Peeler centrifuge From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The peeler centrifuge is a device that performs by rotating filtration

basket in an axis. A centrifuge follows on the principle of centrifugal force to separate solids from liquids by density difference. High rotation speed provides high centrifugal force that allows the suspended solid in feed to settle on the inner surface of basket. There are three kinds of centrifuge, horizontal, vertical peeler centrifuge and siphon peeler centrifuge. These classes of instrument apply to various areas such as fertilisers, pharmaceutical, plastics and food including artificial sweetener and modified starch. Contents [hide] 1 General principles 1.1 Structure 1.2 Operation 2 Types 2.1 Horizontal peeler 2.2 Vertical peeler 2.3 Siphon peeler 3 Range of Applications 3.1 Horizontal peeler 3.2 Vertical peeler 3.3 Siphon peeler 4 Main process characteristics 4.1 Main process of centrifuge 4.2 Operational parameters 4.2.1 Centrifugal force 4.2.2 Rotational speed 4.2.3 Particle size 4.2.4 Capacity

1 Design Heuristics 5.1.2.2.2 Horizontal discontinuous separation Peeler Centrifuge 6.4 Siphon peeler centrifuge 6.2 Limitations 6.1.1.5 Processes and Equipment Design 5.1 Horizontal discontinuous separation Peeler Centrifuge 5.1.1 Horizontal Peeler Centrifuge.1 Tubular bowl 7.3 Siphon peeler centrifuge 7 Competitive processes 7.2 Chamber bowl 7.2 Vertical peeler centrifuge 6.1.3 Hydrocyclones 8 Environmental Effects 8.1.1 Pusher centrifuge 7.2 Design Equation 6 Advantages and limitations 6.2. Heinkel .1.1 Sedimentation Centrifuge 7.1 Advantages 6.3 Decanter centrifuge 7.1 Krauss-Maffei Horizontal Peeler Centrifuge 6.1.3 Vertical Peeler Centrifuge 6.2.1.1 Horizontal peeler centrifuge 6.2 Moving bed filters 7.2 Vertical peeler centrifuge 5.

jpg Figure1. Types[edit] Horizontal peeler[edit] [2] The horizontal peeler centrifuge is one of oldest peeler centrifuge designs. and this process may be used to achieve maximum removal of solid from liquid that may be required to be as pure as possible and can not be easily separated by differences their densities. [2][3] Peeler centrifuges are batch and continuous centrifuge processes. The door of drum can be opened fully and contains . which sits inside of external casing. also washing and washing processes at the same rotational speed and in same centrifuge vessel. Cross-sectional diagram of horizontal peeler centrifuge A-Filter cloth B-Peeling device C-Solid discharge D-Wash pipe E-feed pipe F-Main shaft/ Bearing G-Motor Operation[edit] [1] Peeler centrifuge operates on the principle of centrifugal force to separate solids from liquids by density difference.1) with horizontal rotating basket.9 References General principles[edit] Structure[edit] HorizontalPeelerCentrifuge. and was first batch and continuous processes in peeler centrifuge. And high rotation speed provides high centrifugal force that allows the suspended solid in feed to settle on the inner surface of drum. The first horizontal peeler centrifuge was launched by Krauss-Maffei in 1928 (Known as Krauss-Maffei peeler centrifuge). [2][4] The horizontal peeler centrifuge has a general structure (refer to section 1.

