LiE!%El’ P\B




Prepared by

EL-SUM CONSULTANTS Atherton, Calif. 9402 5
for George C. MarshaN Space Flight Center









NASA CR-2775 --_~~_~ P TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analytical Study of Acousto/Optical Methods ?or Acoustical and Optical
7. 3. AUTHOR(S)



Holography Holography

- Interfacing NDT Research

December 1976








El-Sum Consultants 74 Middlefield Road Atherton, California







Contractor National Aeronautics Washington, D. C.

and Space Administration 20546





Prepared under the technical Space Sciences Laboratory, - _; ~~. ..- ----.

monitorship of the Physics and Instrumentation Marshall Space Flight Center


This report covers a study of techniques adaptable to nondestructive acoustical and optical holography in techniques encompassed investigation which are described and summarized. report presents important remarks particular system, and conclusions bibliographies are included.

the international status of the art of acousto-optical imaging testing and, more important, to interfacing methods for nondestructive testing research. Evaluation of 20 different of varieties of detectors and detection schemes, all of Related investigation is reported in an Appendix. The on image quality, factors to be considered in designing a and recommendations for extension of this work. Three

Compatible systems to be used with the MSFC hybrid system (optical, acoustical, and correlation) are a Bragg diffraction (direct optical-acoustical interaction) scheme and the electronically focussed and scanned piezoelectric array. Both systems have sensitivity approaching 10e9 to IO-” W/cm2 and resolution approaching the acoustical wavelength in the tested material, are capable of real-time display, and can be designed for use in either a pure optical or an acousto-optical mode of operation. At the same time, a portable acoustic probe, akin to the probe used in medical diagnosis, can be designed for testing large objects on site.












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* For sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield. Virginia 22161

The project was funded by MSFC-NASA under contract NAS8-31783. Stroke. particularly with holography. Auld. . G. M. electrons. Kurtz.acousto-optical techniques which may compete favorably with the holographic schemes are included in this report. Greguss. For completeness. was to investigate the interfacing methods for acoustical and optical holography in NDT research in order to identify the acoustical holography schemes compatible for integration in a hybrid system utilizing other schemes (optical and correlation) for testing objects nondestructively. W. However. and on evaluating the various techniques of transducing the acoustical information into optical information. and P. Anderson. in a broad sense. G. W. Wade.. The in-depth study concentrated on the international state of the art of visualization of acoustic imaging. as envisioned by the MSFC Optics and Electra-Optics Branch (Figure 1).FOREWORD This is the final reporting on a six man-month study of the state of the art of acousto-optical holography and its application in nondestructive testing (NDT). R. S. and Western and Eastern Europe for collecting information that aided in preparing this report. AUTHOR’ S ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgment is due to many industrial. testing. only the nonholographic . L. x-rays. and publishing organizations in the U. Communications with many researchers here and abroad. Maginess.. particularly with G. acoustics. have been quite valuable and gratifying. The goal of this project. academic. the investigation encompassed a survey of various techniques of imaging. 111 . B. and detection of flaws in materials with visual radiation. and infrared.

. c ACOUSTOOPTICAL HNDT OPTICAL zc SQ. NEED MORE DATA J- FIGURE 1. ._/ I. branch. IMAGE DATA RECEIVER . j-5aaj .q 4 - OPTICAL HNDT SYSTEF _I I . Flow chart of hybrid system as conceived by MSFC-Optics for nondestructive and Electra-Optics testing. P. 1 CORRELATION MODE INDICATOR: j+o~] . LAW RECORDER 4 / L.

.... 5 6 8 ... Electron Beam Scanning of Deformed Surface .........1 Dynamic Scattering ...........18. Pyroelectric Image Converter and Image Storage ....... ... 2.........12 2.......1 2..10 2............. .. Metal Fiber Face Tube Image Converter ..... Photographic and Chemical Direct Acoustic Recording Solid and Liquid Crystal Acoustic Displays .4 2.....15 2.. 2. ................2 2.... .........6 2.... Bragg Diffraction or Direct Sound-Light Interaction Laser Beam Scanning .18... Piezoresistive Image Converter .18 Introduction .... ...5 2..3 Guest-host Interaction ... Liquid Surface Deformation (Static Ripples) ..........14 2.......2 Voltage Controlled Optical Activity .....13 2. Electrostatic Transducer ........7 2.....8 2...16 2..3 2........ Piezoelectric Array With Electronic Focussing and Scanning . Electroluminescent Acoustic-Image Detector ............ Acoustic Tomography .11 2..... 10 16 16 18 20 21 22 23 26 27 30 33 33 34 34 40 41 42 42 ... Zone-Plate Acoustic Imaging Devices .. Frequency Swept Holographic Imaging .......18.9 2.2....17 2............TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTERI GENERALINTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTERII ACOUSTICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS 2............. Gabor's Sonaradiographic Imaging Scheme ........ Sokolov Image Tube Converter .....

18. Recent Developments ...... .. ........... .......20 2.22 Birefringcnt Properties Direct Acousto-Optical ..... CHAPTERIII ANALYSIS.2 3. Image Recording vi ... ..... ... .... BIBLIOGRAPHY.. APPENDIX A APPENDIX B Earlier Study of the Project Erasable ... Thermoplastic and Photoplastic Films Scanning and Sampling Technique . .. .. . ... .... . . ... .... .. .... . Real-Time... . . . ...21 2.......... .... .3 Image Quality ....18. . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS(Cont'd) Page 2.19 2. ..... . Comparison of Various Techniques Recommendations .... ... .... .. ... 43 43 44 44 46 47 Pohlman Cell Oil........1 3.. ..... . ...... .. ... 50 52 53 60 A-l B-l .... . . ... Effects .5 2... CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 3...4 2......

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation of Ruticon image devices device . . . . . . . . . vii . . . . . Flow chart of hybrid system for nondestructive testing as conceived by MSFC-Optics and ElectroOptics Branch .operating arrangement . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Sokolov tube image converter Piezoelectric array electronic focussing and ASW scanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . projected Piezoelectric electroluminescent acoustic image detector . . . . . . Liquid surface deformation acoustical (static ripples) system . . . . . . . . B-l B-2 Bragg diffraction imaging system . . . transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulse Bragg diffraction Laser beam scanning system for NDT in air . . 6. . . . . . . . of zone-plate zone-plate transducers acoustic . . 5. . . . .LIST OF FIGURIJS Number 1. . . 8. 11. . . 4. Zone plate Fabrication Light acoustic imaging . . . . . . Page vii 9 11 13 17 19 25 28 29 31 35 B-4 B-5 2. . . . Read-out of Ruticon . . '3. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . 10. . . .

.... . A-I A-II Acoustical Ultrasonic imaging methods and detection detectors . ..LIST OF TABLES Number I.... Page 55 A-6 A-6 Frequency range for Vlll ......... different applications ...............


an acoustical (1. without the need for very a good depth resolution of ultrasonic energy. conferences. pulses detection of very weak ultrasonic scattering regions. as evidenced of these techniques from the yearly (4) and other advances.). uniformity by considering measuring the degree of material the hologram as an interferogram. too weak to be detected (5) by other methods. as will be discussed advantages Among the pertinent (1) having of acoustical a permanent 2-D record structure of a 3-D image of the object).2) hologram and reconstructing. symposia on national origi- Holography. (6) measuring after the uniformity of the tested environment object before and a change in its etc. holography. Technological and international nally by acoustical inspired have led in many cases to further acoustical holography later. of acousto/optical testing biological Acoustical holographic techniques for material nondestructive in the is second only to the application and medical field. without (both outer shape and internal (2) obtaining a good lateral resolution the need for complex ultrasonic (3) obtaining short (4) imaging optics. 2 . (3) the IEEE ultrasonics. holography in NDT are: to a real-time simplification acoustical of the two-stage imaging. the vigorous development In fact. and (such as temperature. pressure.The potential nondestructive ful it of acoustical was well holography recognized as a diagnostic ever since the first tool in success- testing demonstration with coherent of forming visible light.

technique sary to use amplitude compression 3 or use digitizing . can only display films 20 dB (a factor and photographic have a dynamic both large it is neces- range of only about 10 dB. A-4.objects. pp. particularly have an excess of 100 dB (a amplitudes. light (from a long and forms the a wave XL to reconstruct See the discussion in Appendix I. introduces distortion with high in misinterpretation nonlinearity of sound propagation the phase of the reflected amplitude (5) acoustic factor intensity and frequency. effect light. become transparent duction (4) of possible to such waves and hence the introof the image. visible (2) to interpret optical capabilities directly techniques.000) range of pressure modulated oscilloscope lo). while about the of 100. nature of the the speckle reconstructing hologram. transducers usually waves. (109) and small acoustic information 'Thus to display simultaneously. produced by the coherent and the limited aperture of the (3) at certain angles of incidence. limitations the follow- disadvantages. acousto/optical and what may be considered ing examples are enumerated: (1) distortion acoustical hologram.(7) converting the acoustical information into optical information which may be easier use of well However. by the eye or by the established imaging have certain As an illustration. opaque to sound waves. due to the change in wavelength wave Xs which probes the object to a much shorter image).

and evaluated are described in Chapter in Chapter 4 . Table 4-111. it object can be overcome. crystalline pyroelectric solid focussing.g. ranging testing complement to other . The latter not be treated its extensively in areas New report. A-6. due to mechanical environment. the study of the theory and/or layers. importance in materials. blast of these limitations merely to emphasize the need for tested more. ultrasonic focussing and scanning zone plate still electronic ing state. thin electrostatic of CoC12*6 H20. frequency required depends upon the material depth of penetration of the object to be used. since of such wave is proportional Hence usually frequency to the square power of the frequency. while microscopy . does not diminish of crack development (e. of phased arrays) II.. objects are limited to the acoustic the normal NDT of thick range of 100 KHz to 10 MHz. techniques materials conversion layer films. instability of tested object or in which case special mounting (51 may be neeced. They are mentioned diagnose the extreme care to correctly holographic technique. pp. using the acousto/optic Furtheras a shows the necessity testing of using the acousto/optical means such as optical. photopolymer transducers. this the range 10 MHz to 10 GHz is quite thin (of is used in ultrasonic the order in this like where the material will of micrometers) however.4coustic and correlation. and the the attenuation of the probing wave. in the developIII.techniques (6) distortion to unsteady and computer processing. tomography. frequencies from 100 KHz to 10 GHz have been used the choice of the proper in NDT [see Appendix A.


for example. surface of deformed liquid beam. .2. elements. into materials (e. of: an insonifier the object a lens (not needed in some systems) a detector a display or transducer or recorder (which may be the detector immersed in a water * itself). All of these components are usually impedence mismatch. an optical overlap is often * telescope. a composite tank to minimize the acoustical simple Some of these components may be a or a collection of several one element. piezo- and electroluminescence) information is converted the visual optical display information of the via a an that it vidi con camera. . or a CRT. itself the detector chemical or solid may be (but a liquid and a scanning system) emulsion. the lens may be eliminated object rarely crystal. imaging system consists. 6 . depending on the operational function of the whole system. . density of the material. in general. a sandwich of several etc. more than one insonifier. . a simple arrangements. optical images reveal only the outer shape of the object. This is different from x-ray imaging which depends on the electron density and atomic number of the material. There is quite between the display difficult subsystem and the detection the two. and depends on the atomic. electron beam images (as in electron microscope) reveals*only the surface or near surface structure. structure. as in holography.. techniques to separate Acoustical imaging reveals the change in acoustical impedance in the object. or if the There may be.g. and hence depends on the density of the material to be imaged and the acoustic velocity yithin this material. laser electric acoustical is in contact in a practical a composite or electron with in some holographic the detector..1 Introduction An acoustical .

