Journal of New Zealand Literature

Five Imperial Adventures in the Waikato Author(s): Kirstine Moffat Source: Journal of New Zealand Literature: JNZL, No. 29, Part 2: Special Issue: Writing the Waikato (2011), pp. 37-65 Published by: Journal of New Zealand Literature and hosted by the University of Waikato Stable URL: . Accessed: 04/12/2013 13:12
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in the Waikato

Kirstine Moffat

In 1894 AlfredLyall declared that 'the novels with which our fortunate is so abundantly generation supplied,may be divided into two classes the Novel of Adventureand the [...] broadly Novel of Manners'.1 Lyall argued that while the 'Novel of Manners' was essentially concernedwith the 'analysis feminine, of character' and the 'play of civil emotions'in familiar settings, the 'Novel of Adventure' was 'masculinein orientation', focusing in 'rough societies on 'heroic action and marvellousenterprise' or remoteplaces'.2 Some late nineteenth-century exponentsof the 'Novel of Adventure', or imperial adventure-romance, canvas fortheir regardedcolonial New Zealand as an attractive Five tales of masculinedaringin an exotic,ruggedenvironment.3 in partor in full, in theWaikato such authorsset their narratives, conflict of the 1860s, drawn to the backdrop of inter-racial to the New Zealand references Wars. While specific providedby events and people associated with colonial Waikato do ground it has to be said that, many of these textsin historical reality, careful of whether the authors write from regardless experience, the of imaginative research,or flights fantasy, Waikato that is described in theirnarratives has been selected for its frontier rather than its distinctive possibilities geography. The texts under consideration,Jules Verne's Among the Ancrum(1871), Emilia Cannibals(1868), Joshua Kirby's Henry Maoris the Wisniowski'sTikera (1874), Sygurd Marryat's Amongst to and Rolf Boldrewood's War the (1899), are linked (1877), Knife not only by settingbut by their engagementwith two key and the ideologicallevel. tensionsat work at both the structural an there is Firsdy, underlyingdichotomy in many of the 37

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New Zealand Uterature Journal of adventure-romancesunder discussion, between the overt articulation of an imperialmessage and an implied rejectionof 'civilised'norms througha movementaway fromthe imperial centreinto a frontier because landscape thatfascinates precisely it is as yetuntouchedby the marchof progressand Empire.The protagonistsof these novels are not typicallymissionaries, or Empire -builders setders, seekingto shape the new worldinto in search of the exotic. a simulacrum of the old, but travellers These adventurers embrace a new identity as a colonist, rarely rather to return to the civilised comforts of home and preferring theknownat theconclusionof their explorations. Secondly,thereare similartensions evidentin the authors' withgenderand race. These 'Novels of Adventure' engagement valorise the intrepid,solitarymale explorer and warriorwho venturesinto the unknown,yet the narratives almost always return the hero to the safe arms of his faithful beloved at the conclusion of the novel. The values of civilisation and embodied by this European maiden triumph at the domesticity end of most texts,althoughmuch of the narrative recountsthe male protagonist's journey away fromherinto a worldwherehe is sexuallyand emotionally excitedby the racial other;in these textsset in the Waikato,the woman is invariably a voluptuous 'half-caste' whose mixedblood makes her both enticingly exotic and somehow 'superior' to other Maori. While these Maori heroines are usually more fullyrounded charactersthan their one-dimensional retreat European rivals,the authorsinvariably from a commitment the between racial other allowing permanent and the hero, reflecting of racial superiority European attitudes and fearsof miscegenation.


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fighting the Waikato and at the Batde of Gate Pa in Tauranga.75. in the Waikato are diverse in termsof background.4 After General Ludwik travellingto insurgent. literaryreputation.Rolf Boldrewood was a bestselling on his literary hero Sir Walter novelistwho modelledhis fiction 39 This content downloaded from 200.Kirbywas a careersoldierwho joined the 68thRegimentof the Durham Light Infantry as Major in in 1861 and who servedin New Zealand from1864-66. Wisniowskihad Britishloyaltiesare evidentin his 1860 to join the HungarianLegion and latertrained at themilitary academyestablished by thePolish Mieroslawski. Peru and Australia. which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. UnlikeKirby. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . whose travellers rather thanfirst hand experience. were Waikatoof the 1860s nevervisitedNew They career noveliststo whom the Waikato appealed because of its Australian exotic potential. publishedin 1877 and was first Wisniowski had left his native land. narratives ideology.5 in the threenoveliststo set theirnarratives The remaining all Zealand. Henry A Tale oftheLast War in New Zealandwas publishedin Ancrum: 1871 and is Kirby's only foray into fiction. wrote severalnovels and collectionsof essaysin his Wisniowski native Polish.FiveImperial in theWaikato Adventures Authors and Contexts Of course. In contrast.and personal engagementwith colonial New Zealand.19. forMaori as 'a nationwho like the Poles were under sympathy theruleof another'. Tikera or Children of theQueen of Oceania was translated into Englishin 1972.he arrivedin Auckland in 1864 and left almostimmediately forthe South Island in orderto avoid being His Waikato is thus based on the storiesof other conscripted. None of the authorswere born in New Zealand or were long-term residents of the colony.and onlytwo of the novelists visitedNew Zealand: MajorJoshuaHenryKirby and SygurdWisniowski.not all of the authorsunderconsideration treatthese tensionsin identical The novelists set who their adventure ways.130 on Wed.

6 of Highlandnarratives. War to theKnife Maoriwas publishedin 1899. Less concerned with historical accuracy than Boldrewood and Marryat. had takenhis and his readersinto the unknown. ofCaptain adventures of Robertand MaryGrant.Journey ofthe Earth(1864). Similar values underpin the fiction of Emilia Marryat.yetstillexotic. narratives such as Mr Midshipman Emilia Easy (1836). these novels are typical of publication in thelate nineteenth practices century.The of CaptainFrederick the popularwriter of sea daughter Marryat. Rusden'sA History New Zealand and : (1883) of Aureretanga in Groans the Maoris As Scotťs a (1888)'. Published in Britain.19.New Zealand Uterature Journal of Scott. 'Boldrewooďs sourceof information about Maori lifeand history were principal G.7Amongst the Maoris : A Book ofAdventure was published in 1874 and is a whichadvocatesChristianity and mission. (1863). 1866) and the Pacific(The ofCaptain Children The third volume of the Pacific Granty 1868). comingof age story The best known of the authors discussed in this paper is Frenchnovelist threetalesof extraordinary JulesVerne.8 An examination of the workof these fiveauthorshighlights the international connectedness and intersections of the literature of 40 This content downloaded from 200. and with both and colonial readers popular European (although Wisniowski'sTikerawas onlypublishedin Polish).Verne's Waikatois moreimagined thanactualspace. > or.W. theCannibals . 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .75. Marryat combinedher father's withmorallessons story giftforadventure in novels targetedat childrenand young adults. is set Among in a dangerous and savage New Zealand in which a French towardsBritishcolonisationsits ratheruneasilywith antipathy the stereotypeof the ignoble savage.Tangata first-hand of Lacking experience New Zealand.Poland and France respectively.His first Five in a Balloon tothe Weeks Centre adventures.geographicdistanceof the North Pole (TheAdventures Hatteras . foreignculture (in this case Maori) entices but is eventually foundwanting when contrasted withAnglo-Saxon'civilisation'.For his fourth protagonists and fifth fictional more familiar outingshe turnedto the slighdy and accessible.130 on Wed. and From the Earthtothe Moon(1865).