Siphon peeler centrifuge has similar structure to Krauss-Maffei horizontal peeler centrifuge. sulfates and calcium. as it needs to handle high speeds of rotation and feeds. except instead of inner drum wall with pores. usually fine particles from suspension liquid feed mixtures.1) over other centrifuge systems. but it is discharged through the discharge chute at the bottom of centrifuge vessel. discharging capability. which increases filtration efficiency. Modern machines are supported by cantilever for ease of access to inside of drum and components for purpose of maintenance. such as vertical basket centrifuge. [4] The horizontal arrangement of rotating drum provides several advantages (refer to section 6. Because it does not utilise peeler action to remove solid layers. is that the scrapped off solids layers are not removed by chute of peeler. . The only difference other than arrangement. Rather than only centrifugal pressure based filtration. Range of Applications[edit] Horizontal peeler[edit] [5][6] Generally peeler centrifuges are used to separate solids. chlorides. wash. siphon peeler centrifuge has solid inner drum wall where the liquid filtered through solid cake and filter medium will flow along the wall axially and through siphon pipe into separate chamber unlike horizontal peeler centrifuge. The unit required rugged structure. Krauss-Maffei Horizontal peeler centrifuge is widely used design in separation processes in: Bulk chemicals such as petrochemical intermediates. siphon peeler centrifuge contains perforate units both horizontally and vertically. Siphon peeler[edit] [4] The siphon peeler centrifuge is another peeler centrifuge design developed by Krauss-Maffei in 1970s. feed control and solids discharge components.feed. the centrifuge system must be decelerated so that the solid product can be discharged by gravity without centrifugal force that prevents solids to be dropped to discharge chute. fertilisers. This solid wall and instant removal of filtered liquid advantage this design by providing large pressure difference across the solid cake and filter medium. so does strong driving force. Vertical peeler[edit] [2] The vertical peeler (also known as vertical basket peeler) is a centrifuge system that has the same basic operating principles as the horizontal peeler centrifuge.

washing liquid is introduced through feed distributor and separate spray bar.Fine chemicals: aluminium fluoride. The solid phase is held on the filter medium and become sediment. Pharmaceuticals Plastics Foods including artificial sweeteners. The level of the feed is monitored and regulated by a feed controller. herbicides or fine chemicals. bleaching agents. pesticides.1). which forms secondary filter giving extra efficiency. the washing liquid submerged into cake and filter. amino acids. Washing After the filtration step. It is used for starch. catalyst and dyestuffs. Washing can be carried out at the same or higher speed than the feeding step. The feed step is complete when the filter cake has reached the desired level. Dry spinning .1) and is very flexible in use. and normally the basket is filled up to 75-80% of the basket rim height. caffeine and modified starches. Filtration Primary filtration for liquid phase of the feed through the filter medium attached in the basket is proceeding until the liquid has submerged into the filter cake and drained outside the rotating basket. The following areas are where vertical centrifuge is mainly used for processes (refer to section 3. Vertical peeler[edit] [7] Vertical peeler centrifuge applications are similar to the horizontal peeler centrifuge. Main process characteristics[edit] Main process of centrifuge[edit] [5] There are several steps in peeler centrifuge process: Feeding The suspension is introduced to the rotating centrifuge basket via the feed distributor to prevent from spilling over the basket rim also to ensure the even cake level. Under the effect of the centrifugal force. surfactants. Siphon peeler[edit] [2] Siphon peeler centrifuge has similar applications to the horizontal peeler centrifuge (refer to section 3.

The residual cake moisture decreases over time under the constant centrifugal force and ends when it reaches the desired residual humidity. Operational parameters[edit] The manufacturer can vary the operational parameters of the peeler centrifuge for specific applications.The fluid in filter cake is drained by accelerating basket to maximum allowable speed and kept constant. The parameters in this section are from several different peeler manufacturers. or several cycles to clear the solids out of holes in basket and preserve the efficiency of filtration. The scraped layers of product are discharged through an inclined chute or screw conveyor. Discharging the solids/filter cake The filter cake is removed from the basket by a pivoting peeling device equipped with a broad peeling knife and scraping until a thin layer of filter cake is retained to protect the filter medium. Cleaning centrifuge Cleaning of the interior of the centrifuge required after every. Centrifugal force[edit] GMP-Compatible HZ peeler Centrifuge (HZ-Phll): 1060-2030G Mitsubishi/KM Siphon peeler Centrifuge (HZ-Si): 200-1895G Rotational speed[edit] Horizontal peeler Centrifuges (H630P-H1250P): 1180-2400rpm Vertical peeler Centrifuges (V 800 – 1600 BG): 575-1000rpm Mitsubishi/KM Siphon peeler Centrifuge (HZ-Si): 950-3000rpm Particle size[edit] Krauss-Maffei Horizontal Peeler Centrifuge: 2-500µm Horizontal discontinuous separation Peeler Centrifuge: 2µm-10mm Capacity[edit] Horizontal peeler centrifuges (H630P-H1250P): 42-303L GMP-Compatible HZ peeler Centrifuge(HZ-Phll): 11-333L Vertical peeler centrifuges (V 800 – 1600 BG): 160-1250L . The inside of the centrifuge with all built in devices can be cleaned automatically with an integrated CIP (cleaning in place system) without the need to open the centrifuge.

