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2 Issue 10, October - 2013

**Performance Evaluation and Comparison of Multipliers using Vedic Algorithms
**

V V S Vijaya Krishna

School of electronics, Vignan University, Vadlamudi, India

Keywords-: Vedic Mathematics; Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam; Nikhilam Sutra;Compressor; Verilog; Xilinx ISE; FPGA; VIRTEX 5

IJE RT

Abstract— This paper Compares two multipliers which are based on Vedic Mathematics. Vedic Mathematics is the ancient method of mathematics which has techniques for calculations based on certain sutra or principles. In this paper multipliers are designed based on sutras called “Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam” (vertically and cross wise) and “Nikhilam Sutra”(all from 9 and last from 10). The multipliers uses Compressor in place of carry save adders, to decrease the delay by increasing the speed of addition of partial products. The Multipliers are designed for both 8 bit and 16 bit. The architecture design entry is done using Verilog HDL and simulated using Xilinx ISE. It is then synthesized and implemented on Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA Kit. The Performance evaluation results in terms of speed and device utilization are compared among two sutras. Comparision declares that the multiplier based on Nikhilam Sutra is better than the other in terms of speed and area.

verilog code has developed based on the sutras and it is realized using a FPGA chip. Here the sutras are used to design multipliers separately. A compressor is used as an alternative for addition which reduces the delay. Different compressors can be used, but in the present design a 4:2 compressor is used. The results indicate that multiplier based on Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam is better than the multiplier based on Nikhilam Sutra, in terms of delay and area. FPGA based machines are less time consuming, flexible and programmable and reduces hardware as it is reprogrammable. Use of such machines saves time and cost. The conceptual model for the proposed multipliers are implemented using Virtex 5 XC5VLX50T FPGA board. The remaining part of the paper is arranged as, introduction to Vedic Mathematics in section 2 followed by description of Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam and Nikhilam Sutra in section 3. Section 4 describes the proposed architectures followed by results and conclusion in section 5 and 6. II. VEDIC MATHEMATICS

I.

INTRODUCTION

Multiplier is one of the key hardware blocks in designing arithmetic, signal and image processors. Many transform algorithms like Fast Fourier transforms, Discrete Fourier transforms etc make use of multipliers. Since multiplication dominates the execution time of most DSP algorithms, so there is a need of high speed multiplier. Currently, multiplication time is still the dominant factor in determining the instruction cycle time of a DSP chip. Reducing the time delay and power consumption are very essential requirements for many applications. The proposed multiplier is designed based on Vedic mathematics for attaining fast and low power multiplier. Vedic mathematics is the name given to the ancient Indian system of mathematics that was rediscovered in early twentieth century. Vedic Mathematics is mainly based on sixteen principles which are termed as Sutras. The Power of Vedic Mathematics is not only confined to simplicity, regularity, but also it is logical. VM steps can be applied to problems involving trigonometric functions, plane and sphere geometry, conics, differential calculus, integral calculus and applied mathematics of various kind. The importance of VM lies in the fact that it simplifies the complicated looking calculations in conventional mathematics to a simple one in a much faster and efficient manner. In this paper multipliers are designed based on sutras called Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam and Nikhilam sutra. A

Vedic Mathematics is a part of sthapatya, which is an upa veda of Atharva veda. It covers explanation of several modern mathematical terms including factorization,quqdratic equations,trigonometry. His holiness jagadguru shankaracharya bahrati Krishna teerthaji maharaja comprised all this work together and gave its mathematical explanation while discussing it for various applications. Swmiji constructed 16 sutras (formulae) and 16 upasutras (subformulae) after extensive research in atharva veda. The word veda has the derivational meaning i.ethe fountain head and illimitable storehouse of all knowledge. The Sutras along with their brief meanings are enlisted below. 1. Shunyamanyat- If one is in ratio, the other is zero. 2. Chalana-Kalanabyham- Difference and Similarities. 3. Ekadhikina Purvena- By one more than the previous one 4. Ekanyunena Purvena- By one less than the previous one 5. Gunakasamuchyah-The factors of the sum is equal to the sum of the factors. 6. Gunitasamuchyah- Product of the sum is equal to the sum of the product 7. Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah- All from nine and last from ten 8. Paraavartya Yojayet- Transpose and adjust 9. Puranapuranabyham- By the completion or non completion