radiation from the through the object) coherent acoustic 7 . on-axis formed if another the shadow cast on the detector (Gabor type) hologram. no lens. print. or an An off-axis hologram may be is biased by the shadow of the object coherent acoustic which falls cast on the detector insonifier wave (from another obliquely tuned to the In the are same frequency) reflection on the same detector.in the lens is not needed and we get an arrangement optical or x-ray photography. con- on those most applicable Such a hologram is produced only if acoustic same source falls on the detector (without passing to provide the reference wave. It is assumed that waves are used to insonify the object. may be a diffused acoustic shadow. classi- (summarized in Appendix A) we broadly mainly according to the detection-display techniques. we shall mainly proceed to expound the various to NDT. wave from the object may be an on the detector in the absence of a lens. a second reference hologram is produced. not in a straight focussed off-axis The scattered by a lens. if Here again. and detector. However. If hides the detector touch with from the insonifying the object the detector. line. or. In the transmission source. if akin to a contact the object is separated from the detector then a lens is needed between otherwise. insonifier mode arrangement.The different in a variety transmission components of an acousto/optical on whether the object system are arranged is to be seen in a mode the object is in of ways. scheme. centrating * Now. the object. an in-focus acoustic wave may be used. hologram is to be made. if there is the two to cast a sharp image on the detector. dcpcnding or a reflection mode. particularly In an earlier fied the various study systems.

way the undesired Both arrangements high frequency produced images of are reduced considerably. image is produced by reflecting the surface. Another ripples.avity. and a phase-object.2. holography. is attained The relief tension formed in this incident an analog of the pattern The deformed fluid visible 1 ight surface of acoustic serves. or refracting of the acoustic it through.A-10 for more discussion. (11. K. A-7 .12.as intensity an optical on the surface. (14) to amplify end than the low frequency the more at the high frequency one. which is self-explanatory. comparable quality. representation from. improvement was made by N. Instead a wire grating of the object ripples of the coherent close acoustical surface reference beam. Sheridan.2.2 Liquid Surface Deformation (Static Ripples) (271 and the electron-beam for real-time image is at of way is This method of acoustic scanning tube of Sokolov of ultrasonic image conversion are the earliest images. than in a strong pictures verification of the idea revealed 8 no better . This technique has recently in acoustic 11.121 surface it to be conceived visualization focussed each point surface When an acoustic onto the liquid until causes the surface by the restoring pattern to elevate forces equilibrium and gr. have conducting Experimental He used a thin or insulating noise and improve the real-time layer su. and image hence reduce the low frequency visualization. pp. Green (15) used image to the liquid In this on which the acoustic is immersed. Refer to Appendix A. using one of several been (used phase-contrast revived imaging techniques.13) The modern version commercially) is illustrated in Figure 2.rface) of a dielectric placed liquid (which may electric field.

_ -_.P . Its diffracted components are filtered and viewed in real-time by the viewing optics.ACOUSTIC TRANS. and is biased by the coherent reference wave to form an in-focus hologram in the form of ripples on the surface. WATER .- OBJECT .ACOUSTIC LENS REFERENCE EjEAM ACOUSTIC TRANSDUCER ._.-. --. Incident from above is a light beam from an unfiltered super pressure mercury vapour source. TANK Figure 2. 9 . Schematic diagram of the basic arrangement for in-focus..LIGHT SMALL TANK ST0. The object and reference insonifiers are immersed in a large water tank. . real-time holography with the liquid surface deformation method.-. A sharp image of the object is projected on the surface of the small tank (containing a low surface tension liquid).

Brenden’ s and Green’ s. because of the limited frequency response of the liquid the low and and 20 cycle/cm that can be and Depending on the surface frequency cut-offs tension of the liquid high spatial respectively.OOiS W/cm2 is practical. in the Bragg acoustic beam interacts cell. (17) (0.5 MHz (limited forces). direction. of coherent A basic The object cell.3 forces acoustic giving by the surface frequency tension of the liquid) is about 0. but the sensitivity may have been increased. This work has been discontinued. the highest frequency used is about 10 FMz (limited the lowest usable capillary 2.03” in 1” Al have been reported) for real-time display (4 On the other capacity hand. with schematic shown in Figure filled is placed on a membrane in the water in the vertical wave propagating the laser Pl. are at about 1 cycle/cm acoustic Furthermore. The advantages of this (a) (b) simplicity moderate sensitivity highly (c) theoretical (O.07” voids in 4” thick (16) technique are its 10 -9 W/ cm2 good resolution voids steel and 0. and insonified the acoustic The laser acoustic Two spherical lenses collimate beam. this scheme is most suited for Gabor-type. near on- axis holography surface. which is Bragg diffraction then focussed by a cylindrical lens onto the line 10 . 3. Interaction (18) by the way to gravitational or Direct principle Sound-Light Bragg.Diffraction The operational of Bragg-diffraction light by acoustic arrangement imaging is based waves when proper of the system is upon the diffraction conditions are met.

Schematic diagram of Bragg diffraction acoustical imaging system. .w-e------ HELIUM -NEON LASER ‘ 90” PRISMS “ nn” n” ‘ TALLY’ ORIENTED CYLINDRICAL LENS l 4 I I CYLINDRICAL CONVERGING LENS I ‘ QUARTZ TRANSDUCER Figure 3. Coherent light from the laser interacts with the acoustic wave in the Bragg acoustic cell. The light and acoustic waves are propagating perpendicular to one another. Visible image is displayed on the TV monitor .

images alriays suffer come this. usefulness and the desired image can be filtered demonstrated of the object its This technique needs the immersion to test Figure delay objects 4. from the scattering an ingenious light scheme was used. I and I I. in the range the produced To over- of 10 to 100 MHz have been used. However. of the direct beam. according of the ratio to the ltyavelength to the acoustic equation: xL Sin 8 = 2x S (1) It is therefore Frequencies desirable to where 8 is half use the highest the angle of diffraction. has a different from the original in the normal way The recording can then be reconstructed out. A.this scheme is a function wavelength. R. with carry (since laser At the lower frequencies. To eliminate in air.of the light shifted at its takes place in the acoustic light cell. where the image is recorded This recording will then beam a biasing wave from the laser. line in NDT. it this in order in water. and is projected onto a vidicon tube for real-time television The angle of diffraction of the light simple in . Smith devised the arrangement shown in Electric that energy which generates shutter 0 12 the sound is also sent to a controlling the emission feeds an electronic . beams. Two first -0rdcr frequency light Bragg-diffracted original frequency. possible acoustic frequency. the desired image superimposed light on a hologram of the direct frequency the diffracted light). and the zero-order onto plane P 2’ are projected through Only one of the lens for aspect diffracted ratio beams is allowed a second cylindrical correction display.

The pulsed light from the laser is delayed so that it passes through Bragg cell only when the acoustic pulse is reflected upwards from the object. 13 .e. The delay time determines the plane of the object to be imaged.c VARIABLE DELAY 4 I r II 1 1 TRANSDUCER] ‘ MEMBRANE Figure 4. Block diagram of pulsed Bragg imaging system for NDT of material that must be kept dry (i. not be immersed in the water filled Bragg cell). t0 The object is placed in air against the polyethylene membrane of the Bragg cell. and the thickness of such a plane is determined by the duration of the laser light pulse.

would be reflected from a greater the obj ect . D in the Bragg cell. The range interval by the velocity range interval is one-half duration material from view. 6h and 6v respectively. R between the object and light direction.7 MHz. the height and the width resolutions. repetitive pulsing of a sound transducer and laser from the laser with increasing Pictures frequency etc. At a later in the Rragg cell Consequently. the image wi 11 be a replica as time proceeds . The resolution length extent Xs the distance in this arrangement depends on the acoustic wave- of interaction light. which are as close together inspection with or fall A complete of an object repetitive require nation repeated inspected. vertical H of the light column in the vertical The horizontal are different: and W of the light cone. reflected within the object be returned time. short of objects located at ever increasing light size pulse distances The duration of the laser effect on the the is made sufficiently viewed. of holes in Al block. rise multiplied this of sound in the will be rejected as pulse would illumi- Flaws outside Flaws may be separated times will allow. subsequent from a the sound distance in to the gcncrntion specific present distance of sound. an acoustic strips on Al. to have a negligible of the range interval of the sound pulse inspected. the distance the angular ZCY of the converging column. 14 . sound will viewed. Uy pulsing the laser at some given time. using sound pulses delay after pulses which are a given image plane has been technique silicon with rubber have been published (231 using this of 18.of laser light.

In this cells occurs when the object is case the number of these cells in terms of As).075 mm. and which may approach As in an idealized been reported (22)) . cells is (4) in the vertical direction is equal to H (expressed direction. the field of view is rather is most suited 15 and although the system can be used for NDT.*Riixs 6h = AS ! 2 Sin cc for R > 2 SFn cc (21 for R < 2 S-n c1t As Rii- for R = H 6v = A for . In the horizontal the number of resolution Nh < $ S Thus for As = 0. (4) Capacity for real-time display. . 1S = 25 mm and H = 100 mm. Nh is 333. The advantage of the Bragg Diffraction (1) (2) (3) Extreme simplicity Sensitivity (comparable to the surface deformation scheme are: less than technique) frequencies 3 As has High resolution (due to the use of high acoustic system. it for microscopy.R << H t The maximum number of resolution adjacent to the light column. limited On the other hand.

CZ9) Argon laser to study biological was used for scanning.very of the laser samples.28. due to the It has not been using to of the angular for imaging. and to Appendix A. is shown in Figure measured sensitivity it should 10 -3 W/cm'. while theoretically reach about 10 -' It has recently measured of the order acoustic using frequency been reported. and also a moving mirror tissues. however. This system Beam Scanning of Deformed Surface (30) of the'laser beam scanning. that displacements were with of magnitude of 0. using the literature referenced above. discussed in the previous electron beams can be modulated in phase when they scan a (focussed. photocathode on which the acoustic object-wave or biased by a reference of displaying either wave) is projected. 2. pattern to measure the radiation 7. beam.5 Electron Instead section. frequencies near 100 MHz.25. its real-time operation It has demonstrated 100 MHz. 6 urn thick.100. unfocussed. readout of the acoustic on solids which is present It is mostly in the form of limited to acoustic dynamic ripples microscopy limitation used except acoustic because it has an extremely deflection thin limited aperture. depending a hologram or its 16 .4 Laser Beam Scanning In this technique (24. displaying tested capability and optic simultaneously the acoustic images of the 5. 3 sensitivity was lo-" W/cm'.2.26.07 A over 15 cm aperture of 10 >Hz . optical This scheme is thus capable reconstruction. Interested readers are referred 11. mostly biological. The samples (25 urn thick) of this in an arrangement technique W/cm'. pp. of acoustic transducers.101) laser beam is used to effect optical a scanning information or liquids.

Laser beam scanning arrangement. and hence the position light beam remains independent of the instaneous scan angle and depends only upon the surface distortion in the sound sell. and fed into a TV monitor.PHOTODIODE AMPLIFIER ACOUSTIC IMAGE OPTICAL IMAGE Figure 5. which is coherent with the local sound pressure. 17 . The laser beam. detected. scans the acoustic field (in the sound cwll) to be visualized. The exit pupil of the deflector is focused on of the the knife edge. The motion of the mirror causes the light intensity to be modulated (since the knife edge is arranged to block half the light beam). filtered. This intensity modulated light is collected by a photodiode and the resulting electrical signal. The system is also capable of producing an optical image of the specimentin the sound cell) and display it on an adjacent TV monitor. reflected from the mirror. is amplified.