Solid body rotation . Vertical peeler centrifuge[edit] [7] At first. Using a variety of fluids. Design Equation[edit] [4] Centrifugal Acceleration \text{a} = \frac{V_\theta^2}{r} (Equation 1) where \textstyle V_\theta^2 is the tangential velocity at the given point on the curve trajectory \textstyle r is the radius of curvature at the point. the height of the filter cake and. cake is washed and become intensive. The force acts perpendicularly to the direction of motion and is directed radially inward. the centrifugal force acting upon the fluid to be separated. And hydroextraction stage is followed.Mitsubishi/KM Siphon peeler Centrifuge(HZ-Si): 11-875L Processes and Equipment Design[edit] Design Heuristics[edit] Horizontal discontinuous separation Peeler Centrifuge[edit] [8] First of all. Then the feed is controlled by filling valve and the basket is observed by filling level controller. Also it will be repeated several times by the filtration reaction of the product. the filter cake discharged from the basket by means of a short peeling knife. the suspension is filled into the vertical basket at adjusted speed. intermediate centrifuging is required and it interrupts the filling process. naturally. The solids in the basket are washed at the same or higher speed than the filling process after suspension has been centrifuged. Depending on the product. After the extraction. Depending on the solids and fluids parameters. a hydraulically powered scraper is used for removal of cake. The effect of the centrifugal force make the solid particle settles on the filter fabric on the basket shell. the suspension is filled into the batch at fixed or variable speed by gravity or pump. Equation 1 depicts the kinematic relationship of centrifugal force required to sustain the movement of mass along a curve trajectory. Following step is washing solids. After the washing step.

This layer is responsible for transfer of angular momentum between the rotating surfaces to fluid during acceleration and deceleration. Cake dryness Dewatering is important step for centrifuge filtration to ensure the quality of solid output.When body of fluid rotates in a solid-body mode. V_\theta = \Omega^2 r (Equation 2) where \textstyle \Omega is the angular speed of the rotating frame \textstyle r is the radius from the axis of rotation. Equation 2 shows linear relationship of radius and circumferential velocity. Fluid Viscosity and Inertia \delta = \sqrt{\frac{\mu / \rho}{\Omega}} (Equation 3) where \textstyle \mu / \rho is the kinematic viscosity of the liquid and Ω is the angular speed of the rotating frame \textstyle \delta is the thickness of the layers called ‘Ekman layers’. \epsilon = 1 .\frac{\omega_s}{V_s \rho_c} (Equation 4) where \textstyle \omega_s is the mass of solid \textstyle V_s is the cake volume . Equation 3 shows the dynamic effect of viscosity of liquid slurry in sedimenting centrifuge is confined in very think fluid layers. the tangential or circumferential velocity is linearly proportional to radius. \textstyle V_\theta . The dryness can be measured by cake porosity.

