi n e Bl a d e b. I n t e r f e r o g r a m o f a n A c c e p t -
a bl e Wa l l T h i c kn e s s T ur bi n e
Bl a d e . P e a k D e f l e c t i o n 1 95
f i n c h e s .
c . I n t e r f e r o g r a m o f a n E xc e s -
s i v e l y T h i c k Wa l l T ur bi n e Bl a d e .
P e a k D e f l e c t i o n 1 75 f i n c h e s .
Nondestructiv e testing of hol l ow turbine bl ade using the technique of doubl e exposure
hol ographic interferometry. A change of 2 psi internal pressurization was'introduced
between exposures.
F i g ur e 5 2 . H N D T -H o l l o w T ur bi n e Bl a d e S e p e r a t i o n
1 9-066-1 2 5 7/ A M C -71
51
- -" m^±
(5 42 -5 8 8 ) „R E A L
T I M E
. R A S T E R
S C A N N I N G
LI QU I D «
5 8
*
5 98
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. S U R F A C E
D E F O R M A T I O N
R E A L
. R E F E R E N C E
BE A M
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E LE C T R O N I C (S S S P JL O F P I E ZO E LE C T R I C
R E C E I V E R
F I XE D S O U R C E
S C A N N I N G
R E C E I V E R
1 604-61 8 )
M E C H A N I C A L
S C A N N I N G S O U R C E
F I XE D R E C E I V E R
S I M U LT A N E O U S
S O U R C E -
R E C E I V E R
S C A N N I N G
S YN T H E T I C
A P E R T U R E
R E A L
R E F E R E N C E
BE A M
S I M U LA T E D
R E F E R E N C E
BE A M
S I M U LA T E D
R E F E R E N C E
BE A M
F i g ur e 5 3. S p e c i f i c Ge o m e t r i c M e t h o d s f o r A c o us t i c a l H o l o g r a m Ge n e r a t i o n
1 . I d e a l Ge o m e t r y : -£"J»i ! S L&
A A
2 . d <
3. h
2 s i n (
t c
2 «
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2
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e
(7 * S ur f a c e T e n s i o n )
4. h - -£L
0
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5 . S i n 60 ^j»"
9
A c o s f f
6. D i f f r a c t e d Li g h t A m p l i t ud e :
X C O S Ö
7. O p e r a t i n g C r i t e r i a :
UUHz) sin 0*0.233
R e c o n s t r uc t i o n Be a m
R e f e r e n c e Be a m O bje c t Be a m
<~1 )
A c o us t i c a l P a r a m e t e r s
/ Wa v e l e n g t h A \
/ V e l o c i t y C j
I I n t e n s i t y I I
\F r e que n c y \J
F i g ur e 5 4. Li qui d S ur f a c e A c o us t i c a l H o l o g r a p h y . S i m p l i f i e d S ur f a c e C o n d i t i o n s a n d E qua t i o n s
5 2
<^^f e
R E F E R E N C E
BE A M
A C O U S T I C
T R A N S D U C E R
S O U R C E
V I E WI N G
O P T I C S
S P A T I A L
F I LT E R
M A I N T A N K
O BJE C T
A C O U S T I C
T R A N S D U C E R
Fi gure 55. Acousti cal Holography B asi c Li qui d S urface S ystem
53
- ■ ■ ■ - *— —- ——<M
I M A GE O F LI QU I D S U R F A C E
F i g ur e 5 6. M e t h o d o f R e c o r d i n g a Li qui d S ur f a c e H o l o g r a m
19-066-520/AMC-71
LAMP
S P A T I A L F I LT E R
«mxjj
O BJE C T
0>
O BJE C T I V E E YE P I E C E
LE N S E S T . V. M O N I T O R
S I GNAL
GE N E R A T O R
54
Fi c,ure 57. Acousti cal R eal-T i me Holography U si ng a Li qui d S urface
19-0bS -519/AMC-71
— - — t m ^^H H M A f l H M
B C o s ut
BA (x. y ) C o s d M x. y l
O s c i l l a t o r [ I (
B Cos wt
1 0 M H z
3
R . F . P o we r
A m p l i f i e r
I l l um i n a t i n g
S o ur c e
T r a n s d uc e r
E A (x. y ) C o s
(a »t + 0(x. y )
R . F .