361 technique signal lies in both the high sensitivity (30 frames of and The advantage of this (lo-g W/cm2) of the detected and the speed of scanning has a limited angular field per second). (35. resonance frequency.38.32. It image converters. the image either or projects on the face of a CRT or a TV monitor.34) and temporal reference holograms. beam scans the crystal which records it and produces modulated secondary directly on a photographic film.33. it is. simulated electronic It has also beam been used to form holograms with (32.6 Sokolov . which means that the acoustic to the equation the transducer wavelength. electron emission 11 0 05 (a piezoelectric an electric on which the acoustic pattern of that creating image.37.location of the photocathode in the system s Image Tube Converter (31. For higher resolution. On the other hand.on the relative 2. consists of a image is An This is one of the earliest Such a tube is shown as part t rans ducer proj ected. as possible. Moreover. shown in Figure its later on-axis with hologram or off-axis coherent laser light hologram which may be reconstructed in the normal fashion. should be of the order of half are related according these parameters distance of the minimum resolvable 18 . it view (5 to 15 degrees from the perpendicular limited as thin anically transducer resolution.63) acousto/optical of Figure crystal) potential 6. 6 is capable of displaying a direct The arrangement image of the object. to the transducer) the transducer the weaker it should be will be mechthe but the thinner will and hence the smaller should operate thickness All at its be the aperture.

Thus an acoustic hologram is formed on (5) in the form of an electric potential pattern across (5). 19 .Figure 6. Sokolov image tube set up for acousto-optical imaging. Immersed in the water tank (1) are two acoustic transducers(2) fed by electronic generator (3). Rlock (9) represents the electronic circuits for electron beam generation and deflection. inducing secondary emission which is multiplied by the electron amplified by (8) and finally multiplier(7). displayed on a TV monitor (10). Acoustic beams from the transducers (2) impinge upon quartz (5) which is the face of the image tube (11). One of the beams is scattered by the object (4) and the other is the reference beam. The electron gun (6) scans (S).

and thinner face sensitivity and real-time capability) larger are concentrated on developing plates. 1 MHz. of 3 to 5 times 2. 20 between the vacuum chamber face plate is This metal fiber . acoustic an electric and also to serve as the interface The plate the acoustic should be as thin velocity between the as possible.86 frequency (Mllz) have been reported (39) . used with mechanically metal grid plate. used with 20 MHz. plate’ s These special diameter designs (37938) extend the common quartz face 2 MHz. wavelength because of the mechanical The interest frequencies this 10 MHz are not used. and the plane waves will be as close This puts severe limitation angular field of view. should vacuum chamber and the water. to 11. be about the same as that incidence for acoustic in the plate of the water so that the maximum angle of to 90” as possible. on the diameter of the face plate limitations.6(mm) = Acoustic Resolutions Again. Face Tube Image Converter (40) Sokolov tube described to convert above utilizes the incident a piezosignal The conventional electric into plate (PZT-4 or quartz) signal. To overcome these a metal fiber face plate (piezoelectric is used to serve as the interface plate) ‘ and the water. and for maximum resolution. higher than about the acoustic rigidity. by from 5 cm.5 cm. used with These results quartz scanning were attained and even to 30 cm. strengthening and/or modifying the piezoelectric the electronic face plate (37) by a scheme of the face Other types of face plates 2.7 Metal Fiber are discussed below. (because of its All the efforts in improving image converter is continuing.

15 mm Theoretically on the size of such a plate The limit is par- and in practice. imposed by the angular Published results deflection that of the electronic such image converters scanner. clad wires (about 0. one may be able between the copper powder on the point. Instead of the metal fiber plate discussed above. improvement increasing (such as the bandwidth. tially 150 mm diameter were made. however. it to improve the characteristic water and the piezoelectric in a casting quartz plate plastic.made of glass centers). difficulty and further cut-off 21 limit. strong vacuum boundary while transducer that will and makes it still provide to have a mechanically an acoustic being free to select to electric optimum image quality.05 mm in diameter there is no limit plates on about 0. loss of resolution (38) . possible does not degrade the resolution. due to the increase in thickness of the face plate. 2.8 Pyroelectric ---__ The scanning Image Converter beam interaction and Image Storage (41) with the piezoelectric face of theelement element is operation Sokolov tube is such that during effective the time interval in forming for all only the energy in the piezoelectric the scanning signal. beam is touching that the visual practical This characteristic has precluded radiation purposes the use of pulsed acoustic in systems using Sokolov tube. To overcome this eliminating the high frequency . acoustic (quartz) impedence coupling plate of this by using fine material The thickness deposited resonant must be an odd number of quarter has 101~absorption wavelength Such a face plate produces of the incident energy. increase indicate the field of view of the Sokolov tube.

acoustic radiation can be used and the image can be stored in the pyroelectric substance. low quency band (just etc. and one electret foil design utilizes a back plate and an electret 22 . layer.) the piezo- was replaced by an acoustic pyroelectric temperature which provides related image storage in the form of a spatial energy. polarization Its resistivity It material distribution used is a crystalline is spread as a layer Such a detector and dielectric of pyroelectric polymer is thermovoltaic. There is no resonance effect like all thermal has a wide frethermistors. struct plate The foil-electret a two-dimensional is divided into microphone principle transducer array. foil. but which have never been used because of their extremely sensitivity). materials is high enough to permit and all pyroelectric exists in polymers. of such an image converter increases transducers with was reported (proportion at higher The measured sensitivity -3 as 10 W/ cm2. detectors (thermocouples. sensitive etc. Its sensitivity to f2). triglycine (PVF2) on The in the form of a thermal pyroelectric sulphat e . exhibit electricity but not vice versa. constant and has a spontaneous temperature. differential to the absorbed acoustic pyroelectric Only recently (42) have such highly Thus pulsed sensitive materials become available.increasing electric target the sensitivity face plate with the applied frequency. while piezoelectric the frequency are less sensitive and hence it frequency. Pyroelectricity piezo- which change with charge storage. Pyrex glass. each with NxN elements.).9 Electrostatic Transducer (43944) transducer array for real-time acoustical This is a foil-electret imaging. is employed to conthe back The second N strips of In one design. 2.

and it has minimum electrostatic coupling as compared to other materials. etc. lithium sulfate. having transducer a dynamic range of 35 dB. With Electronic face plate (44) Focussing Piezoelectric ~. angular The optimum frequency range in air is 70 to 250 KHz and in of the 0.5 MHz. lead zirconate-titanate. fashion. and Scanning (45-50) imaging 1. Eighteen cm demountable with such a foil- sealed image converters electret 2.5 to 2.lO transducer array of the Sokolov type were built as face plates. 23 .* and reaches angle when it Thus an array angular field or a mosaic of piezoelectric of view together with high sensitivity * Of the many available piezoelectric materials (quartz. water. barium titanate. The elements here commuted at a frequency and real-time view- of 4 KHz so that ing was-obtained. a large This field has a very limited with of view increases a very large the decrease of the material is of the order of a mm or material will possess (10 -11 W/cm2). The sensitivity of this system was calculated -11 K/cm2 in water.3 to 3.mctallization is done with arranged in an overlapping the first design only. Parallel sampling A 256 x 256 element array has at been constructed.) lead metaniobate is highly recommended because it has a very wide bandwidth without resorting to elaborate backing and matching. operating 0.5 MHz depending on the medium attenuation field of view. arrays are used either in air or in Such electrostatic water. of The use of a piezoelectric converter (Sokolov type) in an acoustic was discussed plate in the preceding angular section field Such large piezoelectric view.. size less.but measured to reach 10 -8 W/cm2 in air and 2x10 sensitivity was reported as 10 -3 W/cm2 only. lead metaniobate.Array ~__.6. frequencies (43) having an area of (256 x 256)mm2. at a frequency 16 frames per second was delivered Acoustic holograms were obtained in less than 50 sets.5 blllz. of 3.

shows the piezoelectric receiving the acoustic image. the scanning is electronically in the other mode or C-scan transfocussed direction and scanned in one direction mechanically. transmit is done the same piezoelectric the. array.6 to 2.2 nun wide) diagram of acoustic 7. of the array image boundaries. The focal can be easily rate It to any depth in the tested It has a faster operation. This was used for resolution of various 1. and the BGO (Bismuth Germanium delay line. Also.A phased piczoclcctric designed mission array in one or two dimensions has been for use in NDT B. When such an array only. (46) and (45) are recommended. others were A epoxy laminate 24 laid. which provide For detailed the dis- Oxide substrate) delay necessary cussion Arrays acoustic wave surface in sampling the transducers of the theory of 100 elements. (about 30 frames per second) in real-time range gating with definition comparable to its transverse A schematic is shown in Figure 1.object and receive elements (detect) smaller for noise are used to both the acoustic signal. using 50 MHz chirp frequency. It imaging system in one dimension transducers (PZT-5.75 cm. 11.5 MHz produced images with used were 2-25 cm Al block bonded Boron fiber reinforced with holes about 1 mm. dorm on titanium. the same (insonify) Such a scheme has the advantage of having definition Its (resolution). nor from interference length material. or better definition aperture for the same aperture.or C-scan reflection mode. line having references measuring (49). of scanning also has a definition. Objects sizes. were built 100 taps with acoustic BGO delay with a corresponding (one tap per transducer) acoustic imaging. (because of the chirp fringes at the changed image does not suffer of the scanning from the speckle property scheme). .

electronically Such an array records an focused and ASW scanning. utilizing an array of piezoelectric transducers. taps is placed along the delay line and fed with the to an scanning frequency w . Schematic diagram of the essential elements of one dimensional acoustic imaging system. Signals and the outpzt signal is the sum and difference The electrical imaging output of the two frequencies. acoustic image much the same as photographic film in A series of equally spaced recording an optical image. 25 . of the device is received at one of these two frequencies. (frequency w 1. Each tap corresponds individual transduceh which receives the acoustic wave are mixed by simple diodes.TO BIAS LINE f SOUND WAVES 6 Wl SCAN SIGNAL OUTPUT us+ SIGNAL ml o( Figure 7.

seems to be one of the best and most sensitive testing in real-time operation. 2. ditions. is an excellent Another cheaper method of mapping the scattered and one receiver. probing etc. element spacing at 3. causing the diffraction to expand or contract of gyration receiver for of the object forming A single and swing in space with the swinging and changing the center stationary pattern can be used to map the variation sweeps over it Theoretical shows that to that as a result analysis of conof in the diffracted frequency this as the pattern illumination. circuits. frequency is changed. There is no reason why such probes cannot of materials for the detection of be used in nondestructive voids. bonding. heart diagnosis. the collected data is equivalent from a linear scan of a receiver over the stationary 26 diffraction . field. It is techniques similar for nondestructive to the ultrasonic probe used in the medical measuring where 5x5 for mosaic elements of lead metaniobate. flaws. Imaging (511 array is used to a two dimensional angularly backscatter strengths expensive field scan a probing narrow beam in object a display space and the received positions but and is used to generate of the various technique. It operates (1081 (4x4) mm* is designed 1 MHz bandwidth.5 MHz with of 32x32 with and uses of 1 mm integrated Arrays are in the developing stage. cracks.11 Frequency Sliept Holographic In the previous section. technique sweeping the object swept scanning frequency under certain obtained pattern. The illuminating pattern (or utilizes only one transmitter acoustic hologram) the object pattern. of the relative It scatterers present. cracked plastic This technique with part of the crack filled with 1120.third sample was.

No experimental 2. producing image of 0. -The other deposited on one face of a piezoelectric is coated with a uniform the beam.27 mm (about 1. The phase zone-plate poling reverse explained voltage transducer across the amplitude poling 9(b). onto face of the transducer applied gold electrode.8 hs). is made by first zone plate applying a D. it is expected -for an acoustic a transmitter-receiver is determined. Range is changed by simply results have been reported changing the chirp yet.z frequency of 60". as is then removed from the the original in Figure (of the transducer) The gold zone-plate 27 . sweep with angular in the case of and bandwidth rate. by the chirp rate (1-5) MH.17) Both amplitude and phase zone-plates with PZT-4 and PZT-5 transThe experiThey ducers were used to produce acoustic mental arrangement have been used with resolution is shown in Figure 10 MHz acoustic images in real-time. 8 which is self-explanatory. A voltage across the transducer activates areas under the zones only and hence produces With mechanical the object) movement of the object. separation chirped of the The range resolution sweep illumination. zone-plate transducer. point a focussed acoustic (focussed the transducer can map the object by point. shown in Figure 9(a) is The amplitude made of a gold zone-plate transducer. in such a way as to between the zones.12 Zone-Plate Acoustic Imaging Devices (52-56. illumination.C. mm For example. frequency post mixer.Lateral frequency receiver estimated having resolution is mainly determined by the width of the and the has been system sweep employed and the angle between the transmitter observed from the object that a resolution of 2 position.