Equation 5 describes when saturation is less than 1.W} )^{-1} (Equation 6) Total solid recovery In clarification. rec = \frac{m_c W_c}{m_f W_f} (Equation 7) where subscript c and f denote. From porosity.\textstyle \rho_c is the cake solid density. the cake and feed respectively. When the solid cake is saturated. At this speed.W}{W} ) ( \frac{1 . the cake porosity can be determined by Equation 6 below \epsilon = ( 1 + \frac{\rho_L}{\rho_s} \frac{W}{1 . which may results high stresses or even failure of equipment. S. \textstyle m denotes the bulk mass flow rate. the content of moisture in the wet cake is measured by looking at saturation. the total solids recovered in the solid cake measure the clarity of the effluent indirectly. S=1 . Critical Speed The critical speed is important factor to consider design. S = ( \frac{1 . any vibration caused by slight unbalance in the rotor is strongly reinforced. for unsaturated solid cake.\epsilon}{\epsilon} ) ( \frac{\rho_s}{\rho_L} ) (Equation 5) where \textstyle W is the weight of solid fraction \textstyle \rho_L is the liquid density. Advantages and limitations[edit] . Critical speed is the speed of rotation at which the frequency of rotation matches the natural frequency. This indirect relationship is shown in Equation 7.

which is suitable for treating solvents and dangerous liquids. Horizontal discontinuous separation Peeler Centrifuge[edit] . the filtration rate can be boosted. main driving force of filtration is increased across the solid cake and filter medium. filtering speed can be controlled. And its high discharge speed reduces time taken to accelerate and braking for rotation for high capacity. This means horizontal peeler centrifuge provides higher centrifugal forces than vertical peeler. Once high G and siphon effect are combined. Moreover. Fully opened front door makes filter cloth replacement and internal flushing easy. so does power consumption. Siphonage enlarges the effect of centrifugal filtration and siphon chamber is used for backwashing to avoid the loading of filter cloth. fast-filtering requirements for certain processes. as a result. advantages in washing capability. Fast cake raking minimizes loss of time and driving power as well. greatly saving on energy are possible at the drying stage. high rotational speed results high rotational force which allows lowering residual cake moisture effectively. The feeding action within centrifuge is effective over large inner surface of drum as the feeds are fed perpendicularly to gravity and centrifugal force spreads out the solids evenly. thereby recovering contamination-free solids. so does the washing liquid and washing results.Advantages[edit] Krauss-Maffei Horizontal Peeler Centrifuge[edit] [4] The horizontal peeler centrifuge is known for its many advantages from its horizontal rotation arrangement of the main drum. To ensure non-vibration filtration. wear and tear. [5] Due to continuous discharge of filtered liquid through perforated inner surface of rotating basket. This also means the operator can get access to internal components including filter cloth which required replacement. And siphon mechanism makes the cleaning operation various and cleaning time and liquid are saved. powerful dewatering. The cake-raking knife located above the feed liquid piping prevents that liquid drips directly onto the cake outlet. it is widely used in ultra-clean material processes. Also the door of centrifuge system that can be fully opened which allows easy access to inside of rotating drum. drying processes that yield high purity of output. This short cycle time is particularly beneficial for short cycle. uniform solid size distribution for better solid output quality. Over 1000G of Centrifugal force make the cake have low moisture. and increases performances and flexibility. Mitsubishi Peeler Centrifuge [10] The Mitsubishi Peeler Centrifuge has a liquid-tight construction.[9] Because of effective washing. By arranging the axis horizontally. the pressure drop.