in theWaikato FiveImperial Adventures the period.130 on Wed.9 fiction was most adventure of the nineteenth century part written for boys and was modelled on Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe(1719).75.Australia. Rudyard Kipling and Joseph Conrad 'never simplyendorsed the imperialprojectbut probed its tensionsand contradictions'.and Western travellers Europe drawnto New Zealand as actual or imaginary adventureand to writeof the Waikato as a space of conflict. romance. . appropriated H. David Damrosch arguing that Robert Louis Stevenson. with authors fromBritain.19..14 However. not all exponents of the adventureromance shared these imperialviews. ..'in the period between 1870 and 1914' the genre was increasingly by authorswritingfor adults as well as children. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . particularly theory' resulting evolutionary his or her white inferior to or stereotyped "primitive" savage.] I have done my best to spread all it means or should mean to the and of knowledge Empire narratives The plots of manyof theseadventure us'. and James 10 Mohicans FenimoreCooper's hast ofthe (1826).] by my typical: Haggard's and otherwritings fictional [. counterpart. Before turning the evolution and an of to have understanding helpful a genre closely conventionsof the imperialadventure-romance.13Popular theories and anthropological writers'drew upon contemporary in 'a scientific of race. Genre Conventions it is to a discussion of the novels themselves. Sir Walter Scott's Waverley (1814).lower down the hierarchiesof evolution and civilisation'. However. In the first associatedwiththe expansionof the British Empire.15 41 This content downloaded from 200.11 'All means of life views are [.12 hingeon a dual 'possession of land' and 'possession of people'. Rider and 'became more closely and direcdy imperial'.

while Andrew Lang claimed that the In genre appealed to 'the ancestralbarbarianof our natures'. unsettledterritory.130 on Wed. ending remains'a lone actor' ceremony'.In Haggard's KingSolomon's in the whole Allan Quartermain boasts: There is not a petticoat Gail Ching-Liang Low writes that the imperial history'.Literature NewZealand Journal of As highlighted by Lyall. unknownand frontier.18 these masculinenarratives 'relations withwhitewomen [. his attraction is his 'fears and racial [of] miscegenation tempered by LeeAnne Richardsonwritesthatwhile the genre degradation'.17 morality' of these adventures are typically and violent courageous capable with which action.19 'embrace [s] formalclosure'. uncharted.the settingfavoured by adventureauthors is the froma European perspective. was fundamentally althoughFenimore featured women as romantic narratives certainly Cooper's earlier Mines interestand tragicvictims.16 culturefearsof adventure-romance tapped into 'contemporary urban softnessand degeneration'. Stevensonwrote that 'Danger is the matter this class of novel deals'. The protagonists of of adventurers to the new world. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .with the adventurer concludinghis the is reached 'without recourse to a marriage quest.22 42 This content downloaded from 200. which was seen as 'unhealthy in contrastto the 'manly and healthyBritish and feminine'.] are and while the colonial adventurer relegatedto the background'.'vaguelyromantic'and 'reminiscent of In and artisticclichés and conventions'.20 The landscapeinto whichthe adventurer is typically journeys exotic and yet 'generic'. 'often meets with beautifulnative women'.75.thegenrein the late-Victorian period masculinein orientation. .19. ensuringthat the protagonist freeto pursuefuture adventures. What excitesboth the protagonists of these adventures and theircreators is what Conrad's Marlow describes as 'the blank spaces of the earth'. .21 European literature keeping with the themes of imperialism.masculinityand adventure. of and in termsof his assertion challenges the new environment of authority over theindigenous peoples thathe meets.which are conquered by the both in terms of his triumphover the physical adventurer.

Roland treatsan injury to his arm as a badge of honour.130 on Wed.] provincial duties'for'adventurous experiences' 43 This content downloaded from 200. waitingto emerge 'in time of need' (p.boastingof liaving bled in the cause of his Queen and country' (pp. but these are latent. in the superiority Yet. New Zealand fascinates not as a colony.and the contradiction between the declared masculinedesire for an escape fromthe of 'the feminine' and theactualpursuit of perceivedunmanliness withboth European and indigenous English gendeman who comes to Knife.' hailed as 'marked out' by 'Providence' as 'Another England. 255-6). . relationships The tensionbetweentherhetoric of Empireand theromance of adventure is particularly apparentin Boldrewood's War to the Roland Massinger. as a wild frontierenvironmentin which his appetite for adventure can be fedand his masculinity can be tested.FiveImperial Adventures in theWaikato Empire Rhetoric and Frontier Landscapes The imperialadventure-romances set in the Waikato highlight two keystructural and ideologicaltensionsinherent in the genre: the dichotomybetween the imperialmessage and the escape fromcivilisation into a frontier landscape. 90). New Zealand in search of adventureaftera failedromance.75. while Roland believes wholeheartedly of the BritishEmpire and is willingto fightfor her interests.a miniature but Britain. New Zealand offers an to leave behind 'narrowand expanded horizon. 10).Wartothe Knife opens with a sense that an Oxford education and of a country estatedo not offer sufficient ownership scope fora trueman. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Fighting Rangers the Batde for the MangapikaRivernear Te Awamutu.the opportunity monotonous[. Roland is describedas possessingthequalitiesof 'calm heroismand Spartanendurance'. . beneath the Cross of the South!'23The 'transformation' of Auckland from bush to 'thrivingsettlement' is regarded by Roland as a triumph of the vision and strength of the 'British with the Bush at Empire' ( thrilled with his first encounterwith 'these marvellousislands.19.