IJERTV2IS101076

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Product Terms B[0] A[0] 4:2 Compressor 1111 1*1+1*1=2 1111 1111 1*1=1 Answer=1234321 The Same Methodology can be applied to Binary numbers. October . Sopaantyadvayamantyam.By addition and by subtraction 11. Block Diagram for Proposed Multiplier using Urdhva tiryagbhyam IJERTV2IS101076 www. Sankalana.When the sum is the same that sum is zero 13. There are two columns of numbers. one consisting of the numbers to be multiplied (column10 and the other consisting of their compliments (column 20. The surplus will be carried over to the left. III.vyakalanabhyam. The product of 8 and 7 with chosen base 10 which is nearest to greater than both these two numbers is as follows. This sutra is efficient for multiplication only when the magnitudes of both operands are more than half their maximum values.The ultimate and twice the penultimate 14.Whatever the extent of its deficiency.The product also consists of two parts which are demarked by a vertical line for the purpose of illustration. B[n] A[n] ………….The same principle can be applied for binary numbers.ijert. Final Adder Stage Product Figure 1. Methodology of Parallel calculation 1111 1111 1*1=1 1111 1111 1*1+1*1=2 1111 1111 1*1+1*1+1*1=3 1111 1111 1*1+1*1+1*1+1*1=4 1111 1111 1*1+1*1+1*1=3 1111 The Nikhilam Sutra literally means “all from 9 and last from 10”. It is more efficient when the numbers involved are large. Yaavadunam.International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. It means vertically and crosswire. The method is illustrated using an example.Vertically and cross wise 15. V. The right hand side of the product can be obtained by multiplying the numbers of the column 2.The remainders by the last digit 12. Vyashtisamanstih. The left hand side of the product can be found by cross subtracting the second number of column 2 from the first number of column 1or vice versa. Shesanyankena charamena. PROPOSED ARCHITECTURES IJE RT The Methodology of Urdhva Tiryagbhyam can be implemented using the following proposed structure.org 2665 . Methodology for Nikhilam Sutra Nearest Base=10 Column1 Column2 8 (10-8)=2 7 (10-7)=3 5 6 (common Difference) (multiplication of compliments) Result :56 As shown in fig the multiplier and multiplicand are written in two rows followed by the differences of each of them from chosen base that is their compliments. 2 Issue 10.2013 10. The method is illustrated using an example.part and Whole 16. URDHVA TIRYAGBHYAM IV. The same principle can be used for binary numbers. The product of 1111 and 1111 Decimal numbers is calculated using Urdhva Tiryagbhyam. Shunyam Saamyasamuccaye. Urthva-Thiryagbhyam. The final result is obtained by concatenating both the parts. NIKHILAM SUTRA It is the general formula applicable to all cases of multiplication and also in the division of a large number by another large number. The same method can be applied to Binary numbers.

Simulation Waveform for proposed multiplier using Two techniques for 8 Bit IJERTV2IS101076 www. But if the bits are increased then no of product terms increases and more no of adders are required to add those terms. So this can be realized by using a series of AND gates and a compressor which reduces the n no of words to two words. The verilog codes are simulated using Xilinx ISE.ijert. a1b1 a0b1 a1b0 Block Diagram for Proposed Multiplier using Nikhilam Sutra VI.2013 The Methodology indicates that there are two operations.International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. The same can be implemented to higher order bits. Then the two words are added using an ordinary adder. October . The codes are written for 8 and 16 bit multiplier. So instead of using adders it is proposed to use compressors. s1 2x2 Multiplier Figure 5. AND gates are used to generate the product terms and adders are used to add the product terms. RHS of Product The 2 bit Vedic multiplier is implemented using and gates and half adders. The Method of Nikhilam Sutra can be implemented by following structure Multiplicand Multiplier 2’s compliment 2’s compliment Figure 2.org 2666 . The select bits to the multiplexers are available much ahead of the inputs so that the critical delay path is minimized. 2 Issue 10. It has 4 inputs and one carry bit which will be added to two bits. Half Adder c1 Half Adder c2 s2 Figure 3. The reason for decrease in delay is because of its structure. 4:2 Compressor Adder LHS of Product Figure 4. RESULTS A) Simulation The proposed structure is first coded using verilog language and is simulated for functional verification. One is generating product terms and other is adding the terms. Such compressors are used in N bit multiplier which will reduce N product terms to two product terms. Finally the two product terms are added using an ordinary adder. 4:2 Compressor Multiplier IJE RT a0b0 s0 In this 4:2compressor the outputs generated at each stage are efficiently used by replacing the XOR blocks with multiplexer blocks.