I 1 PHASE PLATE . Operating acoustic arrangement for imaging devices. Zone-plate 28 . OBJECT J WATER Figure 8.

oc POLING VOLTAGO ARROW DENOTES POLARIZATION 7 GOLD COUNTERELECTRODE 1 GOLD tZONE PLATE ELECTRODE (0) (b) (cl Figure 9. The amplitude zone-plate transducer (a) is formed by depositing gold zone-plate pattern over the The phase zone-plate transducer is transducer.Finally. the gold zone-plate is replaced by a simple disk electrode (as shown in (c)) over the phase zoneplate pattern. formed by first determining the PZT polarization and then applying a DC poling voltage (as shown in (b)) to reverse the polarization in zones between the zone-plate electrode and its counterpart. Fabrication of zone-plate transducers. 29 .

face of the transducer _ the finished frequency

and is replaced

by a uniform


to form

phase zone-plate. it

The focus of such a plate of axial

depends on the

which gives

an added flexibility

scanning. and

Such zone plate receivers. utilizing composite Figure activated transducer


can be used as both transmitters scheme, pattern

Wade and his the optical transducer.

co-workers (54955) used a different of a Gabor type zone-plate is a sandwich structure layer


on a

The transducer a piezoelectric

(shown in

10) containing

which is differentially Such an optical-acoustical an acoustic layer. zone-plate pattern

via a photoconductive is addressed by light

switching. carrying

which is projected most of the voltage on, the resistance piezoelectric of an acoustic A variation

on the photoconductive

In absence of light, with the light across the pattern

drop is across the photoconductor; drops and therefore producing the voltage a replica

is applied

transducer, source. of this

of a zone plate

scheme [shown in Figure layer.


uses a dielectric in an opposite

on the top of the photoconductive operation; acoustic pattern i.e., radiation when the voltage is emitted,

This results

is on and the light the light

is off,


and with

on, we get a negative

of the zone-plate. Devices based on this principle are in the laboratory The transducer focal stage; length is they

are designed to operate 10 cm and its 2.13 diameter

near 3 MHz. is 12 cm.

Gabor’ s Sonaradiographic

Imaging Scheme(57) effect of

Focussed holograms have the advantage of the amplifying the reference beam, but they have the disadvantage, 30

which always arises


I i I

j I i


/ $&$!&JXTPOD_F -L... 5 jIJ,-$jSPARENT . . -.-- -ELECTRODE ._..

OPAQUE I_-_ .-_.- .-._. .ELECTRODE. TPANSPARFNT J&ECTR.ODE I__ -.:--- _,.. ‘ -.





Zone-plate transducers utilizing projected light zone-plate of Gabor type. (a) is the positive type operational configuration;it consists of a transparent electrode on top of a photoconductor (CDS) which is in contact with the piezoelectric transdicer (LiNO 3 or RaTi.03). type operational configuration; 03) is the negative when the electric voltage is on, then in the dark strong acoustic radiation is emitted; this radiation is stopped when the light is switched giving a negative Zone-plate pattern. on, thus,


in the case of coherent To eliminate of the following this

sound, of very strong speckle noise, acoustic


noise. should use one

techniques : acoustic waves. other than just the one from by

(4 (b)

Incoherent Cut out all

the sections

which the signal the electronic zone-plate

is detected. focussing

This can be accomplished (section 1.10) or

and scanning 1.12) . below)



cc> Sonaradiography

(as outlined

where only one section and imaged. holograms with is scattered very

in the depth of the object

is isolated

The scheme proposed by Gabor is based on producing short object, rapidly single acoustic pulses. wave will When such a pulse

by a point

the scattered spreading

produce on an intervening fine ridge. If

membrane a the a

ring-shaped frequency

then we illuminate laser light will source for

membrane with short like interval,

a high


the trace

of the spreading object


appear exactly zones), gating which

the hologram of a point

(a system of Fresnel By proper the object. no speckles

can then be.photographed then make holograms pulse used for the hologram.

and reconstructed. within

we can

of any section

Since the acoustic wi 11 appear in


is very sharp,

This scheme was intended reason why it work on this

for use in medicine, industrial without NDT. satisfactory

but there Unfortunately,

is no the

cannot be used for idea was terminated



since the piezoelectric beam a signal to the scanning 'electron incident proportional the the in theory. acoustic illumination. This technique that it of the source. NDT. CdS (Cu)] may be used. to the acoustic storage intensity at the moment of scan. in the image. The section the object of the object source and the recording plane in opposite positions is well can be to be imaged depends on the relative and the recorder. 33 . careful the course of this of such a possibility has not been done during 2. It is shades [like is the lack of extended grey scale these tubes.15 Piezoresistive One difficulty section difficult. Image Converter (59. known among medical extended to material diagnosticians. in addition improvement in sensitivity. 1. frequencies Such materials have a wide range of acoustic frequency and odd harmonic and as opposed to the resonant response of the piezoelectrics.2. to the freedom -7 to use pulsed W/cm2 Sensitivity of the order of 10 has been reported.14 Acoustic Tomography known among x-ray radiographers) is the technique is obtained Tomography (well by means of which a sharp image of one section by moving the illuminating direction. have the capability transducer presents of information They also have high resistivity storage.6) contract.601 with the piezoelectric face tube (Sokolov type. while transducer) scan. of grey. presents all system (using piezoresistive signals since the last accumulated to significant This can then lead. but we believe study However. to present with more than S-10 distinct piezoresistive materials To overcome this difficulty.

surveyed in this which is of the order of 1 W/cm”) section since they were part based mainly of our (62). revealed Subsequent studies the exact mechanism involved. Hereunder is a summary of our findings Ultrasound can be detected on ref. The fact emulsion was reported by other in 1933 by Marinesco investigators still by effects have and Trui 1 let (64) . as shown in Figure together with proper The thickness for luminescent simulation such as bias voltage or UV illumination.16 * Electroluminescent Such a detector layers in contact. activities 2. still. are important phosphor which could be stimulated Threshold ported. -7 in the order of 10m6 to 10 W/cm2 has been rein this field are practically at a stand- However.piezoelectric 11. not clearly Bennett (65).2. the existing Although Bennett remains a good disrather conclu- indicated the softness of the photographic emulsion was a very 34 . Acoustic-Image Detector (61) and electroluminescent of the electroluminescence in yielding a combines a . The analysis and pressure in which he showed that all did not appear to explain cussion sively of this that situation. by means of the direct emulsion action of ultraaccelerates radiation sound energy on a photographic or causes some chemical influences a photographic and because ultrasound that ultrasonic reactions. sensitivity by the piezoelectric voltage generated. luminescence facts.621 images by because none of the direct or chemical recording recordings of acoustic photographic of their are presently in use (mainly relative low sensitivity. they are briefly s tudy .17 Photographic Although and Chemical Direct Acoustic Recording (61. layer.

voltages generated on the piezoelectric material appear at the l. Figure 11. Piezoelectric electromuninscent phosphor image detector.7-. The(TC) electrode on the phosphor is connected to the (C) electrode on the piezoelectric material..’ . 35 .: 5 i LIGHT I- -* c. A’ I .. 4 TC \ GLASS P ACOUSTIC ---WAVE .-- EL -...’ . The voltage generated across a thin electroluminscent phosphor layer (EL) by the action of acoustic wave impinging on a piezoelectric material (PI would stimulate light emission which could be observed through the transparent electrode (TC) and a glass support plate.‘ I .nterface with the electroluminscent layer.

Bennett's work the photographic (his tests speed of the film included film emulsion had little from on the result than 10 to 160). 1 min in Kodak and replenisher) in order 36 to clear the unirradiated . solution (661 . The softness speeds for tungsten of the emulsion has been shown to be a significant detection of ultrasound. a significant emulsion factor and developed in the normal manner will an exposure time of about 4 hrs for an ultrasonic If the temperature of the film is raised from 20' to 28'C. If the a exposure improvement factor can be obtained. of about four can be used (66) . the exposure because the emulsion The image can be made visible exposure by fixing liquid X-ray fixer the film for more easily time (for after completion of the a short example. image becomes visible darker yellow color. did indicate effect less that or otherwise". These photographic niques. to be based on the fact the emulsion film methods of course require darkroom techOne involves The effect There are other photographic exposure of film methods which do not. evidence he stated to delineate in his clearly conthe "there is not sufficient mechanical mechanism. that Both these improvements were reported was softened. prior is soaked in water at room temperature times less exposure to exposure. the ultrasound in an iodine of the ultrasound resistant to fixing exposure on the emulsion to an extent during proportional is to render the emulsion The turns a to the exposure. whether thermal.important clusion factor that in its response to ultrasound. Film exposed in the dark yield a useful intensity factor for the film to ultrasound image with of 1 W/cm2.

while cleared. more quickly agitation in areas where the ultrasonic is highest.25 in the exposed areas for a developer set.68) . could not be too long or the paper would develop completely. Those areas of greatest in areas of intermediate There is therefore some exposure remain essentially exposure the emulsion grey scale since yellow. of 0. is partially in the image.15-0. aspect of the developer and Afanas'ev solution is that and paper. and an ultrasonic an exposure time of 90-110 W/cm" for photographic to be 0. contrast paper has They found been made and reported that one could obtain by Arkhangel'skii a maximum paper density concentration intensity of 0. This detection method can be used in the light appears to have little the exposed film on the fixing is not developed and light of the emulsion. technique and therefore of the developer.05 W/cmL paper No. The threshold sensitivity was reported for a high developer Exposure times A practical by Arkhangel'skii containing mitting inside concentration and an exposure time of 40 sec. and photographic they devised The cell a thin paper study detector cell developer had ultrasound trans- windows of thin *he cell (0. light-exposed intensity.15 mm) rubber and allowed solution.2. yellow color The remaining against emulsion then displays the sound pattern hy a the clear background. A thorough study of this with photographic and Afanas'ev (68) . a space of 2 mm In this manner for the paper and developer tank containing 37 the need for a large developer solution as the exposure . 6.emulsion. influence A second photographic involves developer the ultrasound solution method which can be performed film in the light exposure of photographic The uniformly or paper in a emulsion develops (67.