which may need to be developed. creates vacuum underneath the filter medium. However the use of solid inner drum wall instead of perforated basket wall allows increasing the pressure drop for filtration. such as accuracy of control of the filtration rate. Siphon peeler centrifuge[edit] [4] Siphon peeler has similar configuration to Krauss-Maffei’s simple horizontal centrifuge. Instantly removed liquid which flows into rear chamber through siphon pipe.[8] The horizontal peeler centrifuge can be used for discontinuous separation process. This discontinuous process can be automated and operate automatically. the siphon basket provide skimming stage to enhance the purity of filtrate. which may cost for replacement. there are many operational limitations associated with the characteristics of peeler centrifuge. The continuous operation of centrifuge allows all process steps are carried out simultaneously. Vertical Peeler Centrifuge[edit] [2] Vertical peeler centrifuge is more cost efficient compared to horizontal Krauss-Maffei peeler centrifuge due to its compact design. and/or other competitive processes can replace for the peeler centrifuge with its limitations. also extended heel life. In comparison over other competitive separation processes (refer to section 7) Vertical peeler centrifuge[edit] . This means the solid cake on wall cannot be completely removed by peelers as it is recommended to leave thin layer of solid cakes. the peeler centrifuge is not cost efficient compared to comparable size of vertical centrifuge due to high capital cost. the peeler is kept away from the innermost surface of separation drum as sharp peeler may damage the surface of filter medium or damaged by abrasion. however this also could mean the filtration time may be lengthen as there is another layer for liquid has to pass. [4] Cost wise. so does much efficient filtration. increases the overall throughput. This increased pressure gradient means high driving force for filtration. which reduces the filtration rate. The siphon basket that has larger radius than filter cloth reduces the pressure behind the cloth to the vapour pressure of the filtrate liquid to overcome the wet layer of liquid over the surface of solid cake by capillary reaction. This rotational siphon makes many advantages possible. Also despite of this layer of solid acting as sub filtration layer provides extra separation step. Moreover filtrate flows along the solid wall. ensure constant basket speed. batch washing for each cycle renews the heel and maintain the permeability. Limitations[edit] Horizontal peeler centrifuge[edit] [11] Despite many advantages of the horizontal peeler centrifuge. In operation.

Nanoparticles are separated from a suspension using this process because very high G value i. the high pressure above solid cake inside of basket. Also despite the vertical peeler’s low cost due to compact design. high rotation speed ensures reasonable throughputs are produced. [13] Because of its ability to separate nano-scale particles with mean size below 1μm. the throughput of vertical centrifuge is restricted compared to other peeler or centrifuge systems.[2] For collecting output solid that has been scraped off by peeler during the process. Chamber bowl separators are solid-bowl centrifuges with cylindrical inserts with increasing in diameter to form multiple chambers. They are used to separate . Chamber bowl[edit] [4][11][14] Chamber bowl is another competitive process due to its ability to process feed with low solid contents also effective classification of solids. The demand for fine particles that exhibit a defined particle size distribution increases steadily in such areas. the installation procedure becomes more complex and siphon peeler system has not been utilised widely. The limitations are careful peeler action control to prevent possible filtration media damage from abrasion. [11] Over many advantages. can only be manually retrieved by slowing down the process. as siphon peeler centrifuge utilises not only centrifugal forces but also pressure difference as filtration driving force. overall performance in comparison to other processes. dismantling of deposited solid bed is limitation of this process.e. The solids are collected at the bottom of basket and rotation has to be stopped or slowed down to get control over the discharge. [4] Moreover. and nearly vacuum condition across the solid cake and filter medium. This extends the batch processing time and consequently the filtration rate. high capital costs and large space requirement due to horizontal arrangement. With consideration of low batch throughput rate. Competitive processes[edit] Sedimentation Centrifuge[edit] Tubular bowl[edit] [11][12] Tubular bowl centrifuge is widely used for nano-scale particles separation and is one of old design of centrifuge processes. this process is widely used in pharmaceutical and biotechnology applications. The high pressure difference. the manual scrapping. (comparison) Siphon peeler centrifuge[edit] The siphon peeler has also similar limitations to Krauss-Maffei horizontal peeler centrifuge as siphon peeler centrifuge is based on horizontal peeler centrifuge except the siphon basket in design. sometimes overpressure in process housing.