As this quotation suggests. 148)."Uncas".19. friendship'.75.130 on Wed. Boldrewood is interestedin the Waikato's possibilitiesas a frontier researchedthe historyof the landscape. . Indeed. His participation Zealand Wars thusemergesmore from his deep-seateddesirefor a lifeof incident and thrills thanfrom his imperial ideology. Roland's military desired 'succession of exciting adventures and dramatic thatwhen requiredhe is capable of incidents'and demonstrates in the New violent action resolute. The Waikato its 'wildprofusion'(p.We shall have "Hawkeye". and "Chingachgook"turning up beforewe know where we are'" (p. Scorning that 'he had travelsby foot into the Waikatointerior.Lake Taupo. 'idyllic'. It transports him into a world that is 'sublime'.unknown to the ordinary 'the most the Forest resolute. 227). Roland's journeydown the Waikato River to Taupo is describedin the languageof Romanticexcess.New Zealand Uterature Journal of about the imminent war. he feltequal to' (96). However. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .he warnings (pp. declaring not come all thatway to lead a feather-bed life. there is little that is distinctively New Zealand about Boldrewood's descriptions of place. appeals because of itswilderness qualities. farfrom for further war. Joining Rangers. and the Pink and White Terraces. 245).] It remindsme of the "Last of the Mohicans" and all the joys of youth. apart landmarks such as the WaikatoRiver. What Roland wants is to be plunged into the pages of a Fenimore Cooper novel and this is precisely what he gets: "'I have got into the land of romance [. Roland relishesthe opportunity testing fearing himselfon the batdefield. .Whateverrisk othermen encountered.He values his initialcontact with withMaori 'in 'Nature.untrammelled by arť and his interaction in love and but embraces war as ťa rare and peace. daring service provides the spiritsof the colony'. He carefully to the battlesat Orakau and Gate regionin the 1860s and refers Pa and to historic such as General Cameron and Bishop figures from references to geographic Selwyn.'weird' and 'magical' because it is both unfamiliar and untouchedby industrialisation 44 This content downloaded from 200. 218-9. 101). individual'(p. privilegedexperience. (p. 78).

theirfiction. is one England [. .in dread majestyand Lake Taupo is 'strangely beautiful' sublimity'. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Robert Dixon writesthatthe novel's climax'drawsreadersback into the safety of inherited of Anglo-Saxonracialpurity and theinstitute private Boldrewood's This narrative closure suits certainly property'.not the calm profusion'of Roland's adventures in that the mindof thereader.FiveImperial Adventures in theWaikato (p.From a major in the the ideology underpinning his it is to be expectedthatKirby'snovel reflects imperialarmy.but much more cautiousabout the enduring unknown.19. 45 This content downloaded from 200. The forests are hailed as 'primeval' and 'unconquered'. For course of the country Boldrewood. with in a marquee. The novel ends witha feudalfeastat MassingerHall. Yes. (p. they participate and celebrate the building of the colony. Roland has adventures in the Waikato. manhood as an adventurer seems to advocate However. p. It is here. p. 'the ordinary gendeman of in .75. that Roland proves his and warrior.] surely happiest 419). 107). of 'Home'. in thedining-room and thevillagers the aristocracy a celebrationof Englishnessand class hierarchy. to communicate exampleand juxtaposition. while much of War to theKnife the leavingbehind of 'civilisation' and the machinery of Empire in orderto seek out an environment thatis wild and unrestricted. it is the 'wild in the Waikato. but he remains an Englishgendemanand at the end of the narrative throughout he returnshome to his Herefordshire estates to reclaim his inheritanceas the local squire and leader of the the land of romance and adventure. Tongariro is 'menacing.Their protagonists are as much setders of the appeal in as they are adventurers. 103. 95). linger pleasures of are equally celebratory The novels of Kirby and Marryat the British Empire. in the novel's conclusion rejectsthe excitement of the frontier and continuity favour of the stability of the old world.130 on Wed.24 ideological purpose but is rather contrived. away fromhis at a remove from homeland and the colonial setdements English of Auckland and New Plymouth. Both authors use the techniques of rather thanrhetoric. of the lives the world' (p.148.

in his devotion to Queen and country.However.makinga success of theirrespectivecareers of art and medicine in Wellington. Jack Stanley Hope Bernard. completewithquadrille at Government roundthepiano. Henry is on activedutyin New Zealand and is unquestioning Ancrum. The Waikatosequences of the novel are set on a mission station(perhapsmodelled on those of Church Mission Society missionaries John Morgan and Benjamin Yates Ashwell) just beforetheoutbreak of war. The superiority of the British military is assumed in the text and the novel also celebrates the spread of British setdement.75. with colonial Aucklandreplicating British balls society. Under the tutelage Mr and Mrs of the missionaries. his name clearedof the sexual allegations led him to join the army.Here Marryat's ideologicalpurposeis made plain.Waikato Maori have embraced both Christianity Britishlifestyle. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .she is just Jackalso inherits although as acceptingof the virtuesof. with her two Marryat positive and protagonists. an Englishestate.Uterature New Zealand Journal of professionalloyalties. loyalservant is more about New Zealand. Jackand Hope can stayin New Zealand.precisely because of progression the civilisinginfluence and triumphant progress of British culture. This vision of a school. Kirby's hero. Henry returns as a country home to England and his inheritance squire at the that end of the novel. and her trueand regarded is rewarded witha return to thecentre.Once again the source of Empire is as superiorto her colonial offshoots. wheat their children to fields.130 on Wed.imperial expansion. need for. makingthe fromadventurers to colonists. and. indeed.19.Like Boldrewood's Roland. withthe citiesreplicating the customs and practices of British civilsociety. courtship five course dinners. In keeping with Kirby and Marryat's emphasis on the building of a replica Britain in the new world.Like his creator. and a Grant. and attending pastoral Christianparadise is mirroredby the sequences in Aucklandand Wellington. and elaborate House. the frontier in HeniyAncrum environment is less attractive and Amongst the 46 This content downloaded from 200.sending tilling churchon the Sabbath.

in his late teens.and a comingof age story. and acquiescing in his fate. to cope. Unlike Roland's escapade.Jack has to be rescued by his travelling from companion. in New Zealand are essentially his travels with does value masculinecourageand enterprise.a Henrybecomes more and more of an atypical progresses an most unexpecteddevelopmentin a novel written army by by Scott'sEdward Kirbywas perhapsinfluenced major. capturedat in his and then Meremere.Hope. As the novel overwrought hero.the army rather enforced offering ineffectual He is a rather he is disinherited. Henryhas all of the outwardmarkers adventurer. different Jackis veryyoung. officer. in the Waikato However.75. being built on 'massive' lines and wearinghis army but these are soon revealedto be a veneer. most memorably River.25 Kirby does acknowledgethat 'many a soul that has felthis has thought energiescrampedand confinedin the old country thatit would findspace and vergeenough fortheir development that most adventurers in its adopted one'. view of the Waikatoas 'luxuriant that is to a use theseverygenericdescriptions critique landscape un-English rather than to praise an exotic landscape that attracts. on severaloccasions. but reflects quickly look back with longing on 'the solid comfortsof dear Old This view colours the dispositionand behaviourof England'. While Marryat the victim rather than the rescuer Jack eventuallybecoming 47 This content downloaded from 200. Henry's New Zealand adventureis him shelter when thanchosen. captivity: curiously passive the 'half-caste' Celia.130 on Wed. Marryat's purpose is drowning fromKirby' theWaikato FiveImperial Adventures Both authorsshareBoldrewooďs Maoristhanin Wartothe Knife. When chance leads to his escape he becomes so thathe is confinedto bed forweeks.27 uniform proudly. but and wild and picturesque'. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .26 of the masculine his hero.19. marrying down to a life of cultivating potatoes and yams on the settling East Coast. rather ill-equipped theMaoris displays a At times the protagonistof Amongst similar passivity.although who is also plunged into adventuresfor which he is Waverly.