0 exposure times were only about 2 min. method that has been studied solutions by a number (69. developer images because fresh by the acoustic wind. One chemical of investigators Under ultrasonic reaction potassium air-filled iodide-starch water undergoes an oxidizing organic blue. (71) of phenomenon to detect this solution.70.tank was eliminated. For example.some of this problem. is directed along the ultrasonic detector cell The rubber-covered Assuming that indicated that tended to eliminate. the streaming the resolution problem could be eliminated. Darkening box tended to darken also depended upon depending upon the ultrasonic the iodine concentration and the exposure time. ultrasound images by making an array boxes containing Each liquid-filled intensity. boxes had to be at least The threshold At that intensity intensity ultrasonic one waveintensity The individual length in depth for liquid-filled optimum results. of the detector detection involves irradiation the authors could be in the range of 0. to form H202.5-1. in the photolayer latter effect This by the presence of nonuniform distorted effect leads to latter and by the presence of nonuniform leads to distorted field streaming. were added to the solution 38 . The threshold small could be lowered to a value chlorides such as as low as 0. which tends to discolor iodide-starch solution the potassium used this tends to turn Rust et al.71-73) .07 W/cm2 if Ccl4 or chloroform amounts of aliphatic (70) . The same authors the photographic transverse also studied the resolution characteristics by the and of paper method. was reported to be 0. W/cm2. The resolution solution This is determined diffusion of the developing streaming. dyes.01 mm.

and permits for a variety is. hologram recording 100% diffraction was announced (76. is known about the response of this beams.771 irreversible. polymer material It is grainless.75) . with laser a dye sensitizer. A number of other chemical techniques involving intensity. 39 . more complicated a new photo. is still in 30 seconds using 12. in The material various optical under development and is being. devices. green spectral for film all can be exposed or the argon-ion can be coated on glass to several on this hundred with base with thickness A typical from a few micrometers hologram was recorded micrometers. has use to an optical piezoelectric-electroluminescent low speed characteristic. it is doubtful etc. fraction responses (slower response. Recently. efficiency and spatial no wet processing to be preadjusted frequencies. wavelengths. It is needed. reference material 3:l to object beam ratio. organic dyes have also been investigated for optical exhibits (74. for example.8 mW/cm'. that it in Gabor's Ilowever.A similar of films blue color method suggestpd on glass plates by Bennett (69) called in an iodine solution.).tested laboratories. for the exposure Ilere too a Expo- of starch was produced in areas of higher ultrasound sure times of about 2 min at 1 W/cm2 were common. Thus its use for material to However. of desired the difangular not very sensitive frequency in the blue- than 649F emulsion) The material region and displays poor low spatial sensitized thus it It is photopolymerizable. nothing acoustic radiation or electron acoustic record- ing seems at the present image is converted scheme. however. can be overmodulated. efficiency. or with with its present to be limited image to systems where the acoustic (first as.

into of these resemble those of crystalline Liquid crystals are usually divided smectic. except in special cases. temperature These attempts variation (79) . acoustic image display properties out in various The optical solid. in liquid crystals is more than of these crystals devices is On the other hand the interest academic. depending on the arrangement freedom. ultrasonic then blue. nematic and cholesteric.6H20 was used to demonstrate images. tals is converted a corresponding chloride thermal layer local colors. of the thickness in coating 40 of the substrate) materials and poor sensi- Microencapsulation of high acoustic . to optic of the molecules and their types materials degree of rotational were used as acoustic were tried thermal absorber with as acoustic Only the nematic converters and cholesteric cholestric Several area detectors. of cobalt crystal of its and this intensities is a function show up in various The interest and ending in white. crystal ferent pink. field detectors in such solid as acoustic has been only an academic curiosity. and their carried crystals It is practical and progressive development potential use as real-time laboratories. starting diffrom crys- Since the color structure. were based on mapping of spatial irradiated on an ultrasonic Most of the problems resolution by the acoustic liquid displays field cholesteric is that they have limited (which is a function tivity. The concept is based on absorb- to visualize that acoustic acoustic into the well known fact waves projected on a suitable ing material image.in acoustic image recording. map of the acoustic depends on its temperature.18 Solid and Liquid solid. 2. Crystal thin Acoustic layer Displays (78-82) Crystalline its capability of CoC12.

used was 8. Based on these electro-optical were made to design liquid crystal suggestions 2. This dynamic scattering of charge carriers crystal and the dipole is due to the moment of the fields scattering interaction nematic influence liquid molecules.18.1 Dynamic Scattering When an electric milky white field is applied. the liquid crystals become and opaque. constructed and by using a transparent black bottom tank(84). of 5 MHz. could be used for imaging displays 41 .1 W/cm2 at a frequency tivity for (may be by an order an ambient temperature Improvement of the sensihowever. Since ultrasonic the dynamic light place the electric may be affected acoustical and the changes taking (78) . conduction. Ultrasonic has been suggested to improvo the resolucholesteric of the liquid in specially liquid crystal holograms were recorded with by properly thermal acoustic In spite balancing absorber area detectors. field. displays. mean the need degrees which rules the of magnitude) regulation use. which have been observed in certain all types of nematic by an ultrathe following of which may perhaps be influenced effects. since of the use of cholestric in acoustic such method is more the acoustic intensity of a scientific than a practical importance. liquid crystals of such demonstration holography. to lo-' scheme out for any practical Better optical liquid sonic schemes for using crystals exploit the five electro- effects crystals. liquid would. crystals.propcrtics and using liquid an acoustic crystals impedcncc close to that of the capsula- ted cholestric tion.

so that their are rearranged twist orientation will no longer pass through shows a continuous the cell. of twisted nematic between two glass plates.18. when an the liquid crystal across the cell. The molecules of the liquid each provided crystals with li-ght are turned no electric is incident will a total 90“ in going field ap- from one glass plate plied.18.3 Guest-host A dichroic crystalline Interaction dye molecule “host” is introduced liquid as a “guest” into the nematic crystal. an aligning properties a real-time and their electric of certain optical field. such interaction display. twist axis plane of polarization rotate of the nematic molecule to the other is applied side.2 VoItagc A thin Controlled layer Optical Activity liquid crystals with is sandwiched conductive coating. 42 .2. fields of 90’ and so light static electric fields Knowing that and acoustic may interact. When linearly its to the other polarized perpendicular along the to one side. The orientation are controlled of the dye molecules by applying absorption radiation. absorption Since the optical by acoustic screen may dyes are influenced display acoustical-to-optical be reconstructed. could be used to develop an acoustical-to-optical 2. of 90” as the light is transmitted electric molecules field On the other hand.

prepared) shows up in their .18. in the liquid field). A-13 describes liquid crystal the sensitivity biasing with of such a cell an electric field Appendix A.as was observed by Schickel Contrast ratio and Fahrensohn of AEG- of 1OOO:l have been achieved using of the liquid crystals can be may be only 7-10 volts. Telefunken. a successful design of such an acousto/optic display screen (80) . It was found that creased by proper pp. (78) liquid crystals leads to (in the 2.18.5 Acousto-Optical of acoustic motion Propagation waves in nematic of these crystals.2. -causes turbulent dynamic optical and this crystal scattering layers absence of any electric bonding an array back of a liquid switched This was demonstrated (78) by transducer to the were milky. It is to be emphasized that The orientation wavefront by an acoustic and hence the latter none of the above suggested schemes have been tested. 43 II .4 Bircfringent Properties in vertically aligned liquid light crystal transmission Phase deformation (specially properties. Other tested Direct schemes are presented Effects below. influenced visualized. the liquid them turned can be in(85) . cells When the transducers in contact with on. of 10 MHz PZT-4 acoustic crystal cell.

Dion. by these cells. 44 .110) converting the acoustic image 2. however. (typically images detected bias voltage Van Valkenburg (88) applied across the cell.20 Oil. were shown (881 using of acoustic (10 -1 Such cells. and 2. pp-13.. cells having Canada.90. is reflected 5 MHz.87) This cell is described in Appendix A. in such devices optimism. imaging.19 Pohlman Cell (86. is motivating many researchers to pursue their New results work with will be reported Illinois at the Acoustical Holography of Symposium #7 at Chicago. also has a limited dynamic range of 20 dB. to 10 -3 25-30 V AC) so that no light The voltage tends to align the flakes Results in the absence of ultrasound. gave way to other resolution techniques because of its W/cm* with poor relative and sensitivity reaction time L 1 sec. Films (88. 2.8x10 -7 W/cm* with It ex- pected reaction time of the order of minutes). (August 1976) by J. on the use of homeotropic nematic liquid crystal -6 W/cm* independent of the frequency in the sensitivity better than 10 range of 1 to 10 MHz. L. its Poh lman announced To the idea in 1939(86) and then demonstrated improve the contrast of acoustic a small use in 1948 (87) . All Thermoplastic these detectors and Photoplastic are used after into an electronic one and focussing the electrons on one of these materials.Although the existing image quality interest of liquid crystal devices are quite poor.89.

results in varying causing the oil the thickness to deform.1 W/cm* and hence they cannot For recent advances. are attracted surface of the oil high voltage which in turn deformed film on the glass plate. and an optical Thermoplastic of low-melting-poi'nt The film point voltage is written to the oil film. elastic is coated on a transparent on by an electron coating.1 . film. All addition when the photoplastic thermoplastic. 45 . and. is charged. B. a of the plastic The electrons on the conducting to that backing and produce thickness film. where light the charge leaks charge in the to the conducting on the base. oil . to thermoplastic. of the oil and thus a permanent record is very similar The surface strikes layer is available. The is then read out optically image is projected.film is used to coat an optically writing on the oil film.A thin vacuum. is softened by heating This material is better than the it is less because it does not require vacuum. manner similar hardens. beam and heated to the softening are attracted by a high variation the plastic in. flat glass plate by a in The electrons. film is very similar by using a phase modulation scheme. A thin conducting layer film. however. see Ref. The remaining causes deformation same way as with thermoplastic sensitive. except that it is Photoplastic also a photoconductor. at points through of the photoconductor the photoconductor. 0. After cooling. of these materials to their require complex and expensive material in compete with * low sensitivities * other detectors.

this The scanning particular is done reason it and thus it is very slow and for used. and scanned piezoetc. one of which gives a sampled hologram which can be constructed tector stationary by a computer (96) . a fourth approach produces a phase only hologram (107) . etc.g. limit However. or a small neon bulb focussed beam or the neon bulb move in The CRT electron detector the ac0usti.106) . techniques (e. Bragg cells.104)) > a third simultaneously with by scanning both the rela- source and the detector tive the same or different speed to produce a synthetic aperture hologram (105. transducers.21 Scanning snd Sampling Technique (91-!)5) flistorically the first by scanning acoustic a small holograms were recorded microphone (in air) (either in air detector or water) or piezoelectric then modulates on a (in water) over the hologram plane. . The signal the intensity photographic synchronism optical of a CRT electron plate.. if then it a mosaic of detectors are made to sample in parallel.2. can produce a hologram almost instantaor computer data reduction the final visual image. is full of such techniques. the reconstruction to obtain with the speed of the process are superceded presently in previous electric sections Such s ch emes described the more sophisticated electronically rippled focussed surface. with gun. another by keeping the dewith the insonifying sollrce (what is and scanning known as reciprocal hologram (104.c at a slow speed to produce an There have been a variety of hologram properly of this demagnified. The literature mechanically is rarely the field neous ly . However.). arrangements technique.

of the This thus Takuso Sato used a rotating to detect transforming object the signal by a fixed the spatial distribution into of the wave intensity a temporal receiver distribution.22 Recent Developments (yet to be published)* random phase disk receiver placed far behind the object from the disk. of Japan will system for sizing announce soon a shear wave focussed vertical and oblique flaws and holographic image holography defects in metal structures. in that This is different the reference from the fixed and signal * phase contrast almost identical beams travel It is expected that some of these accomplishments at the Acoustical llolography Symposium #7 (Aug. in the focussed consists The system utilizes acoustical interferometry internal the flaw's deviation corresponds flaw image hologram mode. Shaw applies phase contrast points imaging where comparison is on the object. of object vibrations. imaging paths. principle image hologram. fringes The image of an lines across of interference or contour half surface. and the length Thus one can estimate of the fringes of the flaw by measuring the number and length appear on the focussed In an effort temperature. changing the and other of differential H. to the width of the flaw.2. which are made between the phases of adjacent separated by a constant reference distance along the scan line. The fringe separation represents wavelength of the fringe the size which in depth from the scanning plane. waves to be reconstructed the need for idea eliminates receivers. to suppress the effects external infouences. 1976). J. Hitachi a scanning or phased array Ltd. 47 will be announced II III I .