Unlike peeler centrifuges. However pusher centrifuge is one of most competitive process to peeler centrifuge due to its effective washing and dewatering of any continuous centrifuge processes. This centrifuge is suitable for treating suspension including very high content of solids(40-60%) which makes this process much more applicable in many applications than peeler centrifuge.064m^3 and is commonly used to clarifying fruit juice and beer. . The chamber bowl centrifuge has maximum solids holding capacity of 0. This design has recent challenge that is to get throughput as dry as possible. vertical and horizontal. This cake ring formed is then pushed back towards discharged by pushing motion of pusher plate. the pusher centrifuge does get influenced by feed condition which need to be kept as constant as possible due to continuous product transport by pushing motion. This pusher rod moves along axial directions so that pushing action can be created at the bottom of basket. Also this requires manual scraping. the machine has to shut down completely to remove chambers from casing. The feed is fed into system and the solid cake forms along the wall. However its limitation on dewatering makes peeler centrifuge with effective dewatering and high quality of solid output competitive. This separation processes usually incorporate centripetal pump at effluent discharge point to minimise foaming and contact with air. Due to its ability to operate in discontinuous mode. Decanter centrifuge is widely used also because of its ability to separate solids from liquid mixtures. unlike peeler centrifuge designs. In terms of maintenance. Moving bed filters[edit] Pusher centrifuge[edit] [2][11][16] Pusher centrifuge consists of cylindrical basket that is fixed to a hollow shaft and plate on the basket bottom mounted on the rod.solids in low contents from liquid and long retention time in the centrifuge makes the separated solids very compact state. chamber bowl is one of suitable option for batch processing. Decanter centrifuge[edit] [4][15] Decanter centrifuge is usually available in two arrangements. Also the classification of solids separated from feed is effective with chamber bowl as increasing in centrifugal force exerting on the slurry as it pass from middle chamber towards out. The pusher centrifuge performance is usually in function of crystal size as well as shape. also its decanting action can used to separate two immiscible liquids in feed with necessary baffles and outlets while continuously discharging bulky sludge. meaning pusher is much effective for larger particle separation (generally around 150μm). removal of deposited solids on the chamber wall.

P. It enables moisture not to bind to the surface. as hydrocyclone with large diameter will not generate sufficient centrifugal force for separation. The screw conveyor facilitates the removal of solids having tendency of not being discharged via chute because of its sticky property. unlike the peeler centrifuge. Heinkel[edit] [17] A complete discharge of product can be guaranteed by pneumatic residual heel removal. Therefore the products can be discharged easily from centrifuges and slide easily without sticking to the chute. Due to solve this limit. (2010). Jump up ^ Centrifuge World. [18] Throughput solids leave through chute suited to products. A fully automated system enables that all surfaces in the separation process area are thoroughly cleaned. References[edit] Jump up ^ Apollo Machinery. "Filtration Centrifuges: An overview. Environmental Effects[edit] Horizontal Peeler Centrifuge. hydrocyclones are sometimes used in series arrangement to achieve multiple separation stages. which is designed based on the size of centrifuges such as a full size peeler or a pivot and dip peeler. The increased crystal size decreases the surface area per unit mass. Discharging throughput solids are conducted via a hydraulic peeler knife. and there are fewer surfaces. providing a drier cake. In addition this centrifuge has very effective process of washing. Hydrocyclones are centrifugal separators that consist of a vertical cylinder with a conical bottom. However there are capacity limitations." Chemical Engineering 117(13): 34. so does giving rise to centrifugal force. Hydrocyclones[edit] [4][15] The Hydrocyclone is used for separation of solid from a liquid or two immiscible liquids feed. simplicity and other advantages. Hydrocyclones are relatively inexpensive and also simple in operation. 2013 . The Hydrocyclone is one of the well-studied designs due to its low cost. peeler centrifuge ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Schmidt. and rotational movement imparted to feed.Its performance is function of the crystal size and shape. Solids are allowed to leave from centrifuges via screw conveyor. The feed is entering in through tangential entry nozzle.