Verne is verynegativetowards Maori in Among the Cannibals . Gazing at the 'the greatday of his beautyof the WaikatoRiverhe experiences his plan to revengethe man who betrayed his life'. quelling crushing attempt to resistits spread..28 Christian makesJackheroic. . Kirby and Marryat.'thegeographer a Among [. further. 48 This content downloaded from 200. .NewZealand Uterature Journal of when he saves Hope's father. Captain Paganelgoes accusingthe British of genocide and referring to the Empire as a 'homicidal civilisation'.31 RichardPhillipsdescribesVerne as 'anarchist and a attack British anti-imperial'. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . open to fighting.] a wanderer.32 point thatthe truehero of the Cannibals is Paganel.] his It is this embracingof a path of prayersfor forgiveness'.75.] They fight.Yet he is also critical of the reach and practices of theBritish Empire. .130 on Wed. . thevirtues whichshe most admires are moral ratherthan physical.] and lay themselves and think [. about nothingof it.'"30In the previous volume of the trilogy Grant's even children.. Not all of the novelistswho set theirfiction in the Waikato endorse the jingoism of Boldrewood. exploredmore fiilly thisdiscussion. regarding them as as will be laterin anthropophagous savages. . thevoices of challengeand questioning are evident Significandy. with dutyand servicethatultimately the frame of the adventure -romance to Marryat using imperial communicate hermoralmessage.exclaiming: English [. think but little of war! Waikato.mounting 'specific upon He makes the telling imperialism'.The crucial significance of the Waikato in Amongst theMaorisis that it is the site not only of mission activity but also of Jack's conversion.The Frenchgeographer Paganel speaks of the Maori warriors in the Waikato as 'the fighting independence army'and believes thattheyare conductinga 'holywar' against theBritish 'invaders'.He is halfrespectful and halfscathing of the of General Cameron's into the military might armyadvancing '"The . in the fiction of the two non-Britishauthors: Verne and Wišniowski.On the one hand.29 Paganel'sview of theBritish Empireis of a mighty and all those who juggernaut.19.renouncing fatherand turning to God with 'tears of repentance[.

71. p. He and his Maryand RobertGrant.75.and so see kiwis 'covered in make itselflighter'(p. Waikatois a land of plenty hills that 'resemble gigantic far out of stretched which sight'.and even 'eighteen specimensfortheJardin moa which are 'like immenseostriches'(p. 72.The imperialist as an environment is Waikato presented yet to be tamed or controlled by the British and thus to be admired precisely forcesof Empire. companions(Lord and Lady Glenarvan. animals worthyof antediluvianepochs [.130 on Wed.33 In keeping with this underlyingrelish for the 'liminal geography of the road'. the geographer Paganel tells his shipwrecked companions a tale of a tui which "becomesso fatin the winter thatit is quite ill.but theyare resultof a shipwreck alert to the physicalbeauties of the landscape throughwhich exoticparadisethatis Verne'sWaikatois a fantastical theytravel.theirjourneyinto the Waikato is the New Zealand adventure on the coast near Kawhia. p. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . There is little tension between Verne's antioutlook and the frontier landscape he describes. not limited to the realm of the actual or possible. watersthat'boil withthe action of subterranean 142. fires'(p. 71).. because it is untouchedby thedetrimental 49 This content downloaded from 200. and contrasts. Verne's with'immenseprairies. kauri foreststhat are 'worthy essentially and cedars of Lebanon and the mammothtrees of California'. 82).19. and assorted navy and armypersonnel) do not seek out their . As they fancy Ngaruawahia.] contortedmasses rivalsof the volcanic'. 144). Verne spends considerable time communicating Paganel's excited wonder at the botanical and animal treasureshe encountersin the Waikato. which Paganel captures to take back as feethigh' des Plants. and cannot fly.Then it tears open its breast withits beak in orderto relieveitselfof some of the fat. p. The travellers white plumage'..FiveImperial Adventures in theWaikato social outsiderwho is most at home in the liminalgeography of theroad'. yet is of morerecognisably New Zealand forall its flights paradoxically to travel from Kawhia and invention.

and the gentle of the firetogether send the traveller to a sleep whose crackling sweetnesscan only be appreciated those who have managed by without a roofover their heads' (p. a rising breeze. 78. 'gushing' waters. forestfs]' 32).which are celebrated.75. the silver moon. an 'enchanting place'. in the world of the rarity being imperialadventure-romance.130 on Wed. specifics geography place. p.19. to be amongst people and plants scarcelyvisited by tourists.who arrives in New Zealand after in a 'hermitage in Peru and who writeshis narrative adventures He describeshimself as one of Poland's by theMissouriRiver'. proudly 'workingclass' (32). villages. than rather the of and freedom. and strange. as 'a real rollingstone'.the unnamednarrator of Wisniowski'sTikera is a perpetual traveller. As in Wartothe . The Polish 50 This content downloaded from 200. p. 69). Knife Wisniowski's New Zealand is romanticisedand exotic. 49. Having 'no private means'. in Tikerathereare few tensions between the attractionsof the frontierenvironmentbeing explored and the novelist's ideological outlook. mountains and 'luxuriant' and 'primeval volcanoes'. full of 'cabbage trees. p 129).living potatoes (p. 'unwilling bemoans this state. Described by a fellowtraveller in New Zealand search of employment and journeying through adventurecelebratesthe romance of outdoor travelwhere the 'clean air. (p. his 16). vegetation.Uterature New Zealand Journal of Like Paganel. the narrator uses his 'arms and legs' to 'see the world' and believes thatthis makes him tough. and told me that I had come to a country new. The Waikatois the latestin a long line of frontier landscapes to whichthenarrator in his determined has travelled escape from modernityand oppression.34 in but celebrates rather than Tikera wanderers'. p. the narrator of Tikera exultsthat'Everything roundus was beautiful. 33). 52. It is the wildness and the xix. As he enters the Waikato. As in AmongtheCannibals . whichhave seldombeen described'(p. p.exclaiming:'How sad and stale this world in theirtight would be if all its inhabitants little stayedpatiendy on and salt!' He is a xxix. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .resilient and open to experience(p.