Rcsl-time FM chirp angle for tion focusscd imaging with phase array shear waves and surface and tilting waves.array past the critical block.8 MHz. was 1. When the array Rayleigh tion exciting This informa- waves. was obtained from G. the resolution did not change. 48 . Kino. shows a 5 mm definidirection at a longitudinal waves in the target in the normal direction and 4 mm in the horizontal when the acoustic than the critical achieved distance of 15 cm in an Al block. is tilted further frequency angle. using the the . S.


x-rays. care must be taken in choosing the right the object. Wavelength. This is produced by the coherent by using wide frequency 50 relative to its surface to insonify roughness. large .3. its interpretation.20 MHz) are far below the optical then.10 GHz) were used. Most of the surfaces This produces specular are smooth relative reflection wires. interpretations. etc. arrangement. they give information about the interin x-ray faces in the tested pictures . images. optical ones. they do reveal outside slrface. Speckle Noise. is less than microscopy where with in acoustic very high frequencies optical microscopy (b) Specular (1 . frequency geometrical (cl irradiation. compete very well pictures. the internal of the object. It nature of the can be eliminated band. (a) destructive (~10~~ Hz) . For example. etc. -. Reflection. and not merely In comparison with they are again. and.hence spheres acoustic to the acoustic false wavelength. and can lead to erroneous structure technique reveal are far inferior to optical distortion.1 Image Quality Acoustic images produ red by whatever They are not as sharp. rods may look like as points. testing Acoustical limiting the quality of acoustic frequencies (normally used for nonfrequencies (0. noisy. acoustic but again because of the nature waves in the materials objects. Indeed. However. Thus. the acoustic imrdes obtained resolution Naturally. which are hidden or not evident Hereunder are the main causes for images. poor resolution. of of less quality. of interaction as a whole.1 .

g. the radiation the whole 3-D information about the object However. may be undesirable. to holography from one of the or (c) resort to (b) ignore imaging (item focussed (e) Depth Distortion. ###BOT_TEXT###lt;hen there used in recording is a change between the wavelengths and reconstructing the hologram. Aperture. image. 51 . A-4). are (a) the use of composite holography the depth information. using of these images are then stacked is made optically with (97 s981 . 1. and/or very sharp pulsing detection. depth of the object magnified relative (in the reconstructed to the other dimensions image) is magnified of the object..aperture. for insonification. of the acoustic hologram under reconstruction. Another have to be changed (as explained This. In reconstructing an acoustic hologram with visible the hologram dimension wavelength to optical must be reduced by the ratio (Appendix A.10. idea to obtain undistorted. hologram images are made for various Transparencies in the body (e. for example). A highly reduced hologram on Other means to avoid and the other hand will the demagnification produce an undistorted (discussed direct next). acoustic image of the object. pp. however. large aperture. One of the main attractions is to reconstruct hologram.depth sections separate a B-scan). focussed (d) Limited light. information. due to speckles. or de- To avoid this above and the hologram dimensions Appendix A. A-4) depth distortion of the acoustical wavelength which is of the order of magnitude of 1000. otherwise. is generated in the reconstructed be too noisy image. and one optical of the whole stack reconstructed undistorted later visible This hologram then may be to produce an the same optical wavelength. pp.

Speckle noise may be confused with the roughness of the 3. or a record only.. for filing. Interpretation peculiar of acoustic images is sometimes hampered by artifacts Scanning. information or gross and (fl whether the system is to work alone or as a complement to other systems. of acoustical imaging. surface.(f) Miscellaneous Artifac. may produce from linear. The systems for visualizing described in Chapter 2 and summarized in Table 1. acoustical images in NDT are They are also prepp. need for gross macroscopic fine microscopic details. to the object on site or in the (c) (4 W degree of the details need for real-time of the information. and imaging (gl whether the system has the capability only or both acoustical and optical (h) the cost of the system. whether (99 . sented in a condensed form in Appendix 'A. information. of images which are not separated fringes may appear to hinder the location of sharp edges.1. Diffraction to the technique or helical. tested type and size accessibility laboratory). used.ts. (i. 52 . circular moire patterns one another. Table A. A-6. multiplicity etc. for example.e. choice of a proper (a) 0) system depends on: of object to be tested.2 Comparison of Various The various Techniques.

Follow up the international fast moving acousto/optical system.6) of Sokolov-type (static image converter ripple) system (Section 2. With the exception 2. the best technique a piezoelectric mechanically For large as a probe to scan the object similar to the technique it This is used in medical diagnosis.2). that Design an acoustical in the MSK hybrid to be tested. and microscopic testing of medium sized objects. however. and at the same time with optical imaging. electronically scanned piezoelectric at the present. and the deformed water surface system is system (Section no other limited 3. to real-time However. system can be incorto the types of porated objects (Figure l).3) exhibits the capability image visualization. Both systems. or incapable practicality. simple and sensitive objects can be switched enough. 53 .10) focussed. according . offers objects. to testing in the It is of some modification. mosaic array may be built (like a stethescope). Recommendations. imaging technique. have field of view. or systems.The Bragg-diffraction for real-time acoustic system (Section 2. state of the art and new devclop- ment in this 2. display. array For macroscopic an electronically (Section 2. of real- or development time display. 1. Like the above two techniques has the capability techniques of real-time Most of the other are still in the research have not yet proven their stage.3 available commercially. it may be limited medium sized water filled which can be moved to the lab and placed Bragg cell.

acoustical system for nondestructive techniaues. Initiate a program to study microscopic cracks and monitoring used in medical probe for testing diagnosis (utilizing large objects integrated them acoustically. Study and bl1il. devices Initiate with a study program on zone-plate of using acoustic imaging the possibility focussing. in addition subsystems of imaging. enhancement.3.13). reduction includes information to the various acquisition. 6. testing This Analyze and design the whole hybrid optical.14) the capabilities of acoustic (Section 2. 4. and retrieval incorporating and correlation storage. the zone-plate for both acoustical and optical 7.d a portable akin to that (lo8)). tomography (Section and Gabor’ s sonoradiography 54 . rectification. etc. on site. Investigate more thoroughly 2. circuits 5.

2.TABLE 1 ACOUSTO/OPTIC IMAGINGMETHODS AND DETECTION Imaging System Detectors or Detection Technique G Display Optical phase contrast or optical scanning with coherent or incohcrent light Coherent laser light (continuous or pulsed) Laser beam scanning or electron beam scanning Scanning the back of PZT face (quartz or barium) electronically & detect secondary emission. Metal Fiber Face tube image converter (with appropri at e PZT) Scanning the back of the PZT electronically (like Sokolov tube) Yes lo-’ (th eoretical) Up to 20 2.3 Yes 1O-3 (reported) -9 to lo-l1 10 (theoretical) 1o-g (theoretical) 100 2. Improves the angular field of view’ of Sokolov tube.6 Sealed tube -very narrow angular aperture (10-20’ ) -3X -5X resolution (r$por?ed) -new designs may increase aperture and frequency. Real Time Capability Sensitivity 1 W/cm‘ Frequency Range MHZ Section Reference General Remarks Liquid Surface (static ripples) Yes 1.7 .5-10 2.2 E Bragg-Diffraction (Direct sound-light interaction) Deformed Solids (dynamic ripples) Image Yes 1o-g (theoretical) 10-100 2.5 Converter (Sokolov) Yes Up to 0 or 20 2. 5x10m3(normal) lo-5 (reported) 10-‘ I (theoretical) 0.4.

013 (reported) (with Argon Ion laser) > 0. Has storage capabi li ty .8 -Sensitivity increases with f2 -wide .10 Laser beam scanning of PZT for readout has sensitivity of 10-4 W/ cm2 Has larger dynamic range than piezoelec‘ tries.250 in air 0.5 in water l-20 (used) 2. Piezoelectric array Electronic ###BOT_TEXT###lt;ith electronic focussing & scanning Piezoresistive Image Converter Electroluminescent image converter Photographic and Chemical Methods Photopolymer erials mat- 1o-8 (reported) Electron beam scanning Direct Direct conversion interaction Yes 10-7 (reported) 1 to 20 (used) 2.17 After conversion to visible or electron images .3 to 3.15 Yes No No 1o-6 (reported) ~~1-5 (reported 0.07 to 0.TABLE 1 (Cont ‘ d) Imaging System Detectors or Detection Technique & Display Pyroelectrics scanned with electron beam Real Time Capability Sensitivity W/cm2 Frequency Range MHZ Section Reference General Remarks Pyroelectric face tube image convert er Yes lo-3 at 3 MHz (reported) up to 20 2.02 2.17 2.9 1o-5 (reported) Yes lo-l1 (theoretical) 2.frequency band (>20 MHz) -sealed tube Electrostatic Transducers u-l 0 Electric switching Yes ii-11 -8 in air in water) (theoretical) ) 0.16 2.

. l-l (reported) 2.05-0. poor contrast.8~10-~ (reaction time ~60 sets. Spatial resolution of 0. Direct Interaction Direct Interaction plus proper viewing system Yes Yes o.19 Poor resolution. Thermoplastic and photoplastic recorders Pholman Cell No 0.) 2.g. Ca-CrS stimulated by UV increases its luminescence persistence by acoustic exposure. See Ref. 102 which includes specific references.1 2.18 Sti 11 in experimental stage. e. and limited dynamic range of 20 dB .) 2.20 Yes -3 10-l to 10 (reaction time 1 sec. Extinction of luminescence . Solid and Liquid Crystal Display Chemical Techniques Phosphor persistence changes.1-10-6 (reported) 0.TABLE 1 (Cont ‘ d) Imaging System Detectors or Detection Technique E Display Electron beam scanners plus optical illumination Direct Interaction Real Time Capability Sensitivity W/cm2 Frequency Sectiqn Range Reference MHZ General Remarks Oi 1.2 mm reported.

0. No results reported.12 2.. exposure) .13 lo-l1 10-” (theoretical) (theoretical) 2.11 No results reported.1 (at 5 MHz) Semiconductor materials such as zinc E cadmium. HgsAgeiodide) . irreversible process.g.1 W/cm*.1 0. changes color from yellow to red instantly with acoustic absorption (1 sec. rise of (10-4) Oc.14 2. ‘ temp.TABLE 1 (Cont’ d) Imaging System Detectors or Detection Technique $ Display RealTime Capabi li ty Sensitivity W/cm* Frequency Range MHZ Chromotropic compound (e. Thermopile detects 0. Section Reference General Remarks Chemical Techniques (Cont ‘ d) Thermosensitive color changes 1 Change in Phototn emission OcChange in electrical conductivity Thermocouple and thermistor Zone Plate Acoustic Focussing (on PZT) Gabor’ s Sonoradiographs Acoustic Electron or Optical Scanning Coherent laser beam E photo recording Yes No No Possible 0.1 10-11 Tomography PZT PZT Mostly used in medicine. Frequency Swept Recording . 2.

21 Slow .TABLE 1 (Cqnt ‘ d) Imaging System Detectors or Detection Technique & Display PZT (in water) Microphone (in air) Light image Yes 30 ergs/cm* Appendix B RealTime Capabi li ty Sensitivity W/cm* Frequency Range MHZ Section Reference General Remarks Digital Sampling and Computer Reconstruction Rutican Recording Devices No lo-l1 (theoretical) 2.

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mainly (lasers) acoustical picture and the and optical due to the nonavailability lack of proper fields tical in order image. in itself early seems to alleviate these two main difficulties since.1 GENERALREMARKS The flurry early 1940's. and on the other and/or low cost to produce reliable of transforming the acousto-optical transducers one.from the inability capable acoustic lenses one hand. for light Cl01 The delay was. elecacoustic Great Britain.light imaging has been revived success of optical sources--lasers. 1. holograms were made about two decades later.81 x-raysi7' and microwaves[" in the 1950's.n the difficulties the work on acoustical encountered in making satisfactory hand. including trons.rinciple. no lenses were needed and the acoustical as the acousto-optical theory transducer. it to all scalar was known waves. [6. Demonstration was made with however.i. of coherent techniques. In light the various of the brief practical to render sources interfacing visible an intelligible of the acous- discussion mentioned above. PJ3 of activity mainly INTRODUCTION in acoustical imaging of the 1930's and with in the USSR and Europe. resulted mainly more vigour holography in the 1960's after and the availability The from on dormant peri0d.I. we shall survey of the categories of acoustic holography A-2 and the interfacing . Gabor in in the USA. the demonstrated of coherent .71 can be extended of this the technique acoustic of holography waves. that work of El-Sum [6. hologram may be 13341 ' Since the considered publication of the original and the early of holography 151 by D. acoustical image to a visible Holography in p.

