By: Bhupender Singh Chugh Shop no. 2 at Pantnagar plant of Ashok Leyland is meant for the fabrication of frame side member (FSM) of the Heavy Load Trucks. Thin sheets ( Cold Rolled) of mild steel are used as raw material. The basic processes carried out in the manufacturing are as follows:

(a) Forming:
Thin sheets of MS are bent into U shape by using roll forming. Sheet is passed through a series of rolls to produce the required shape.

(b) Punching:
In this operation holes of various diameters are punched into the work piece using punching machine (sonam). The whole punching operation is carried out in a sound proof chamber using two CNC punching machines.

(c) Robotic plasma cutting:
Plasma cutting is a process which uses high velocity ionized gas, known as plasma, to heat and melt metals. The plasma then mechanically blows the molten material away to severe the work piece. Plasma cutting is used to cut steel or a non-ferrous material less than one inch thick. Robot plasma cutting is easy to use and offers higher quality cuts at faster travel speeds. This versatile application effectively cuts very thin & thick metals consistently.


the blast media is pneumatically accelerated by compressed air and projected by nozzles onto the component. then the finished FSM is transferred for quality check. this is called wet blasting. rail. 3) ACTIVATION Surface Activation activates the metal to obtain fine crystalline structure during phosphate coating which will increase corrosion resistance and adhesion properties. If we are not using activation. The blasting task determines the choice of the abrasive media. For special applications a media-water mix can be used.(d) PICK AND PLACE PROCESSES “Pick and Place” is a process of picking an object from one location and placing it at another location. There are two technologies used: wheel blasting or air blasting. These processes are commonly used in assembly lines Three pick and place processes were carried out: PP1. de-sanded or cleaned in some form.after shot blasting process the work piece is transferred using hangers for pre treatment processes.after robotic plasma cutting the work piece is transferred using electromagnetic hangers for machine washing PP2. automotive.Abrasive. wheel blast machines are used where big parts or large areas of parts have to be de-rusted. In this operation a stream of abrasive material is forcibly propelled against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface. foundry. PP3-after all the pre treatment operations are performed. shipbuilding. or a centrifugal wheel is used to propel the blasting material . or remove surface contaminants. Four work pieces can be transferred at a time. roughen a smooth surface. (e) SHOT BLASTING Shot blasting is a method used to clean. in most cases any type of dry or free running abrasive media can be used. strengthen (peen) or polish metal. The shot blasting operation performed in the shop is WHEEL BLASTING PRE TREATMENT OPERATIONS 1) DEGREASING Degreasing is done to remove the oil and dust layers that might be present on the surface of the blank. typically air. . construction. In both air and wet blasting the blast nozzles can be installed in fixed positions or can be operated manually. 2) WATER RINSE The work piece is fed through a series of nozzles through which water with high velocity is forced on the surface to properly clean the surface. de-scaled. the phosphate crystal size may be large and results in voids in Phosphate coating (Gap between structure will be large). (ii) Air blasting Air blast machines can take the form of a blast room or a blast cabinet . de-burred. Crystalline structure less than 10 Microns is always preferable. shape a surface. including aerospace. and many others. (i) Wheel blasting Wheel blasting is basically abrasive blasting which directly converts electric motor energy into kinetic abrasive energy by rotating a turbine wheel. Shot blasting is used in almost every industry that uses metal. A pressurized fluid. Corrosion will take place at the voids.

Phosphate coating used here is of zinc phosphate basically meant for rust proofing. and controlling bath temperature. It serves as a conversion coating in which a dilute solution of phosphoric acid and phosphate salts is applied via spraying or immersion and chemically reacts with the surface of the part being coated to form a [3] layer of insoluble. or as a foundation for subsequent coatings or painting. . Phosphate conversion coatings can also be used on aluminum. crystalline phosphates. A coarse grain structure impregnated with oil. Slow cooling is done to prevent thermal stresses and cracking. zinc. however. silver and tin The performance of the phosphate coating is significantly dependent on the crystal structure as well as the weight. 5) PHOSPHATE WATER RINSE Phosphate water rinse was performed using de. For example.ionized water SHOT BLASTING MACHINE 6) DRY OFF OVEN In dry off oven the work piece is dried for about 10 minutes under the temperatures of about 90 to 100 degree Celsius to remove excess moisture. a microcrystalline structure is usually optimal for corrosion resistance or subsequent painting.4) PHOSPHATING Phosphate coatings are used on steel parts for corrosion resistance. may be the most desirable for wear resistance. These factors are controlled by selecting the appropriate phosphate solution. and phosphating time. lubricity. cadmium. concentration. using various additives. 7) DRY OFF COOLING In dry off cooling the hot work piece from oven is air cooled slowly to room temperature.

staff members of FSM shop . 1) POWDER COATING Paint in the powdered form is given negative charge and is bombarded using an air pressurized (5-6 bar) electrode gun on the frame part having a positive charge.Wikipedia . 2) IR OVEN In IR oven Pre baking process is done where the powder coated part is heated to temperatures of about 120 C to wipe off any moisture content present and bring the powdered form to an almost molten state. 3) PC OVEN Then the part is finally baked in a PC baking oven at a temperature of 200 C for around 30-35 minutes 4) PC COOLING The blank is then slowly cooled to room temperature using air cooling by PC cooler. o o QUALITY CHECK After the FSM is fully manufactured. The following processes takes place for painting of a Frame member.FRAME PAINTING Frame painting is done to provide finish and make the surface corrosion resistant. The charging is done to increase the adhesion between the two types of materials. various tests are performed on it to ensure the recommended quality. “dry film thickness” test is performed to ensure uniform powder coating on the FSM Test was performed to check for any gloss on the surface REFERENCE.