Pages 30-33. (Online version available at: http://app." Filtration & Separation 42(6): 16-20. brochure. S. Volume 38. 2013. Perry's Chemical Engieers' Handbook. Hermann Nirschl (2008). R. "Centrifuge facilitates small scale testing. L. Chamber Bowl separator ^ Jump up to: a b Berk. K. Don W. N. "The pusher centrifuge: Operation.uni-karlsruhe.de/volltexte/documents/874457) 21. Vertical peeler centrifuges V 800 – 1600 BG ^ Jump up to: a b Rotofilt. brochure 19. (2008). E. Recent developments in centrifuge technology (Online version available at: digbib. H.. Jump up ^ BEA Westfalia separator Group. (2010). brochure Jump up ^ Heinkel Drying and Separation Group 2012. T. "Classification of Fine Particles in High-Speed Centrifuges. ^ Jump up to: a b c ANDRITZ Separation 2011. Jump up ^ Heinkel Drying and Separation Group 2012.ubka." Chemical Engineering & Technology 33(8): 1276-1282. Elsevier. McGraw Hill Corporation. "Centrifuge focus: Solids removal . Jump up ^ Sebastian Stahl. P. H." Chemical Engineering & Technology 31(11): 1577-1583. Centrifuges: the choice. April 2001. Krauss-Maffei HZ peeler centrifuge. Issue 3. R. [13]News.Equipment Selection and Process Design. . Mitsubishi/KM Peeler Centrifuge (HZ) ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Sutherland. Filtration & Separation. Tarleton. R.The options. Jump up ^ Lars Egmont Spelter. "Investigations on the Separation Efficiency of Tubular Bowl Centrifuges. (2007). 2012. Centrifuge. Solid/Liquid Separation . 2013." Filtration & Separation 37(4): 24-27." Filtration & Separation 42(3): 12-13." from http://news. LTD. Green. United State. Jump up ^ ANDRITZ Separation “Horizontal Peeler Centrifuge” ^ Jump up to: a b HEINKEL drying and separation group.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k Perry.thomasnet.-E. H. Filter Centrifuges for Pharmaceutical Industry. ISSN 0015-1882 Jump up ^ Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha.knovel. Filter Centrifuges for Chemical Industry. Food Process Engineering and Technology: 241-257 Jump up ^ [Peer-reviewed] (2000). Z. Harald Anlauf (2007). application and advantages. Wakeman. "Peeler centrifuge provides solution for Rhodia. Centrifugation. [Peer-reviewed] (2005). J.com/fullstory/Centrifuge-facilitates-small-scale-testing-10126.com/hotlink/toc/id:kpSLSESPD6/solidliquid-separation) 20. S. (2002). 2009. (2013). Horizontal discontinuous separation Peeler Centrifuge Jump up ^ Thomas Broadbent. (2005).

Presentation prepared by Catherine Chao. (2009).co. (Retrieved from http://www.jp/english/products/m/m-004. "Back to basic: Bulk chemical industry separations. [Peer-Reviewed] (1995). Comicondor 2012. Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. 2012. Pharma Peeler Centrifuge HX/GMP model. K. LTD.com/fullstory/Centrifuge-facilitates-small-scale-testing-10126. “Selection of Filtering Centrifuges” 29.22.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/GMP_aprile. "Tubular bowl centrifuges for biotech applications. 25." Filtration & Separation 44(8): 32-35. GMP-Compatible Horizontal Peeler Centrifuge (HZ-PHII) <http://www. News.html> . Danielle Turney and Dana Zoratto. (2002)." from http://news. 23. K.comicondor. 27.thomasnet. brochure. "Centrifuge facilitates small scale testing. and HEINKEL Process Technology GmbH (2010)." Filtration & Separation 32(10): 924. 24. Heinkel Filtering Systems Inc. 26.pdf) 28. Sutherland.kakoki. Sutherland. ‘Basket Centrifuge: Applications in Insulin Production. "Filtration and separation technology: What's new in sedimentation?" Filtration & Separation 46(1): 34-36. (2007). T.