7 20 Number of 4 input LUTs 40 40 80 64 28.International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. Tables 1 to 4 shows the summary report of multipliers and table 5 gives the comparison results. it is synthesized and implemented on Virtex 5 XC5VLX50T FPGA Board.24 32 Comparison table indicates that the multiplier based on Urdhva Tiryagbhyam is better than Nikhilam Sutra in terms of delay and logic Utilization. Simulation Waveform for proposed multilier using both techniques for 16 bit B) Implementation After verifying the functionality of the circuit. IJERTV2IS101076 www. Table 1 Summary Report of Multiplier based on Urdhva Tiryagbhyam (8 bit) Table 4 Summary Report of Multiplier based on Nikhilam Sutra (16bit) Slice Logic Utilization Used Available Utilization Number of 4 input LUTs 32 32 65 45 28.800 28.800 753 480 Number of Slice LUTs Number of fully used LUTFF pairs Number of bonded IOBs Table 2 IJE RT Utilization Number of fully used LUTFF pairs Number of bonded IOBs 0% 0% 4% 4% Table 5 Comparison of Multipliers No of Slice LUT (5 XC5VLX50T) Delay(ns) Summary Report of Multiplier based on Urdhva Tiryagbhyam (16bit) 8 bit Urdhva Tiryagbhyam Nikhilam Sutra Urdhva Tiryagbhyam 16 bit Nikhilam Sutra 9.800 28. Both the circuits are synthesized and implemented on FPGA Board.800 753 480 0% 0% 8% 9% Number of Slice LUTs Slice Logic Utilization Used Available Number of 4 input LUTs 26 26 28 20 28.org 2667 . October .6 26 Slice Logic Utilization Used Available Utilization 6.800 753 480 0% 0% 10% 13% 15.800 28.800 28.48 40 Number of Slice LUTs Number of fully used LUTFF pairs Number of bonded IOBs 11.2013 Table 3 Summary Report of Multiplier based on Nikhilam Sutra (8 bit) Slice Logic Utilization Used Available Utilization Number of 4 input LUTs 20 20 24 18 28.800 753 480 0% 0% 3% 3% Number of Slice LUTs Number of fully used LUTFF pairs Number of bonded IOBs Figure 6.ijert. 2 Issue 10.

”Carry save architectures for high speed digital signal processing”. 2007.Spiritual Study Group.A suggestion for a fast multiplier”. David Harris. IEEE Transactions. The Multipliers are designed for both 8 bit and 16 bit. Quarterly Journal of mechanics and Applied Mathematics. CONCLUSION In this paper multipliers are designed based on sutras called “Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam” (vertically and cross wise) and “Nikhilam Sutra”(all from 9 and last from 10). “Vedic Mathematics or Sixteen Simple Mathematical Formulae from the Veda. Published by Pearson Education. Wiley-IEEE press. Delhi(1965)”. Pp 121 -140.2013 VII. ICCIMA.org 2668 . [4] A P Nicholas.Feb 1964 [9] T. Future work includes the optimized design is to be used in designing a FIR filter and is to be implemented on a FPGA REFERENCES [1] Jagadguru Swami. pp126-128(2007). “High speed Energy Efficient ALU Design using Vedic Multiplication techniques”.2009. The multipliers uses Compressor in place of carry save adders. October . ”Advanced FPGA Design : Architecture.236240. Third Edition.International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. Both designs are implemented on Virtex 5XC5VLX50T FPGA board.1951.IRE Trans.pages 14-17.G Noll. J Picles. “A Reduced –bit multiplication Algorithm for Digital Arithmetics”. PPriya and Deoborah. vol. vol13.J Bedri. [12] www.4. A Circuits and Systems perspective”. [10] O. Varanasi. 2 Issue 10.. [2] Ramalatha. International Journal of Computational and Mathematical Scinces.1984. Roorkee. and optimization”.Electron. India. “Application of Uedhva Sutra”. [5] Booth.Xilinx. 1991. [3] Harpreet Singh Dhillon and Abijit Mishra. Motilal banarasidas. “VLSI impmementation of High performance RSA Algorithm using Vedic Mathematics”.Implementation. [6] S Kumaravel. Comparison concludes that the multiplier based on Nikhilam Sutra is better than the other in terms of speed and logic utilization. [8] C S wallace. Tirthaji Maharaja. Ayan anerjee. Marimuthu.com IJE RT IJERTV2IS101076 www. Sri Bharati Krisna. Journal of VLSI Signal Processing. RRamalatha.1962 [11] Steve Kilts. “A Signed Binary multiplication technique”. K D Dharani. A D.Pp340 344. Electronic computers. “ CMOS VLSI Design. to decrease the delay by increasing the speed of addition of partial products. pp640-642.Comput. K R Williams.” Carry Select Adder”. vol 4. M Dayalan. pt2. pp-327-328. International conference on Advances in computational tools for Engineering Applications. [7] Neil H E Weste.ijert.

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