Erasmus Mundus Action 4 project “Promoting European Education in Sustainable Development” TEMPUS Joint European Project_ 25163_ 2004

“Bridging the gap between University and businesses” Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007

Technology and Sustainable Development
Role of Engineers Case study
Professor Jordi Segalas Technology and Sustainable Development Polytechnic University of Catalonia Barcelona, SPAIN

Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007

What role can engineers play, in sustainable development?

Are we followers?

Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007

Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007

market laws Environment is used to fulfill the demands of the Economy laws. (Resources. waste and pollution absorption) Economy (‘inevitable laws’) Society adapts to the inevitable economy laws: Society As much money as sooner as possible. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.relative importance? Environment (‘technology can fix it’) Economy laws are ‘inevitable’ . 12-23 February 2007 .The current world view .

Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. 12-23 February 2007 ...But this is what we all ultimately depend on for life .so.

as manipulable? Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. Products Products Environmental laws are ‘inevitable’ . Environment nurtures... Society . supports and makes possible…. Economy . and limits.laws of nature.whose rules and practices are totally ‘invented’ by society Economy Economy --invented! invented! Society Society Infrastructure Infrastructure Environment Environment --‘inevitable’ ‘inevitable’ SO: why do so many regard Economic laws as ‘inevitable’ (globalisation. to serve society’s purposes…. etc). but Environmental laws.Engineers provide the interfaces. 12-23 February 2007 .which has a mixture of instinctive and learned/cultural laws Society has invented.

• In contrast.Serving Needs. as often as not. tend to meet as many needs as possible with as few resources as possible. or Quality of Life. (Natural Capitalism. Ch. industrial capitalism emphasises the creation of specialised products that fight for market niches to fill ‘needs’ that. having more limited means to satisfy human needs. 14) Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. cannot be satisfied by material goods. 12-23 February 2007 . or Wants? • “Traditional cultures.

Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.Example: which of these is more worth an engineer’s energy & interest? Hasbro's Tooth Tunes toothbrushes have an MP3 player built in. 12-23 February 2007 . making sure you brush for the American Dental Association's recommended time. They use bone-conduction to rattle the sound through your teeth for 3 minutes.

Example: which of these is more worth an engineer’s energy & interest? Design of Temporary Shelters for Refugees Thousands of refugee deaths from hypothermia could be prevented every year if a new hi-tech UK-designed tent lining performs well in tests in Afghanistan. 12-23 February 2007 . They are made of a sandwich of materials: polyester wadding like you'd find in a puffa jacket and a cheap breathable waterproof membrane. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. A team from the University of Cambridge has developed linings for existing refugee tents that will pay for themselves in saved heating costs in one winter.

engineers can’t be neutral Luxury OK NEVER NEVER Quality GOOD y t y i t l i i l i ip b b a p a sh i n i n h i rrs a MAYBE t a t de s e s u d u a S a S Le e L GOOD Affluence NEVER Needs BRILLIANT MAYBE Technology No net impact In .Choosing what you are engineering for . 12-23 February 2007 .between High impact Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.

electric electrictoothbrush toothbrush has hasaaminiature miniaturevideo video camera camera mounted mounted beside the beside thebristles bristlesto to allow allowthe theuser userto tosee see on onaamonitor monitor the NEVER the ‘40%’ of debris ‘40%’ of debristhey they normally normallymiss.” •• (TYNKYN (TYNKYN. 12-23 February 2007 .Engineers’ reputation as professionals.” miss. not mercenaries .-EC EC11/01) 11/01) GOOD MAYBE BRILLIANT GOOD MAYBE Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.whose interests do we serve? •• “Video “Videotoothbrush” toothbrush” OK NEVER •• “In “Indevelopment developmentby by Panasonic. this NEVERthis Panasonic.

should engineers push for socially sustainable features in the products: for instance…. 12-23 February 2007 . whatever the product’s social impact? • Or.the poorest 10%? • Or. should we put our energy and interest into products and projects which serve ‘needs’ rather than artificially created ‘wants’? Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.What defines a socially sustainable product? • Is being manufactured sustainably enough.affordability and accessibility for the ‘excluded’ .

12-23 February 2007 .interfacesustainability.Case Study http://www.com/ Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.

12-23 February 2007 .Enterprise core Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.

money flows in the other direction. our share of which we hope to increase. Products flow through that supply chain in one direction. with suppliers and customers and a market. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. 12-23 February 2007 .Enterprise relation to Society The company is part of a supply chain.