The perception Empire very 'Author'sPreface' to the novel lamentsthat the 'Maori race is dyingout like the snow in spring. of in is much to the fore Tikera.meltingaway unresistingly'. to create' This They 272).] has been conqueredby the pale-facedstep-children Zealand' (p. xxvi).FiveImperial Adventures in theWaikato Wišniowski was very ambivalenttowards Britishimperialism and. particularly Polish narrator of the of the Maori 'cause' speaks 'righteousness' and respondsto news of the decimationof European troops by 51 This content downloaded from 200. 272). the unnamed hunger. an unnamed Pole. outspoken against British colonisation. While in New Zealand in 1864-65. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .] whose land of New [.'36 Arguingthatthe war has been caused by Pakeha land 'the new law of confiscation'. like his autobiographical narrator. soughtrefugeand respite from the march of Empire and progressin isolated frontier landscapes. conquering destroy (p.At firstthey have to destroying plunder.As Dennis McEldowneywrites. They don't want in existence'(p. .130 on Wed. . is Similarly. Wišniowski writes with'tearsin myeyesand anxiety in myheart' as he 'listen[s]to the death throesof the tribes[. somewhatironic for the successful of respect machinery Empire. Wišniowski condemns the war 'unequivocally as a war of conquest designed to rob Maori both of his land and of his liberty.. Wišniowski travelledfromAuckland to the South Island in order to avoid in TenYearsinAustralia being conscripted.19.35 in TikeraWisniowski'snarrator.75.exterminate. This ambivalence is also evident in Wišniowski's attitude towardsthe New Zealand Wars.. uproot. The AngloSaxon and Teutonic setders 'seem to be the only successful colonizers'and set out a templatefor 'the onlypractical way of a new land. railing against 'the incredibletalentof the Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic setders for and dissipatingall they find. to make a desert out of a living and then country. writing (1873) thathe was 'convincedof the injusticeof the English affair' and would not 'assist in the annihilationof this unfortunate people'. theyimplanta new lifethere. to use whatis already Yet Wišniowskialso exhibitsa grudging.

guides him to Christianity throughreading 52 This content downloaded from 200. sympathy capture earlypart Maori cause neverturns into activesupport. thereis the maternal presenceof Mrs Grant(p. 336). Henty. continues his while the 'half-caste' Tikera is banished from her journeying 'own country' because of colonial bigotry towardsher race (p. charactersleave New Zealand. the narratorto continue his adventures and Doctor Abrabatand Tikerato relocateto vagrant These work in the opposite way to the Martinique. Haggard.19. and Stevenson.75. 128. departures in War to the and Henry Ancrum . which have more in common with early nineteenth-century works such as Scott's Waverlej (1814) and Fenimore Cooper's Last ofthe Mohicans than with the masculinenarratives of (1826) in theMaoris . Gender and Race In contrastto Haggard. Even Amongst which focuses solelyon the adventures of Jackand Hope. with the nondepartures Knife Britishprotagonistsof Wisniowski's novel leaving to escape fromthe 'gaucherie of colonialAnglo-Saxonlife'.He complainsabout British and but takes the expedientand injustice rapaciousness. 58. at the end of the novel. 'firm friendsand brothers'.37 The narrator. p. all of the sympathetic Significandy. 113). 291). 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and excludes any female love interest. route of the Pioneers and fighting fora cause self-serving joining in whichhe does not believe.New Zealand Uterature Journal of a Maori ambushwiththe remark: "'I am delighted to hear thatit was not the Maoris who were exterminated'" (p. However. She nurses Jackwhen he is ill. an exile from his Polish homeland which has been already absorbed into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. while the narratoris happy to share his of making withtheBay of Plenty iwi who knowledge gunpowder him in the of his his forthe travels. p.130 on Wed. 'petticoats' abound in these novels.

116-7).this sexual indigenouswoman. Dixon writesthatErena 'standsto Massinger Like Scott's in the same relationas Flora Mac-Ivor to Waverley.MarryaťsMaori regardPakeha as 'a superioranimal' and those who have been exposed to a European lifestyleare depicted as beginning 'to appreciate the advantages of civilisation' (p. is both free she sexualinterest readyforthe taking. 297. the values of civilisation Secondly.19.the apparent a determined to initialrejectionof the feminine by protagonist an the hero's dalliance with is undercut his masculinity by prove a 'half-caste'. The treatment of gender and race in the work of the other is more theWaikato FiveImperial Adventures aloud from the Bible. clearing way 53 This content downloaded from 200. and provides a feminineexample of domestic industry and cheerfulfaithto her husband's Maori flock.130 on Wed.'38Yet. and 'figure Diana' (pp. Boldrewood stops shortof while Erena is a 'naturalaristocrat'. his manhood in the masculine onlyto prove be drawnback to hearthand home by a heroinewho embodies and domesticity. and therefore and .'richlow-tonedvoice'. . in the relationship of thereis a similar levels. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Erena and Englishman.75. just [. 212). p. withher 'flashing eyes and like the huntress mobile face'.Once again fournovelistsunderconsideration at threeoverlapping this timeoperating tensionis the leitmotif.39 Maori the union between sanctioning for his the life to save sacrificesher Roland's.The voluptuous tialf-wild Erena Manneringfascinates Roland. Firstly. dichotomy with his European love to that of the familiar the protagonist interplaybetween imperial rhetoricand the romance of the frontier wilderness. Erena is uninhibited by the codes and an object of great conventionsof English life.] as New Zealand itselfis ready for colonial possession. dark heroines.The hero in several of the texts seeks to worldof adventure.Thirdly. typically interestin Maori women sits uneasily with the stereotypical bigoted views of racial hierarchiesand anxieties about racial purity expressedby theprotagonists. thatthese Once again it is in Boldrewood's War to theKnife maiden' tensionsare most polarised.

320).J.War to theKnife in the superiority Like his literary of the Anglo-Saxon type'. by whare-puni pristineglory pah.while 54 This content downloaded from 200. about the possible contamination speakingof the proposed union betweenErena and Roland as a forthe Englishman. 292).whichhe of Maori warriors of the bravery description terms 'theMaori Flodden' (p. which oscillatesbetween Boldrewooďs attitude admirationfor a Rousseauean noble savage and a Darwinian atavistic'animal'.75. which degradethe human race to the level of the brute'. Yet. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Boldrewooďs representation Maori culturehas much in common with Scott's depiction of evidentin Boldrewooďs . Boldrewooďs anxieties it is Hypatiawho articulates Throughout.Ngarara.delights Riverwherehe observes'the noble Maori withhis mere-mere . particularly Highland life in Marmion at Orakau.41 hero FenimoreCooper. parts Edenic and excitinglystrife-ridden. (1899) and him thisopportunity.animalistic self thatlurksbeneaththe manyvirtues of thenoble symptomaticof towardsMaori. his in all unsullied and his his . while Boldrewood has respect for Maori as 'a noble.'40 Boldrewood admiresMaori chivalry in Maori life as and romanticises equal hospitality pre-European His protagonist. Boldrewooduses theadventure stapleof the captivity narrative to warn of the barbaric.Roland's as 'a is described studyof all the evil passions captor.narrative This tensionbetweenracialpurity containment and narrative excitement. of his 'absorption and sexual desire. 'What he wanted was a his self nativecivilization which made no heavyclaimson either offered The Maoris in War to theKnife or his sensibility.J. is threatened of aristocratic race whose existence by theintrusion remains'groundedin his belief modernculture'.literature NewZealand Journal of reunion with the reformed feminist Hypatia Tollemache. 102).130 on Wed. of pakeha companionship'(p. in a visitto a pa on the hillsabove theWaikato Roland. withthe 'direful 'death-in-life' consequence' in a different class and race' (p. of the European bloodlines.19. Healy writesthatBoldrewood was unable home comfortably to fitthe Aboriginal people of his Australian into his fictionalworld of romance.