131 . is easy to prove that example cr) In other with its the hologram with wave co and its object one of the waves (for complex conjugate "i. while acoustic the reconstructing hologram wave. may be considered as a reference wave and an object recording wave (wave I scattered by the object).2 and optical For a cohcrcnt theory fields as applied in particular describe to nondcstructivc first. the recorded wave f interference where the intensity of the resulting I = z* where the asterisk The first intensities. The two images can be separated The reconstructing that wave need not be of the same wavelength In other words. discussion we shall of holography. as the other of the original jugate or a twin is reconstructed together image.acoustical testing.12. very briefly. SIblPLIFIED TJJEORY OF JJOLOGRAPIlY IN GENERAL The theory of holography so and fir I is very well known C5. Thus we have an acoustical reconstructed A-3 visible . When two pattern coherent registers waves interferes. light. reconstructs words a . waves. the general 1. do and cr may be wave is a visible with light used to make the hologram. intensities pattern respectively.replica complex conand viewed. of the waves additional the last two terms represent due to the interference The two waves between cr and cr and co. (1) represent while the -t +* + +* -t +* +*+ (11 two terms in the above equation 8r and so. response Assuming linear it of the intensity illumi- and a linear nating of the hologram. The recorded ijO is the hologram.6. = UrUr + UoUo + uruo + 'rue denotes the complex conjugate.

The dimensions from the original properly of the rcconstructcd object unless image. the scale of the acoustic hologram is image reduced by a factor will m. however. to m2. on the other hand. the net scale image will the reduction x'. of ultrasonic detectors Table 1[14] lists Jc (frequency > 2Opz). y' proportional reconstructed transformation and z' of the then read x’ = mx y' = my (2) z' = m2 (Q/A.<hich the depth distortion. wavelength.y) of the object are mensions are unchanged. length ratio while dimensions the depth where (z) is distorted Xs in proportion wavelength to the waveand XL is As/AL is the acoustic the light If.) which shows that m = XL/ hS z image. The image would therefore would in turn be so small regenerate as to require magnification--. the lateral dimensions while of the reconstructed in depth is be reduced by the same factor. will be diffcrcnt is the dimensions r31 of the hologram changed before the reconstruction. next is how does the acoustical films for real later hologram be recorded reconstruction) or The question permanently temporarily (such as on photographic on an appropriate medium (for time reconstruction). one must choose to obtain an undistorted of 10 -3 which is of the order optical . the lateral When the hologram di(x. unchanged. The choice the various classes of a particular technique for recording an acoustical hologram depends upon the frequency of the interaction 'A-4 of the sound with .

the choice Table of the appropriate frcqucncy II may bc used as a in the range of flows. 1151 For nondestructive frequencies 100 KHz to 10 MHz arc used for techniques cording of macroscopic into an optical of mapping the acoustic frequency one vary ac- to the acoustic object Furthermore. The guide. proposal and the medium of acoustic frequency. We shall on the acoustic applicable techniques objects. also. testing. between the tested depends. for various As a guide for applications.the subject sonic under study. detection field used. to nondestructive testing nonbiological A-5 I . the coupling wave propagation emphasize in this of macroscopic.

1 1o-4 due to stress. of emulsion to fixing. photoemitt2rs. thermopiles. suspended piezoresistive. liquid crystals: stimulators or extinguishers ‘ of luminescence. change in developing reaction. ‘ phospher persistance devices) Optical and Mechanical (Schlieren method. aluminum flakes) Electronic (piezoelectric effect. 10’ 11 Table II. chromotropics. organic materials which change color. piezoelectric. use of birefringence surface deformation of sollds or fluids.Table 1. thermistors. Ultras&k of Detector Detectors (Frequency > 20 KIiz) Mfnfmum Detect Power (watt/cm Class Photographic and Chemical (direct effect on particularly soft emulsion. semiconductors. mineral and archaeology 5 to 100 KHz for long imaging under water Testing and Medical 100 KHZ to 10 MHz to short prospectint Ocea nogra phy range 3-D Nondestructive Diagnosis Ultrasonic Microscopy 10 MHz to 10 GHz A-6 .100 Hz. such as iodine. Frequency Range for Different Applications ‘ Applications Geophysics Frequency Range of Sound . for deep penetration 100 to 10. in resistance oxldlzlng Thermal (thermocouples. ) 1 change speed. plus electroluminesc2nce) 0. eletrostrictive. chlorine.000 Hz for oil.

and solid) and laser beam) . (height whole liquid spaced 3 levitated by ho.15. PlIi'l'lIODS AND TEQINIQUES OF ACOUSTO-OPTICAL IIOI.4. [3.yV2h = 2P where P.1 merely are brief of some of these methods. surface is and the surface pressure. to illustrate LIQUID SURFACE DEFORMTION WITH ACOUSTIC REFERENCE WAVE. to the pressure equation: (3) the density of the liquid. /' from Eq. while the ripples be: distant d apart. (3) will A-7 I! . --.. l electronic light- sound interaction for (Bragg diffraction) display (liquid crystals) conversion instantaneous discussions the general The following presented 2.-__~ When two acoustic beams (object interference and reference the free beams) propagate surface of the in 3 liquid medium./'which. their according affects equilibrium liquid. respectively. idea of the techniques.II. y and h are the acoustic its surface tension. p.OCIu\PI1YAND ACOUSTO-OPTICALINTERFACING Acoustical interdepcndcnt imaging and will and acousto-optical with as-such interfacing in this (coupling) are bc dealt section.16. deformation.173 classes: (liquid of the following Surface Scanning Direct Direct deformation (mechanical. There arc many ways of categorizing of acoustical combination l the methods and techniques Such methods fall in one or a holography. The h) are ah . .

be maximized in order to have the highest difa com- efficiency. beam. the angle between the reference The rippled surface and object 3s 3 can be considered by illuminating phase hologram which with a coherent light may be reconstructed beam. (4)]. = ho. be minimized On the other optical 3s the proper parameters of the liquid hand. The reference to the surface . h should fraction promise.c 25r2 y fi % 2 Sin OS Sin' OS d = (4) where I is the sound intensity.233 in this recommended that good working (6) Other sources by using an in-focus of noise technique instead may also be minimized holography proper to form or image hologram object of the lensless surface (using by focusing acoustic the insonified onto the liquid beam is directed A-8 lenses). incident optically it on the surface at an angle BL such that Sin es As is uniform (51 or spherical.h = 1. es half C and fs its velocity and frequency. 3 Branden and Smithr18] criterion fs(MHz) is Sin es ~0. of the surface noise produces undesirable which should [Eq. by Sin BL AL Unless the general such levitation choosing levitation.

Yi The is reduced considerably. r201 and light and Hilderbrand.the image hologram. the undesired grating close to the surface. in the reconstructed image. In this different an equivalent .on the liquid. with either difference between the acoustic et al. is not 3 too important choosing can be compensated for of the optical by appropriately detector. arrangement transmitted arrangement. quality. with in the course bc dc'alt LIQUID SURFACE DEFORMATION WITflOUT ACOUSTIC REFERENCE WAVE ~=-(Time-Ind_elend= Instead of 3 reference beam. it is proporthrough the at the image plane of Green's intensity to the square of the acoustic and hence is higher than Smith-Brenden advantage. high frequency ripples. 2. this intensity of the surface and which is :.superimposed on the main ripples arrangement. 2. a synthetic used scheme both the detector or the same velocities. the response since However.3 characteristic produce In general the two techniques images of comparable LIQUID SURFACE DEFOJ?MATION WITH SIMULTANEOUS SCANNINGOF THE ACOUSTIC SOURCEAND LIGHT DETECTOR(Synthetic Aperture) To avoid'the distortion of the reconstructed image. UnavoidableinBrenden-Smith optical tional object. which the acoustic In this immersed in is projected. in addition of the study.. way.2 to several Such technique limitations has advantages which will :IIKI disndvnntagcs. higher resolution A-9 . Green [I91 used 3 wire image of the object. aperture are scanning is a holoabout by the extreme El-S&1g] technique. brought wavelengths. larger aperture and the source The resultant gram with and consequently and less less distortion speckle noise.

pressure develops.5 from the film to a very thin produces layer volume is noise is and hence the omnipresent speckle from the system. respectively. The excursion A is given by: -J A=----. is equivalent Consecutive to the information-carrying recording of two pulsed half-waves.10 image of the acoustic . of the two holograms hologram gives 3 the reconstruction composite phase-contrast A. no radiation with the sound.The hcst dctcctor results for improvement are.obtaincd when the source. excitation on a short If Is and fS being the film passing coherent pulse the acoustic intensity is chosen to be reflective through light the film beam. INSTAXTANEOUS HOLOGRAMS A record of the instantaneous value of 3 dynamically part optical deformed surface hologram. 3 to light. method to reduce the speckle is dcscribcd 2. the acoustic can be picked up as phase modulation This film is the main idea of Gabor E211. into 3 A single Light is sent as thin the body to be investigated.LS fS (71 and frequency. differ of an on-axis holograms that spaced the in time by an odd number of acoustic optical of such references 3 and provided by r/2.4 next. noise has been proposed by Gabor [*'I and DYNAMIC SURFACE DEFORMATION When sound passes through a transparent thin film in an acoustic moves medium. but the film. Fresnel hologram. nevertheless. Its reflected limited eliminated 2.and Another the are superimposed and move with the same velocity.

I241 PIEZOELECFRIC TRANSDUCERS Many materials (quartz. _----. however. This . surface. surface Korpel.) barium titanate. [251 or by making use of an array of transducers. is can be made for in resolution limited and in aperture. lead transis zirconate-titanate. The signal is then processed optical and displayed reconstruction. and hence is usually 2._~_ _ -----.DEFORMED A less sensitive scheme than the laser scanning one is to image The electron the acoustically deformed surface onto a photocathode. ELECTRON SCANNING OF ACOUSTICALLY SURFACE . r231 of the beam edge in front of the beam to the on a local acoustic demonstrated deflector a lens to image the exit pupil of the detector._---_--A laser beam scanned over a reflecting excitation the idea'using as phase modulation._ .image is then scanned electrically. pupil A knife onto the entrance detector of the photodiode into amplitude transforms producing the phase modulation a signal proportional modulation.the are used as either (or the object) transducer scanned mechanically. acoustic excitation. ducers or detectors. transducer on it A-11 acts as a mosaic (transducers an equivalent electric Since a piezoelectric array). lithium sulfate. in the optical system. picks up the et al. For imaging. the acoustic wave incident produces . [=I This in turn can be uscd'as an RAPID LASER BEAM SCANNING .7 limited to ultrasonic microscopy. etc. BEAM ____. lead metaniobate.8 a hologram or its of the photocathode optical scheme is capable of displaying depending on the loca- reconstruction.--.6 hologram._. CR tube from which a record This scheme.image over the excited acoustic 2. either tion 2.

Voltages side.9 of view. of information storage. good dynamic range (3x10 threshold of 2x10 -11 field to 3x10 -3 W/cm2) and a low sensitivity However. The transducer to generate surface can then be scanned by an signal. based on this or quartz -9 principle. Acoustic beam in order a tclcvision-type was first camera. and its conductivity camera tube an incident A vidicon-type such a target has mainly three advantages over the piezoelectric type tube: (a) It responds to a wide range of acoustic frequency frequencies as response opposed to the resonant of the piezoelectric (b) (c) 2. 1. they have a limited aperture and and w/cy2.lo-' by the acoustic interface with on the piezoclectric layer.A*CdS(Cu) changes with using has high electric acoustic resistivity wave. holograms Such tubes have been used to record 1271 acoustic with real or simulated reference 1281 PIEZORESISTIVE DETECTORS . made by Sokolov. nescence with a detector a bias has a sensitivity wave incident of 10 -6 . or ultraviolet W/cm2. ELECTROLUMINESCENT DETECTOR This is mainly a piezoelectric material with an electroluminescent simulated illumination. a narrow angular reconstruct wave.imagc'across electron television it. They have a P61 Barium titanate has been used in such cameras. additionally.10 and odd harmonic type.t has the capability It has higher sensitivity.[351 2. A-12 appear at the the electroluminescent . for lumiSuch generated coating having a proper either thickness voltage and.