A m p l i f i e r
'O bje c t s
0. C . S i g n a l P r o c e s s e '
"l o w P a s s F i l f e '"
1
Ga i n
C l i p p i n g
A v g . Le v e l
-•Modul ating
Signal
Jo C. R.T./
or Bul b
i
S c a n n i n g
M e c h a n i s m
M o t o r
C o n t r o l
P r o je c t i o n o f
H o l o g r a m A p e r t ur e H o l o g r a m A p e r t ur e
(D e f i n e d by A r e a S c a n n e d )
F i g ur e 5 8 . A c o us t i c a l H o l o g r a m C o n s t r uc t i o n by M e a n s o f M e c h a n i c a l R a s t e r -S c a n n i n g T e c h n i que
P H A S E D E T E C T I O N
A M P LI F I E R
O . C . LE V E L S E T
LI GH T ''O D U LA T O R
R E F E R E N C E
S I GN A L
O BJE C T
R . F .
S O U R C E
P H A S E D E T E C T I O N
A M P LI F I E R
O . C . LE V E L S E T
LI GH T M O D U LA T O R
¥—
R E F E R E N C E
S I GN A L
—+**
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(S I GN A L)
OBJECT
R . F .
S O U R C E
P O I N T
T R A N S D U C E R
I S O U R C E I
F I XE D S O U R C E -S C A N N I N G R E C E I V E R S C A N N I N G S O U R C E -F I XE D R E C E I V E R
F i g ur e 5 9. A c o us t i c a l H o l o g r a p h y : R e c i p r o c a l R e c e i v e r o r S o ur c e S c a n n i n g
5 5
I
ttt n i g
S I GN A L
P R O C E S S E R
R . F .
S O U R C E
O BJE C T
T WO P O I N T
• T R A N S D U C E R S
(S O U R C E A N D
RECEIV ER)
S I GN A L
P R O C E S S E R
P LA N E
T R A N S D U C E R
5 0U R C E I
P O I N T
T R A N S D U C E S
(R E C E I V E R )
O BJE C T
R . F .
S O U R C E
C o i n c i d e n t S o ur c e a n d R e c e i v e r P l a n e S o ur c e P o i n t R e c e i v e r
F i g ur e 60. A c o us t i c a l H o l o g r a p h y : S i m ul t a n e o us S o ur c e -R e c e i v e r S c a n n i n g
r -.
i
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i ;
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F i g ur e 61 . E xa m p l e s o f S c a n n e d A c o us t i c a l H o l o g r a m s
.
56
#*
- i
Normal (R ecei ver S canni ng)
Aperture: 4.2 x 5.3 cm @ 32 1/cm
Frequency: 10 MHz
S i multaneous S canni ng (Coi nci des!
S ource and R ecei ver)
F i g ur e 62 . C o m p a r i s o n o f N o r m a l a n d S i m ul t a n e o us S c a n n e d H o l o g r a m s
(T R ANS D U CE R S FI XE D , O BJE C T S C A N N E D )
Hologram R e c o n s t r uc t i o n I m a g e "O f f A xi s "
Aperature: 4.2 x 5.3 cm @ 32 1/cm
Frequency. 10MHz
Object: 1.6 x 2.4 cm, 13 cm from
Hologram and "On Axi s"
of Aperture
F i g ur e 63. P l a n e S o ur c e -P o i n t R e c e i v e r S i m ul t a n e o us S c a n n e d H o l o g r a m a n d R e c o n s t r uc t i o n
5 7
M —
«M M «
R e a l I m a g e
S p a c e
Mi croscope
Objecti ve
Hologram
r""f -^ I Zero Order
* \ Focus
He-Ne
Laser
0
6328 A
"Vi rtual" I mage
S pace
F i g ur e 64. A c o us t i c a l H o l o g r a m R e c o n s t r uc t i o n Ge o m e t r y
F i g ur e 65 . A c o us t i c a l H N D T -Br a s s We d g e wi t h D r i l l e d H o l e s
I n p h o t o a t t o p , i n t e r i o r c ' qua r t e r -i n c h t h i c k br a s s we d g e
i s s h o wn a s i t a p p e a r s o n t h e v i e wi n g s c r e e n o f l i qui d s ur -
f a c e n o n d e s t r uc t i v e i n s p e c t i o n s y s t e m us i n g ul t r a s o n i c
h o l o g r a p h y . T h e d a r k s t r i p e s r e v e a l a p a i r o f t e n t h -i n c h
h o l e s d r i l l e d i n t o o n e e d g e o f t h e br a s s , wi t h o n e o f t h e m
i n t e r s e c t e d by a s i n g l e h o l e d r i l l e d i n t o t h e o p p o s i t e e d g e .
