# Chapter 27 Magnetic Fields Section 1: Magnetic phenomena

I. Observations
1. Observations by ancient people a) Some rock, called "magnetite", attracts pieces of iron. b) A (freely rotating) needle made by magnetite always aligns up in the direction of the geographic north to south. (Such a needle is called "compass'", and ancient people, like Christopher Columbus used it to tell directions and made his trip to the New Land.) c) The end of a compass needle pointing to the geographic north is called (magnetic" North Pole, and the end pointing to the geographic south is called "South Pole". d) A magnet always has two poles, no matter how small it is cut. (Even nowadays, a single magnetic pole has not been observed yet. That is, magnet poles are always found in pairs.) 2. Observations by ourselves a) Experiment (in lecture): Magnetic bars' interactions b) Pattern: The interaction between to magnets:

Like poles repel each other. Unlike poles attract each other. The interaction happens in a distance.

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2. How does a magnet exert a magnetic force on another magnet in space? (Think about how a charge exerts an electric force on another charge in space. A magnet is electrical neutral. Then. called "magnetic force"--symbolically. but need more evidence to judge) Testing experiment: Prediction: If a magnet is charged either "+" or "-". what are the magnetic north and south poles of the Earth? The magnetic south pole of the Earth is near its geographic north pole. This magnetic field exerts a force on other magnets in space. why? Any evidence?) Is it the electrostatic interaction between twp charges? (Possible. + + + + + + + + - III. The magnetic interaction is a force. Copy right © Xueli Zou 2 3/31/2005 . Conclusion: The actual result does not support our prediction. Why does one end of a compass needle always point to the geographic north? The Earth itself must be a large permanent magnet. Conceptual explanations 1.) Conceptual model: Magnetic field--a magnet creates magnetic field in space. then it should repel with an object charged with the same type. What is the interaction between magnets? Is it the gravitational interaction between twp masses? (No. FB 2.II. Physical quantities and qualitative models to represent the magnetic interaction 1. while the magnetic north pole of the Earth is near its geographic south pole. Experimental result: Both the north pole and south pole of the bar magnet attract the + and .tape.

magnetic field lines inside the magnet point away from the south pole and toward the north pole. No two field lines can cross. B (vector) b) Graphically. Example 1. Magnetic field is great when the field lines are close together and small when they are far apart.3. The direction of the magnetic field at any location is the direction in which a compass needle points at that location. Magnetic filed lines of the earth Example 2: Magnetic field lines due to a bar magnet Copy right © Xueli Zou 3 3/31/2005 . magnetic field lines: Magnetic field lines are closed lines—magnetic field lines outside a magnet point away from the north pole and toward the south pole. How to represent the magnetic field? a) Symbolically.

Physically. Quantitative models to represent the magnetic field 1.g. So the magnetic field can exert a magnetic force on moving charges! More accurate experiments show that the magnetic force due to a source magnet q (the charge) FB depends on the magnitude of the velocity of the moving charge (v) the magnitude of magnetic field (B) the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of the velocity Copy right © Xueli Zou 4 3/31/2005 .Example 3: Magnetic field lines between north and south poles Example 4: Magnetic field lines due to a horseshoe shape magnet IV. where a possible test object can be A small magnet (such as a compass): A source magnet can exert a torque on a test compass—more complex phenomena A small test charge Stationary charge: (the magnetic force on a charge at rest is ZERO. a moving charged particle (need more experiment evidence) Observational experiment: Magnetic field due to a source magnet can make a beam of electrons bent. Magnitude of B: Measure by the force of a source magnet exerting on a test object. evidenced as the tape experiment) Moving charge: e. how to measure B? Direction of B: Indicated by the direction of a compass needle pointing to at that location.

c) Curl the fingers toward B. Gauss is a unit for magnetic field. no matter if the charge q is positive or negative. where 1 Tesla = 104 Gauss 2. if the moving charge is positive. Copy right © Xueli Zou 5 3/31/2005 .Mathematical model: The magnitude of the force: r r r = q v ×B FB B θ v F B = q vB sin θ where θ is the angle between v and B. b) Point the four fingers along the direction of the velocity vector (v) with the palm facing the magnetic filed B. Important: FB is always perpendicular to both v and B. how to determine the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on a moving charge: F B = q vB sin θ r r r Direction of FB: F = q v × B by the Right-hand Rule: B Magnitude of FB: a) Have your RIGHT hand ready and make the thumb is perpendicular to the four fingers. 1) The extended thumb points in the same direction of the magnetic force. 2) The extended thumb points in the OPPOSITE direction of the magnetic force. For a given B. B≡ FB q v sin θ So the magnitude of the magnet field B is defined as SI Units of B: 1N ≡ 1 Tesla = 1T (1 C )(1 m / s ) Also. if the moving charge is negative.

and frequency f = = ( ).4 in the text) Uniform magnetic field—the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field is same everywhere. Case 1: If initially v ⊥ B Uniform circular motion (sometimes called cyclotron motion) v2 F = q v × B = qvB sin 90° = qvB = ma c = m R Centripetal force: If the particle can go through v2 v qvB = m ⇒ qB = m ⇒ R R mv R= qB The angular speed: ω= v v qB = ⇒ω = R mv m qB Period: Τ = 1 B q 2πR 2π mv 2π m = ( )= ( ) . Qualitative Testing experiment: Electron beam from a cathode ray tube (CRT) VI: Applications Example 1: Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field (Section 29. Copy right © Xueli Zou 6 3/31/2005 . T 2π m v v qB B q where the frequency is independent of the velocity of the charged particle.V. B X X X B into paper X X X X X X X X X B out of paper Example 2: ALPS IX-A2 Example 3: Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field – circular motion (Video) B has the same magnitude & direction at all the locations in the given space.