13 so far Thus the acoustic The sensitivity wave information of such cells to be of the order is not too large and shows of a few mW/cm'. of an acoustical BRAGGDIFFRACTION This is a direct interaction of light and sound. r321 image of the insoniwaves and the is formed when the angle 0 between the acoustic A-13 I .by can be eliminated. wave is projected on such a liquida change the directions transmission into visible of the molecules pattern. a small bias a contrasting applying LIQUID-CRYSTAL ACOUSTICAL-TO-OPTICAL CONVERSION CELL130. 2. and they the With no acoustic wave prcsent. information. and the aperture (-25 cm square). this oriented and present a grey background in order voltage background image. change. on the cell.11 PO1lLMAN CELL [291 A cell filled with xylene in which small image detection. causing in the optical is transformed is demonstrated attained attained made with 2.12 wave incident light incident on the cell. A visible capable of real time visualization fied object of acoustic images. in their low-energy crystals and hence are aligned they act on one axis only. as a wave plate. crystal cell.311 A thin layer of nematic plate liquid crystals sandwiched between a the liquid polarizer crystals and a glass float freely treated in such a way that state. the Al flakes aluminum flakes In the presence arc aligned are of suspended is used for acoustic acoustic reflect flakes fleeted better cell. the fringes The image resolution hologram is reasonable 3 MHz wave. Since the liquid and when an acoustic are birefringent.2. by the rcto produce across the are randomly light.

of the light inside (8) the medium and Xs is the perpendicular illumi- This necessitates field. microscopic objects. fields.nO that of energy and momentum of the interacting ($1 where n ordinary limit. a new acoustic camera for real time visualization Such a camera uses . direction The light to the acoustic From the conservation one finds xL "E . Walker and Maginess [361 developed of insonified A-14 optics.14 is usually frequency in this technique is to microscopic objects.15 MISCELLANEOUS OTHER TECIINIQUES Meindl. and its an almost The image formed is usually resolution demagnified of the by the ratio light source. 1333 BIREFRINGENT CRYSTALS IN ACOUSTICAL MICROSCOPY LiNb03 birefringent crystals propagates wave.direction condition of propagation of a coherent light beam satisfies Bragg's 2XS Sin 8 = AL where AL is the wavelength acoustic.an opposite medium. nation of the acoustic of XL/As. scopic and n are indices max = E 0 of refraction This yields of the extraordinary minimum acoustic and frequency waves in the crystal. 2.wavelength. and hence allows objects This an extremely high frequency to be used in micro- visualization. Such images are usually acoustical limited The maximum usable 20-30 GHz and it 2. depends on the size of low intensity. are used as the acoustic coaxially in the crystal propagating in. r341 . is limited to technique. however.

[371 acoustic beam has been produced by focussing Various developments and refinements in acoustical imaging tech- niques has been reported Further information information recently in the 1975 Ultrasonic optical 39. to holography exploration and its consideration. in a of of a focussed acoustic beam. and electron beam the technique by itself is not based on the possible applica- of holography. processing Symposium. where the focussing the acoustic waves are produced by means of inhomogeneity magnetic and electric fields. keen interest by many workers Microwave acoustics in the field scanning of acoustical One approach is the use of electronic and steering and anisotropy acoustic field. is also gaining imaging. induced by applied A collimated magnetic beam has been scanned over an angle of 8O in a uniform and a 12S-u-diameter nonuniform field. arrays. its is worth acoustic Although lenses.intcgrntcd scanning theory tion clcctronic of dctcctor circuits. 1383 of acoustical on coherent can be found in reference A-15 .

A. Letters 2.REFERENCES 1. J.. Wade. 27-48. 195s). Hilderbrand. 4. (Stanford H. 1968).A. -42. 1 (1969). H.S.. and Brenden.. Acoustic Optical R. El-Sum. M. M. A-16 . 18. ref.. 1968). W. Ph. l-26. vol. K. #6228 (January. K. 548939 and 3745814 (1973). 11. 10. P. 8. 1292 (1971). M. Seminar Proceedings (SPIE.. 7. P. by R.S. H. 9. 42 (1974). El-Sum.. N. 378 (1968). K. P. R. IEEE Symposium on Sonics and Phys.. 64r449 (1951). II (Plenum Press. A.. A.. 4. A. 12. 1952). A. A Report. 1. M. El-Sum. 2. Patents Metherell.. Ultrasonics.S. Sot. Acoustical Holography. and Dickens. R. R. J. Nos. Kirkpatrick. IEEE -59. 19..O. Goodman. Letters 1969). E. 454 (1949). Patty. 197A. App. (1966). NOL. Berger. 15... H. R. Roy. M. Sot. J. Report ANL-(5680 (1963).Y. Today -J 27 private communications B.D. El-Sum. Greguss. Nature 161. 2. Gabor. U. M. El-Sum. K. et al. T. 5. and Sheridan.. Holography I (Plenum Press... blueller. 394. 328 Holography. 7-22.A. Holography Proc. vol. 825-831 (1956).S. Phys. 1971). 777 (1948). E. Proc. et al. B. Phys. Proc. 13. University.. ref. 14... 16. Ref. D. and Haines. and Mulvey. Berger. 59. H. 3. pp.S. Metherell. 4. Collier. H.A. 1969) pp. 16. N. 20. liolography. A. D. B. 1319 (1971). Proc. Mueller. 763 (1952).O. pp.. H. et al. 1959). vol. Thesis and El-Sum. (Plenum Press. J. M. (Academic Press.. -46. 6. El-Sum. U. Haine. pp.. IEEE -59. (Sept.. I..... H. 1970) pp. 22.O. 10. J. A. Smith. Roy. 17.. Proceedings National Electronics Conference l-13 (February.. and paper to be published. J. et al. Acoustical Gabor. 21.

Holography. U. Phys. 2157 (1968). 24. 2s. Pohlman.. A. et al. 27. Chutjian. Am. Proc. 425 (1966). Korpcl. G. 2.. Acoust. A. II (Academic Press. F. 1973). Quantum Electron... 249.. IEEE -56... Physik Greguss. 4. QE-3.23. et al. 27 (1967). D. 26. 34. R. 4. J..A. Acoustical Holography. J. Havlice. P. Patent 3'236. 29. 38.. Acoustica 113.. Brit. Dixon. 39. L. 697 (1939). B. V Auld.. A. 3s. J. 45.Ref. Sot. and Richardson. Z. 117. IEEE Trans. 30. J. pp. H.. 53. C. pp. and Dcsmaris. 12..S.. Stanford University. and Collier. Jacobs. vol. A. Massey. I (Plenum Press. -57. 1969)' pp. Sokolov. Patent 2'164. Appl. 32. vol. IEEE Proceedings tion. pp. J. 31. Acoustic in Solids. Acoustic U. Ref. W.. 28. communications. Martin.S. G. Fritzler. and Havlice. Private discussions. Acoust. J. C. (Plenum Press. private Quate.125. A. Ferguson. 2. J. SU-15. 37.O. Symposium (under publicaSO (1970). NDT 2.. 1405 (1967). - Proceedings A-17 ... Korpel. P. of the 1975 Ultrasonic AGARD Conference Fields and Waves 1973). 1970). Holography. C. 881 (1909). 85 (1967). Letters vol. El-Sum. Also. R. R. M. Quate.. 52 (1973). B.S. 33. J. ~01s.944. A. I and II (Wiley Interscience... S. 68 (1968). 36..


changes. as shown in .3) . . acoustical optical electronically scanned piezoelectric of the photoand sensitive. with a green a photoconductor organic sensitizer (usually poly-N-vinyl-carbazole layer. store an input layer. The “Rut i cons” are read out with ‘ B-2 a . exposure).Fig. 5~10~~ W/cm2 for -4 for 0. usually dye and an elastomer When the photoconductor across of the siloxanethe based variety). with a resolution 1 min exposure. It image ai a surfaceis a layered structure B-l. in turn layer. voltage distribution is exposed to image light. and in the deformo- tube (B-9. holograms and continuous-tone images at exposure less than 300 erg cm2 (3x10-’ W/cm2 for 1 set exposure.1 sec. using photoconductors deformation the thermoplastic and the Elmikon(B-s) electron-beam Eidophor graphic sandwiches (B-2. the photomembrane light . or 3x10 in excess of 850 line pairs/mm.The electronically mosaic array graphic films Another Such devices used for focussed.10) . as are suitable for recording levels of is maintained. . devices It is fast in detecting group of recording are based on surface is the Ruticon (B-11 family. the optical Rut i cons incoherent image has been removed. The “Rut i can” temporarily deformation consisting pattern on an elastomer of a transparent layer conductive substrate. like imaging plays the role images. the photoconductor causing changes in the electric distribution to deform into This deformation long as the field field across the elastomer forces pattern The resulting causes it of electromechanical a surface persists relief ‘ after across the elastomer corresponding to the image light. Surface-deformation of deformable imaging was first liquid or elastomer modulator (B-4) proposed for surfaces in the addressing systems (B-6) J in light storage and display valves(B-2.7J8) .

phase-sensitive It


system (Schlierren)

as shown in Figure image conversion,


can be used for

incoherent-to-coherent wavelength


filtering, buffer

correlation, storage of optical


image intensification, display initial (since intensities


and real-time of their

they can be erased to less than 10 percent within 10 msec. Although electric detect tested useful field) acoustical for for the use of dielectric was demonstrated holograms liquid


or without deformable

applied surface to

as a promising

and images, the Ruticon However, its optical

has never been behavior (Figure may prove 1).

acoustical the hybrid


system of nondestructive






Operation of Ruticon imaging devices. First, a charge is placed on the elastomer surface (a) by means of corona discharge, glow discharge, contact with a liquid metal, or a thin flexible metal layer dposited on the surface of the the photoconductor is exposed elastomer.Then, to image light (e.g-. a bar pattern is used in this The elastomer surface deforms into illustration). a relief pattern corresponding to the optical image, the removal of the optical as seen in (b). After (c), the surface-deformation pattern image, persists. (After N.K.Sheridan, Ref. B-l)






An arrangement for reading out a Ruticon, used to record and project incoheret images. Ppaque stop's1 prevents the direct light from reaching the outpur By placing stops S & S3 in the back image plane I forcal plane 8' f lens L2(in place 0 2 Sl)a negative image of the input is obtained . W h e n glow-discharge or corona-discharge are used(before recording on the Ruticon)the Ruticon can be viewed by transmission, while images formed by the liquid-metal or metalplated devices must-be read out by reflection (as this Figure illustrates) because of the opacity of the deformable metal electrode. (After N.K.Sheridon, Ref. B-l)


S. J.O. Wohl. A. F. R. Proc. Phys. 199 (1942). J. 1. IEEE Trans.626.A. Reizman. F. Thiemann. Angew. U.O. on Electron Devices ED-19 (9). Glenn. Phys. Good. Bauman. Nat. App. Z. 1976 . 337 F. 1010 (1972). -24 (1968). 1691. van Raalte. 14 (1963). Telev. C. Eng. J. Proc. W. 351 (1953).A. 1959). J. J. 305. Arch. Math. 15.084 (1971). 1570 (1959). -17. Schweiz. Electron. 9 (lo).S. R. Photo. Gundlach and C. Fisher and H. -18.S. Claus. Conf. W. Sot. -30 (12). (1958). Pat. Sheridan. 48 -' 1003841 W. E. AGARDConf. 31 (1967). A. J. Hawn and H. 8. 3. 2225 (1970). -60. W. 33. K. 50 (Sept. Motion Pitt.REFERENCES B-l B-2 B-3 B-4 B-S B-6 B-7 B-8 B-9 B-10 N. B-6 NASA-Langley. 1351. (1941). z. Bawngartner. Sci. Medley. Eng.