N o t e o p e r a t o r 's f i n g e r s h o l d i n g s a m p l e i n o bje c t t a n k.
T h e bo t t o m p i c t ur e s h o ws t h e p l a t e i n n o r m a l l i g h t .
: 8
M A JO R F LA WS
F i g ur e 66. A c o us t i c a l H N D T I m a g e o f F l a ws i n 1 / 2 -I n c h S t a i n l e s s S t e e l But t We l d .
1 9-066-5 1 9/ A M C -71
59
T YP I C A L N O N -D E S T R U C T I V E T E S T S
E xa m p l e s o f the n o n -d e s t r uc t i v e t e s t i n g c a p a bi l i t i e s o f t h e
U ltrasoni c I mager. T h e un i t i s e qua l l y e f f e c t i v e wi t h c e r a m i c s »
nonbonds and composi tes.
I NT E R NAL VOI D S I N PLAS T I CS
Photo shows hi gh strength, hi gh
temperature plasti c block.
B lock i s 0.400" thi ck.
REA L-TIME IMA G E
HONEY COMB STRU CTU RE
Imaged at 5 MHz.
Boron Epoxy . „ 0.030'
A l uminum Honeycomb 0.50"
Fibergl ass 0.040'
R E A L-T I M E I M A GE
P LA S T I C BLO C K
S m a l l e s t h o l e 1 s 0. 01 45 " i n
d i a m e t e r , y e t I s c l e a r l y
vi si ble.
I maged at 5MHz.
60
F i g ur e 67. O t h e r E xa m p l e s o f A c o us t i c a l H N D T
— • «aMMma
Mem) t(GHz) Subband Subband f(GHz) X (cm) Subband
1 33. 3 0. 2 2 5
76. 9 0. 394
76. 9 0. 390
64. 5 0. 465
5 8 . 8 0. 5 1 0
41 . 4 0. 72 5
38 . 4 0 78 0
33. 3 0. 900
31 . 6 0. 95 0
2 6. 1 1 . 1 5 0
2 2 . 2 1 . 35 0
2 0. 7 1 . 45 0
1 9. 3 1 . 5 5 0
1 9. 3 1 . 5 5
1 8 . 3 1 . 65
1 6. 2 1 . 8 5
1 5 . 0 2 . 00
1 2 . 5 2 . 40
1 1 . 5 2 . 60
1 1 . 1 2 . 70
1 0. 3 2 . 90
9. 67 3. 1 0
8 . 32 3 40
8 . 1 0 370
7. 69 3. 90
7. 1 4 4 2 0
5 . 77 5 2 0
((GHz) A(cm)
Fi gure 68. Mi crowave Frequency B ands' '
(641-665)
S P E C I F I C GE O M E T R I C
M E T H O D S F O R
M I C R O WA V E N D T
T R A N S M I S S I O N
R E F LE C T I O N
<
D I R E C T I O N A L
C O U P LE R
M A GI C T E E
S C A T T E R I N G
^C LA S S I C A L
-I N T E R F E R O M E T R Y-/
•36.0 0.834
38.0 0.790
-40.0
-42.0
0.750
0.715
44.0 0.682
46.0 0.652
-46.0
-48.0
- 50.0
- 62.0
-54.0
- 56.0
0.652
0.625
0.600
0.577
C.556
0.536
56.0
1 00. 0
- 0.536
- 0.300
S I N GLE H O R N
D U A L H O R N
■ H O LO GR A P H I C
Fi gure 69. S peci fi c Geometri c Methods for Mi crowave Nondestructi ve T esti ng
61
*a
o . c
M E T E R
M I LLI V A C -
1 7 B
P O WE R
S U P P LY
H . P 71 5 A
TU NED
D E T E C T O R
[ HP X456-B
KLYS T R O N
V A -631 2
I S O LA T O R
U N I LI N E
L8 8 -96
—I A T T E N U A T O R
H . P . X38 2 -A
2 0 D B
C O U P LE R
H . P . 1 070
-<
S A M P LE
D C
M E T E R
M I LLI V A C -
1 7 B
r
T U N E D
O E T E C T O R
KP - X48 5 -B
Fi gure 70. Bl o c k D i a g r a m o f Mi crowave T ransmi ssi on Method
D . C . M E T E R
O R
R E C O R D E R
DETECTOR
O I R E C T I O N A L
C O U P LE R
T R A N S M I T T E R
I S O LA T O R
V i_
, '~"*x
■ ^1 S A M P LE J
^ '
N O T E : BY R E P LA C I N G T H E T R A N S M I T T E R BY A S WE E P O S C I LLA T O R . S WE E P T E C H N I QU E
C A N BE U S E D
Fi gure 71. Mi crowave D i recti onal Coupler R eflecti on T echni que
62
/
- - J^M M l i ^ ^
i-— mgmm
^
T R A N S M I T T E D R E F LE C T E D
o . e .