55 This content downloaded from 200. Henryis the onlymale in the novels under energy considerationto have a sustained sexual relationship with a Maori woman. much Maori blood to make her a fitting wife for an English aristocrat. 394.FiveImperial Adventures in theWaikato the Hauhau featureas 'a company of anthropoidsdevoid of humanspeech.and this sense of connectionis disappointed and betrayedby the authors' insistenceon the conventional marriagesof racial 'purity' and 'equality' that conclude the narratives.19. once again a 'half-caste' with just enough European blood to make her both exoticyetsomehow superior. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . herdeathfrustrates and angersin muchthe same that Ivanhoe's to the in Saxon Rowena dissatisfies way marriage Scott's Ivanhoe All of the emotional investment of the (1819).particularly for a modernreader. 379). 386). She has enough but too European blood to elevateher above her Maori family. p. however.At the level of emotion. Ancrum in Kirby's followsan identical Henry pattern. who 'resembled a humanbeing than a monstrousdemon fromthe lowest pit of Achera' (p. although novel the reader's interestis more invested in the European heroineEdith Mandeville.Her death is thus a sacrifice to propitiate the of the genre and the imperialistic attitudes of her requirements creator. It is withinthis contextthatBoldrewood's attitudetowards his 'half-caste'heroine can be understood.Consequendy.130 on Wed. withthe narrative between alternating her life in Auckland and Henry's military escapades in the Waikato. for these women are much more complex and fully realised than their onedimensionalrivals. Boldrewood goes even further than the bottom of the Darwinianevolutionary scale in his depiction of the Hauhau militant Kereopa Te Ua less (Boldrewood'sversionof Kereopa Te Rua).75.and capable of onlythe purely animalexpression of the baser passions' (p.the concludingmarriage betweenEdith and Henryis much more integrated into the overallpattern and of the novel. reader has been with the Jewess Rebecca in Scott's novel and with Erena in Boldrewood's narrative.

perhaps surprisingly explicitly given the author'slargelyhostile attitudeto imperialism. when Henryis sickenedby the sightof the mutilated corpse of a the narrator who make settler.75.New Zealand Uterature Journal of in partto Celia whilein captivity. flirting withher and playing on her emotionsin order to facilitate his escape (p. yethe believesthatwhile European educationand have an improving effect on Maori.130 on Wed. Many of Kirby's Maori characters behave withdignity and compassiontowardsHenrywhen he is captured at Meremere. tear shed after thedeparture of the first [. A . towardsCelia is symptomatic of his fictional Kirby'sattitude treatment of Maori.Maori remain 'savage. .] easily[. haughtyand vindictive'. For much of the narrative Tikerais criticised as by the narrator the embodimentof what he regardsas an endemic 'half-caste' ambition a European. proud. apparentthrough thenarrative Celia offat the Battleof Gate Pa in a action.] forgets lover will be driedby the caressingphrase fromthe second' (p. to marry The 'half-caste' is portrayed as a kind of serial slut: '[. Savage".] the natureof these women enduresand changeableand permissive . However. gentlemen of the "Noble eloquent speeches at Exeter Hall oh admirers can even defend a murder like this?'43 For Kirby. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . are articulated more European anxietiesabout miscegenation in Wisniowski'sTikera .whileHenrymarries in her and enticed her she is charms. 68). p.19. happy open 'couple Maori serving but he avoids a seriousrelationship withthe girls'. Althoughhe believesthata liaisonwitha whiteman would 56 This content downloaded from 200.killing scene reminiscent of Last of theMohicans .or at least acquirea Pakeha lover.underneath.42 Early in the novel. . sabotages her rivalEdith's happiness. Maori are alwaystheenemy. expostulates:'Oh. 114). 40. The narrator is about his sexual to 'frolic' a with of needs. you the soldier. thus ensuringthat returns to the arms of his faithful Henry loving Englishrose.Kirbydoes not articulate his fearof but makes his feelings miscegenation directly. 'half-caste' Tikera (a 'duskyJuno'). protect by part depictedas rather the jealous woman who deliberately predatory...making them'better example informed and more intelligent'.

typically in an Aucklandbar he is the novel when the narrator is attacked rescued fromhis European attackers by a Maori sailor. Tikera may have ťthegerms of the instincts' which make European women the . 76). a primitive coloured woman!' (p. . 142. 144).George on Wisniowski's Sunray. emergesin many ways as the narrator' Charlesvon Schaeffer the connivingGerman traveller particular and the selfishEnglish Whittmores. polygamous Maori husband. respectand marry would neverthink radical. novel. Indeed. the narrator recoilsfrommarrying her:'who would undertake such a task?Who would dare to defythe mores of colonial societyby takingcare of this child of Nature [.130 on Wed. McEldowney concludes that Wisniowski's attitude to Maori women is 'ambivalent'. Significantly.19.] Even I.even he acknowledging that she is a 'treasure'. p. . betweena convictionof and intimationsto the contrary. the capturedEuropean 57 This content downloaded from 200. 292. an undoubted thatone could love. . Doctor Abrabatto 'make theseseeds grow' (p. in a reversalof the hostileMaori and chivalric earlyin European paradigm. . 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the in to the from abandonment. The conundrum of the novel is whether endorses Wišniowski or critiques his narrator's Tikera certainly viewpoint.44 is also evidentin Wisniowski's This ambivalence depictionof there are no Maori villainsin Tikera Maori.75. the narratorreflectingthe author's 'perplexed conflict betweenattraction and disgust. of concealed but it is leftto 'equal angels [. are initiated by European characters. which he finds in motifsof of two of the recurring Wisniowski'stransformation adventurefictionset in New Zealand. ranging trulyamoral acts theft.FiveImperial Adventures in theWaikato save women such as Tikera froma miserableexistenceof 'doglike devotion' to a brutal. p. between white superiority of uninhibited behaviour and emotional intellectual disapproval attraction towardsit'. yet this is the resultof her tamingher Maori blood through embracing and wilful' 'passionate European dress and decorum (p.] deep in her heart'. 144). to murder.McEldowney comments approvingly 'realisticand rational' depiction of Maori.