12-23 February 2007 .XX Century Enterprise Model Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.

based on 1994 operations—10 percent of sales! Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. Zero Waste Against ideal operational standards—zero waste— they identified $70 million in waste.1. 12-23 February 2007 .

Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. Zero Waste Total manufacturing waste sent to landfills has decreased by 63% since 1996. The cumulative avoided costs from waste elimination activities since 1995 have totaled over $299 million. 12-23 February 2007 .1.

Benign Emissions Interface identified and inventoried 247 air emissions stacks and 19 waste water effluent pipes at their manufacturing locations. 12-23 February 2007 . Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.2.

12-23 February 2007 . Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.2. Benign Emissions Reduced the number of stacks on its facilities by 35 percent and the number of effluent pipes by 53 percent.

12-23 February 2007 . means eventually harnessing solar energy Harnessing renewable energy will attack numerous unwanted linkages.3. Renewable Energies The third front. Renewable Energy. both to the lithosphere and to the biosphere. and will allow closed loop recycling Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.

use of renewable energy increased from 11% to 13% in 2005. 12-23 February 2007 . Renewable Energies An emphasis on initiatives that improve efficiency and conserve energy has reduced the total energy used at carpet manufacturing facilities (per unit of product).3. It is down 41% since 1996. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.

organic cycle. 12-23 February 2007 . through closed loop recycling.4. giving manmade materials and precious organic molecules life after life. emphasizing natural raw materials and compostable products ("dust to dust") a technical cycle. Closing cycles Two cycles are introduced: a natural. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.

The percentage of recycled or biobased content in products worldwide has increased from 0.4.5% in 1996 to 15. Closing cycles The ReEntry program diverted 85 million pounds of material from landfill between 1995 and 2005. and repurposed (1%). 18 million pounds was diverted from landfill and used in recycling (71%). 12-23 February 2007 . Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. In 2005.9% in 2005. energy capture and conversion (28%).

Closing cycles Water intake per square meter of carpet is down 81% in modular carpet facilities and down 52% in broadloom facilities from 1996 due to conservation efforts and process changes Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. 12-23 February 2007 .4.

Efficient resources/goods transport We can: • videoconference to avoid the unnecessary trip for a meeting. 12-23 February 2007 . • site our factories near the markets they serve • plan logistics for maximum efficiency Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. • drive the most efficient automobiles available.5.

• closer relations among ourselves (inside the circle) to get all of us in alignment. Sensitivity Hookup • service to the community through involvement and investment in the community (especially in education).6. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. 12-23 February 2007 . and with suppliers and customers.

6. Sensitivity Hookup Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. 12-23 February 2007 .

12-23 February 2007 . on the acceptance of entirely new notions of economics. the services our products provide. in lieu of the products themselves Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. more than anything else.7. via leasing agreements. Redesign of commerce Redesigning commerce probably hinges. especially prices that reflect full costs. It means shifting emphasis from simply selling products to providing services Relationships based on delivering.

The enterprise is responsible for maintenance. in case of interruption enterprise is fined. Sells vertical transport maintenance free instead of elevators We can go farther: In ICT: You can buy hours of word editor instead of hardware and software.7. Redesign of commerce Other examples: Photocopies: Xerox: Sells copy services instead of copy machines. In civil engineering: you can provide the service: connection between two places instead of roads. Elevator: Schindler. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. 12-23 February 2007 .

12-23 February 2007 . and suppliers— and to one another.• service oriented • resource-efficient • wasting nothing • solar driven • cyclical (no longer take-makewaste linear) • strongly connected to stakeholders: communities (building social equity). customers. • Our communities are stronger and better educated Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.

Redefine engineering culture away from ‘Building things’ to ‘meeting needs sustainably’? The 19th (& 20th?) Century Engineer The 21st Century Engineer I built all this! I didn’t need to build anything new! Visible construction. to meet society’s wants Providing and Refurbishing the minimum to meet society’s needs Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. 12-23 February 2007 . at great public expense.

. and act accordingly. • Becoming Products Products sustainable requires leaders who recognise this world view.. 12-23 February 2007 .Engineers provide the interfaces. Economy Economy --invented! invented! Society Society--instinctive? instinctive? Infrastructure Infrastructure Environment Environment-‘inevitable’ ‘inevitable’ Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”.

Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”. 12-23 February 2007 .