M E T E R
M V I 7B
D C .
M E T E R
M V 1 78
P O WE R
S U P P LY
H P . 7I 5 A
T U N E D
D E T E C T O R
H P . X48 M
T U N E D
D E T E C T O R
H.P. X45 6-6
S A M P LE
Y
KLYS T R O N
V A -631 2
I S O LA T O R
U N I LI N E
A T T E N U A T O R
P O LYT E C H N I C
«92 6
2 008 D U A L
D I R E C T I O N A L C O U P LE R
N A R D -1 030
1
L8 8 -96
F i g ur e 72 . Bl o c k D i a g r a m o f M i c r o wa v e R e f l e c t i o n M e t h o d
F . M . T E S T S E T
BE N D I X R A D I O « 5
A T T E N U A T O R
P O LYT E C N I C
# 191
S LI D I N G
S H O R T
2 3 V I
S P E R R Y M I C R O LI N E
A T T E N U A T O R
P O LYT E C H N I C t t 1 91
T U N E D
D E T E C T O R
M I C R O LI N E
#359
U G 1 078 / U
C C A G
D C .
M E T E R
M I LLI V A C -I 7B
F i g ur e 73. Bl o c k D i a g r a m f o r M i c r o wa v e "M a g i c T e e " R e f l e c t i o n M e t h o d
63
T R A N S M I T T E R I S O LA T O R
A T T E N U A T O R
P H A S E
S H I F T E R
H
D E T E C T O R
OSCILLOSCOPE
(U S E D F O R
S WE E P
T E C H N I QU E S )
I
A T T E N U A T O R —
F A C S I M I LE
M A C H I N E
U S E D F O R
GLA S S C YLI N D E R )
JL
j S
Ki
K
p
L
E
C H A R T R E C O R D E R
(U S E D F O R A LL
O T H E R C - W
T E C H N I QU E S )
Fi gure 74. M i c r o wa v e D ual Horn T echni que
P O WE R
S U P P LY
H . P . 71 5 A
KLYS T R O N
V A 631 2
I S O LA T O R
U N I LI N E L8 8 -96
A T T E N U A T O R
H . R X38 2 A
o . e .