37-8).75. Wišniowski reminds that ťthe worst vices which the Europeans "sentimentalists' to which introduce do not in the least comparewiththe horrors even such a noble people as the Maoris shamelessly adhered'(p. and the evil tohunga. The Maori in Among the Cannibals are and brutal.the tohungais a 'a mild-mannered retiredwitchloyal friendto the narrator. even in Tikera . doctornow practising as a physician'. Maori are cast as the ultimate threat to extraordinary the shipwrecked and as such have a symbolicrather travellers. they Further evidencethata castigation of theBritish Empiredoes in with a tolerant not necessarily hand hand more go acceptance or celebration of racialdifference is foundin Verne's Among the Cannibals. is 117). an amalgamof all of the barbaric. perceived aspects and the of the of new-born infants. than an anthropologicalidentity. He cites the everything Carl Völkner example of Opotiki Maori who killed missionary and then 'drank his particular cannibalism. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .130 on Wed.19. This may seem surprising.Uterature NewZealand Journal of and abused. Likewise. given Verne's anti-Empire but the seemingcontradiction is sentiments. They devour that fallsinto theirhands' (pp. non-European abhorrentand grotesque.the prescribed remedyforMaori barbarism ťthelivingexample of the Caucasian race which showed them how revolting were' (p.46 Yet. 116-7). 38).45Far frombeing threatened thePolish narrator is treated withkindnessand hospitality by the Bay of Plentyiwi who capturehim. In an authorialaside Verne does locate the practise of cannibalism withincontemporary debates as to whether cannibalism resulted 58 This content downloaded from 200.not to say the most gluttonous of anthropophagi. particularly Europeans cannibalism. and ate his brains' (p. Once again. 117). anthropophagous. customs that Verne found most 'savage'. all the things representing most feared about the racial 'other'. drying polygamy. the demands of his chosen of the perhaps explainedby genre adventure.47 Paganel describesMaori as 'the most cruel. smothering human heads as trophies (pp. there remains an unease at certain of Maori culture.

105). 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the confront readers they through European specific danger when captured by Maori. Maryclaimsthe same wiferather release fromJohn Mangles: "'Lord and Lady Glenarvan think [. and active Lady Glenarvanand Maryare to titillate key purpose in the narrative. While their male companions face death.] thata wifemaydie by the hand of her husbandin orderto I think thata woman mayalso existence.] It was the delirium and rageof tigers. Lady Glenarvan and Mary are threatenedwith a 'fate worse than death': rape and sexual enslavement by theirMaori ultimate Verne voice to one of the Here gives European captors. . . distinction seized with a bestialfury. 59 This content downloaded from 200. Lord Glenarvan shoots Kara-Tété for claimingLady Glenarvanas his 'wife' and thenvows to killhis thansee her 'degraded'(p. . 96).in this moment of agony. infuriated over theirprey'(p. .and argues that Maori eat humanfleshout of hungerand a proteindeficiency due to a lack of largeanimalprey(p. the cannibalistic orgythat they witness(knowing thatit willbe their turnto be the 'food' on the nextday) has littleto do withnecessity.refined.Their participants and horrify however. At a tangiforKara-Tété six Maori slaves are clubbed to death and then dismembered: 'thewhole mass of natives[. and despoliationof pure and virtuous fears:the contamination European women.] without of age or sex. . 40).19.75. Verne goes as faras to claim thatafterthe Maori community have eaten and drunktheirfill there'was nothing humanleftin them'(p. threwthemselves upon the inanimate remainsof thevictims[. it is useless to conceal that we love one another. May I count upon you as Lady Glenarvancounts upon herhusband?"' (p. escape froma shameful a the hand of her lover to die by escape like fate. 101). in the adventures of their male companions. 105).FiveImperial in theWaikato Adventures from 'superstition'or 'necessity'.John.when his shipwrecked protagonists the Taupo chief Kai-Koumou. .130 on Wed. are capturedby However. Sexual anxieties about miscegenation are heightened in Verne's novel by the presence of two European women at the frontier.

By including two rather narrative. Glenarvan and be Lady Mary may angels outside of the house. However.His heroinesembodytwo of the most reverednineteenth-century femalearchetypes: thewifeand the virgin. the central plot. but that he must returnto the imperialcentre withhis gendemanly values and European racialpurity intact. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . rescue.19. Conclusion The suspicionof inter-racial sexual relationships and the fearof in all of the texts considered here is the miscegenation present which links the Waikato narratives most ingredient closely. European women at the centreof the adventure than relegatingthem to the margins.thepresenceof thesewomen worksto reinforce message of the genre: that the male protagonistcan test his in the frontier masculinity landscape of the new world and on the batdefield. havingtantalised withthishorrific Verne draws back and effectsan improbable. the figure of the 'half-caste' heroine in Boldrewood.relationships betweenMaori men and European women were not to be countenanced.keepingtheirmenfolk refined.However. Kirby and Wisniowski'snovels complicates this overt message. ratherthan in the house.130 on Wed. and Tikera 60 This content downloaded from 200. Althoughsome of the novels featureEuropean women more thanis usual in the late nineteenth-century prominendy imperial and end with the device of the marriage adventure-romance. althoughtypically restoring the protagonist to a European love beforethe complication of a child. Erena. timely.75. but theirpurity and virtue travel withthem. On the one hand.Verne gives voice to European prejudicesand fears. For themto be sulliedis unconscionableand.New Zealand literature Journal of the European novelists of this period readilyentertained of sexual liaisons and even between possibility marriages European men and Maori women.but possibility. Celia.

Eitherthe adventure endingwitha return 61 This content downloaded from 200. naturalbeauty. answeris no. As is typical being of the genre.Most of the protagonists leave thisworld finally into either a European worldor a behindthemto be reintegrated thatis a simulacrum of 'home'.loving hearts.the Waikatoin these narratives is a symbolicspace a wild. author to sanction an enduringrelationship between the 'halfcaste' heroine and the male protagonistworks to reinforce On the otherhand.but the temptation of theracialotherremains powerful.the about miscegenation. European anxieties sexual energy.130 on Wed. protagonist theirEuropean counterparts. exotic characterised and adventure. by independence. colonialenvironment narrator and Verne's Wisniowski's Only Paganel remaintrue to to thewild to the ideals of the adventurer. which requires the of European cultureinto the new world in order transportation The Waikato textssuggestthatthe to transform the wilderness? is finite.FiveImpend Adventures in theWaikato each being the daughter of a embodyVictoriansexual anxieties.reluctant to marry Maori men and fully embracetheir mothers'heritage.75. but patronised by the European to which to The refusalof each community theyaspire belong. agent of Empire. in searchof places and people untainted known and familiar by and an modernity. Narrativeclosure may attemptto containthe desires these women release. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . father and Maori mother. continuing journey and lonelyspaces of the earth. move European They uneasily between these worlds.19. There is a similartension at work between the rhetoricof Empire which these novels articulate and the frontier environments into which the adventurers travelin the hope of liberated from the constraints of civilisation.and innate refinement of these Maori women make them more attractive to both reader and than the one-dimensional virtueof most of staid.In thisrespecttheyhighlight one of the centralconundrumsof the imperialadventure-romance: can a man (or a woman such as Mary Grant) be both an which necessitatesa perpetualdeparturefrom the adventurer.