v ⊥ ⊥ B a FB = qv ⊥ B sin 90° . its path is a helix. t– thickness E At equilibrium. F B = ev d B = E ⋅ e ⇒ E = vd B So the voltage between the top and bottom surfaces is : ∆VH = vd Bd (called Hall voltage) Copy right © Xueli Zou 7 3/31/2005 .uniform circular motion (around the magnetic field lines) 2. d – height. a – length.constant velocity with V// ˆ B is in x direction Example 4: Hall Effect – How does a magnetic field sensor works? A piece of conductor in which I flows conventional: electron current in (-X) Edwin Hall In 1879 where Z Y X I in X direction electrons in drift speed B in Y direction A=d t. v // B a FB = qv// B sin 0 = 0 .Case 2: If initially v is not ⊥ B Helical path If a charged particle moves in a uniform magnetic field with its velocity at some arbitrary angle with respect to B . Superposition: Two motions – As a result 1.

∆VH are known. t.Electron current: I = nev d A ⇒ v d = I neA where 1 ≡ RH is the Hall Coefficient ne IBd IBd IB ⎛ I ⎞ ∆VH = ⎜ = = ⎟ Bd = neA ne(td ) (ne )t ⎝ neA ⎠ t (∆V H ) ⎛R I⎞ ∆V H = ⎜ H ⎟ B ⇒ B = RH I ⎝ t ⎠ 1. If I. If RH. I. move in a straight horizontal line. then to measure B Example 5: Velocity Selector Fe = qE To have the particles with velocity v. d=1cm. Given: ∆V=200V. v = 1 × 10 7 m s What is the B ? 200 −2 E 2 × 10 4 VB ⇒ V = = 10 = B B B Fe = eE = (− e ) B= 2 × 10 4 = 2 × 10 −3 T 7 1 × 10 With what speed can the electrons go through the plates without being deflected? Copy right © Xueli Zou 8 3/31/2005 . ∆VH are known. t. then RH for study property of m 2. B.

Example 6: Mass spectrometer B out of page. q. Magnitude of L: length of the wire Direction of L: in the direction of current Copy right © Xueli Zou 9 3/31/2005 . different mass 1 1 q∆V = mv 2 ⇒ qV+ = mv 2 + qV− 2 2 2q∆V ⎛ 2q∆V ⎞ 2 v= =⎜ ⎟ m ⎝ m ⎠ v2 d FB = qvB = m where R = 2 R d d ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ qB⎜ ⎟ qB⎜ ⎟ 2 mv 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⇒ m 2 = [qBd ] ⇒ qB = ⇒m= ⎝ ⎠= 1 d v ⎛ 2q∆V ⎞ 4⎜ ⎛ 2q∆V ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 m ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ m ⎠ 2 2 2 2 qB d m B d ⇒m= ⇒ = 8∆V 8∆V q a) Reading assignment: p 922-924 b) The mass spectrometer c) The cyclotron 1 Section 2: Magnetic force acting on a current .carrying conductor Case 1: A straight wire with current in a uniform B B Into page FB = I L × B where L ≡ a length vector in the direction of current.

Case 2: An arbitrary shaped wire segment In a uniform B ⎛b ⎞ ⎟ FB = ∫ d FB = ∫ Id s × B = I ⎜ ⎜ ∫ d s ⎟ × B = IL' × B ⎝a ⎠ where ∫ d s ≡ L' ≡ a vector from a to b a b Magnitude of L’: FB = IL' B sin θ = IΒ (L' sin θ ) = ΙΒ L⊥ Where L⊥ is the effective length of the perpendicular component of L’. What is the net magnetic force on the loop? Copy right © Xueli Zou 10 3/31/2005 . ( ) Section 3: Torque on a current loop. Case 3: A closed loop FB = I ∫ d s × B = 0 The net magnetic force acting on any closed current loop in a uniform magnetic field is zero. in a uniform magnetic field Direct current motors 1.

directed in y Magnitude: Area of the loop A ≡ Direction: ⊥ to the plane of the loop and consistent with the right-hand rule τ 2 = r2 × F2 = ⎜ ⎟ (IaB )sin 90° = τ total r r = IA × B 3.Ftotal = ∑ Fi = ∑ ILi B sin θ i =1 4 F1 = F3 = 0 ˆ direction ) F2 = IaB. What is the motion of the loop for a complete cycle? Let us look at the total torque: r r τ total = N I A × B Copy right © Xueli Zou 11 3/31/2005 . directed into the page (in the − z 2. What is the net torque on the loop? τ total = τ 2 + τ 4 abIB ⎛b⎞ ˆ directed in y 2 ⎝2⎠ abIB ⎛b⎞ ˆ τ 4 = r4 × F4 = ⎜ ⎟ (IaB )sin 90° = directed in y 2 ⎝2⎠ abIB abIB τ total = τ 2 + τ 4 = + = I (ab )B 2 2 ˆ where A the area equal to ab τ total = IAB. If the number of the loops is N. directed out of page (in the z ˆ direction ) F4 = IaB. What is the magnetic dipole moment? µ ≡ IA ≡ Magnetic dipole moment r r r τ = µ×B 4. what is the torque? r r r r r r τ total = N I A × B = N µ × Β 5.

e. sinθ<0 τ = NIAB sin 270° = − NIAB The loop cannot have a continues rotation 6. b. To have a DC motor the loop must rotate continuously a. Alternating-current motor) Copy right © Xueli Zou 12 3/31/2005 .r r Initial: A B and θ=0 τ = NIAB sin θ = 0 When torque is maximum. θ=180: τ = 0 from graph When θ>180. θ=90: τ = NIAB sin θ = NIAB sin 90° = NIAB At the semicircle. Turn around the direction of the current for every half cycle (i. Turn on the current only for a half cycle.