M E T E R
M I LL I V A C
I 7B
T U N E D
D E T E C T O R
KP X4B5 -B
WA R D A #1 070
l O D B D I R E C T I O N A L
C O U P LE R
<
D . C . M E T E R
M >LU V A C -| 7B
T U N E D
D E T E C T O R
H P . X48 B-B
A
S A M P LE
64
Fi gure 75. B lock D i agram of Mi crowave S catteri ng Method
■ M M A M T ,
I HORN
D E T E C T O R
:±*—D U M M Y LO A D
WA V E GU I D E
E P O XY H O R N
S A M P LE
\ U.— HORN
• KLYS T R O N
F i g ur e 76. M i c r o wa v e S c a t t e r i n g A r r a n g e m e n t
(666672)
I M I C R O WA V E
S I GN A L
I D A T A
D I S P LA YS
F O R N D T
A P P LI C A T I O N S
-A M P LI T U D E
-P H A S E
-S P E C T R A L A N A LYS I S
-V I S U A LI ZA T I O N
S T R I P C H A R T
X - Y
• S P E C T R U M A N A LYZE R
F I E LD S C A N N I N G
C H O LE S T E R I C LI QU I D S
P H O T O GR A P H I C E M U LS I O N S
H O LO GR A P H Y
F i g ur e 77. M i c r o wa v e S i g n a l D a t a D i s p l a y s f o r N o n d e s t r uc t i v e T e s t i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s
65
•k_ ^MMa«MI
M i c r o wa v e O bi e c t Be a m
i P i n H o l e
|V ~M Beamspl itter
■ O P o l a r i ze r
M i c r o wa v e Ge n e r a t o r
F i g ur e 78 . M i c r o wa v e H o l o g r a m C o n s t r uc t i o n a n d R e c o n s t r uc t i o n P r o c e s s e s
66
F i g ur e 79. C a l i br a t i o n C ur v e f o r T r a n s m i t t e d M i c r o wa v e E n e r g y V e r s us T h i c kn e s s o f P l a s t i c C a r d s
- - - •- — '
mt mk
T h i c kn e s s M e a s ur e m e n t
AX F = 9. 62 6 x 1 09 C P S
60 65
F i g ur e 8 0. C a l i br a t i o n C ur v e f o r R e f l e c t e d M i c r o wa v e E n e r g y V e r s us T h i c kn e s s o f P l a s t i c C a r d s
S U J
1 00%-5 -o
E £
5 %
E p o n 8 1 5 wi t h C a t a l y s t "D "
2 5 5 0
T i m e (M i n )
D e g r e e o f C ur e
75 100
F i g ur e 8 1 . C ur v e o f T r a n s m i t t e d E n e r g y V e r s us D e g r e e o f C ur e
67
Mfe
T i me (S ec)
Fi gure 82. Mi crowave S can of Fi lament-Wound Plasti c S a m p l e wi t h Area o f U n bo n d
u
V
c
W
V
£
C f l
C
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u
H
1 1
, 1
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A
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-
V
L
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\
V
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Position of Sampl e
NOTE: Microwav e frequency was swept from 27.8 to 40 G Hz at a rate
of 100 sweeps/sec. The sampl e was scanned at the rate of
1 inch per 10 sec, so the v al ues on the graph are av erages
for the frequency range.
Fi gure 83. Mi crowave S can of U rethane Foam S ample Contai ni ng a 1/4-I nch Hole
68
M I C R O WA V E
E N E R GY
S O U R C E
F U N D A M E N T A L
M O D E
U P N O D E
C O N V E R T E R
H I 6H E R O R D E R
N O D E S A P E H T U R E
r— ^n
H I GH E R O R D E R
A N D
F U N D A M E N T A L
N O D E S
S I D E V I E W
O F C R A C K
O R F LA W
(A R E A A , • »! )
E N T R A N C E
V I E W O F
C R A C K
F i g ur e 8 4. S c h e m a t i c D i a g r a m o f A p e r t ur e a n d C r a c k Wi d t h N o m e n c l a t ur e
A P E R T U R E
T E S T
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V M O D E )
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D I O D E
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1 kH z
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F i g ur e 8 5 . M i c r o wa v e S l o t -D e p t h M e a s ur i n g S y s t e m
69
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o
S s
30
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2 0
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/ S P E C I M E N A P E R T U R E N
\S E P A R A T I O N = 5 m m /
2 . 0 2 . 5 3. 0 3. 5
GR O O V E D E P T H , m m
F i g ur e 8 6. S i g n a l S t r e n g t h V e r s us E xp e r i m e n t a l S l o t -D e p t h f o r A l um i n um
60
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_
40
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1 — U J 30
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0
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C YLI N D R I C A L
T M
01
C YLI N D R I C A L
T E o i
.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
GR O O V E D E P T H , m m
70
F i g ur e 8 7. S i g n a l S t r e n g t h V e r s us E xp e r i m e n t a l S l o t -D e p t h f o r S t e e l
a t e M
^
B
*M t t
LI T E R A T U R E C I T E D
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72
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