McEldowney.New Zealand Literature Journal of to the point of origin. 1995). Notes 1 Alfred 'Novelsof Adventure and Manners'.TierceHeroesofa Race:Sygurd Wisniowski's Dying in of Maori Ten Years in : AUMLA Australie?. pp.LeeAnneM.or it is perpetual.and545.1972). 2006).533. Lyall. makingthe adventurer an eternal exile.Two of hersisters were Smugglers' 62 This content downloaded from 200.19. Language (p. Writing in AngloAustralian Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richardson in NewWoman usestheterm 'colonial adventure fiction' andColonial Adventure Fiction in Victorian Britain Florida (Gainesville: University Press. 4 SarahCozens. Portrayal Journal ofthe Australasian Universities 107 Modern 40-53 Association. 7 Emilia also wrote:Temper Marryat (1854).532-49(p.I follow use of theterm adventureRoslyn Jolly's 'imperial in 'Postcolonial in romance' A to the Readings'. 6 Robert the Colonial : Gender Adventure . Podstolski Oceania. 41). 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The Escaped (1869). p. 383.75. University University vii. (2007).130 on Wed. by CT. Quarterly 179(1894). Queen ofthe of trans.p.p. 3 This formof fiction has been accordeda variety of descriptive labels. Review. (1876). RaceandNation Dixon. Companion Victorian ed. (Westport. 55. 2002). 2 Lyall. Wišniowski. Baker and Kenneth William Womack Novel. 532).Henry Lyle(1856). 5 Dennis orChildren Tikera Introduction. 537. Captivity Stolen orTellthe at Once Truth Cherries. The Station in Paul Howard's and Why He Early Life (1867). London:Greenwood Press.The Sea-Side Home andthe Cave(1875). by Sygurd (Auckland: Jerzy Auckland Pressand Oxford Press.

and W. Low. A Humble Remonstrance . 63 This content downloaded from 200. 13 Richardson. 33-34.FiveImperial Adventures in theWaikato also novelists: wrote adventure suchas Left fiction. p. 18 RobertLouis Stevenson. (New Longman. 1989). 385. p. 17 Low. cruelty. Windus. 1925).manyof them focusing on themesof alcoholism andmarital suchas Love's (1865). Novelssuchas With (1896) representative inthe the reader into violent and With Kitchener Soudan (1903)plunge in whichthe central and exciting episodesof British expansion heroismof an fictional character is inspiredby the patriotic historical figure. (p. Paper p.p. 83. Marryaťs R. Roudedge.are Clive inIndia ofthegenre. Kingston's intheBoy's stories Own aretypical. 1996). Phillips. 142. Phillips. 1979). 10 Martin Dreams Deeds Adventure.'Realism University 52 (1887). Augusta Marryat Л Boy's toThemselves: Adventure inAustralia Florence (1878). Marryat wrote over 70 novels. HeartofDarkness York: on Empire Works Pearson. 'TheMan WhoWould ed. White Ching-Liang Representation Colonisation New York: 2. 9 Gail Skins and /Black Masks. Be . Rider and Mines Solomon's .G. 12 Jolly. 14 82. 1997). (London. in Maori andSettler Zealand(although not theWaikato) (1890). SeeJolly. Contemporary 19 Richardson. 17. 383. 16 H. p. pp. Lang.75. The novels of G. pp. 72.683-93 Review. Frederick Ready (1841). King'andOther 2007). 21 and 123. of p. Conflict 8 Richard in discusses such Men Phillips practices Mapping and Empire: A Geography Adventure (LondonandNew York:Roudedge.. 11 69.p. Green. pp. 15 David Damrosch. 1885 (Oxford: and Andrew Oxford Press. p. Ballantyne's The CoralIsland(1858).A. 1885 (London:Chatto King Haggard.19.M.130 on Wed.p. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (NewYork:Basic of of Empire Masterman Books. 125and 16-17. p. p. 9. 176. 689). 20 Richardson. who wrote aboutNew Henty. Romance'.

39 Dixon. Ward. 252. 26 A Taleofthe Ancrum: Last WarinNew Joshua Henry Kirby. p. 1872).130 on Wed. 1956). 38 Dixon. 1899).19. p. ofEmpire Kucich.75. . p.J.2. byJohn Joseph ofDarkness. Maori(London: or. ed. 117and 137. p. University 1972). Among Lock and 59 and 37. Healy. kraj sviata. p. pp. 54. pp. 1874). 140. 64 This content downloaded from 200. 55. . pp. 36 McEldowney. 1937).New Zealand"Literature Journal of 21 Phillips. 41 Dixon. 1978 (St Lucia: J. 33 Phillips. p.. p. 61. pp.p. 324. p. . 1. University 1989). 40 andthe inAustralia . 114. 23 Rolf Boldrewood. Kirby. 37 McEldowney. Co. 2. 28 Marryat.The translation is provided English byCozens. pp. 54-55. xix. 1868 (London and Melbourne: JulesVerne. Macmillan. quotedby Phillips. 137. 94. Amongst (London: Frederick Warne andCo. xvii-xviii. 58. 31 A Voyage Round theWorld Verne.p. 24 Dixon. 34 Tikera orChildren Wišniowski.Literature Aborigine ofQueensland Press.Oxford Jerzy (Auckland: Press. p. War to theKnife. 60. . Sygurd po vfoto (Warsaw: into KrajowaAgencja Wydawnicza. 35 Na i pryygody Wišniowski.HerePaganel is speaking aboutAustralia. p. 214 and 339. Sygurd Queen ofthe ofOceania Podstolski AucklandUniversity Press. 189.. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1. specifically 32 Phillips. 42 1. 55. 1877). p. p. trans. Kirby. 2 vols(London: Brothers. p. 25 Emilia the Maoris : A Bookof Adventure Marryat.p. Henry Zealand. 29 theCannibals. 22 Heart in Fictions Conrad. Tinsley 27 6. 30 Verne. 56. p. xxv. 3 vols (Londonand New Jules York:GeorgeRoudedge. p. p. Tangata 91.

l.FiveImperial in theWaikato Adventures 43 44 45 46 47 Kirby. pp.19. McEldowney.p. 103). McEldowney.130 on Wed. p. p. This associationof Maori with cannibalism is coupled with reference to a Maoriwomanfollowing herhusband to thegrave in a ceremony reminiscent ofIndian suttee (Verne. McEldowney. 65 This content downloaded from 200. p. v. xvii-xviii. 4 Dec 2013 13:12:22 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 224. xvii.75.

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