Electrochemical Technologies in Wastewater Treatment

Guohua CHEN

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Eco Asia Conference (29 / 10 / 2008)

Water Pollution Impacts

Wastewater Treatment Techniques
Coagulation Sedimentation Flotation Filtration

to remove particles

Biological processes Advanced oxidation Adsorption Membrane processes

to remove organic compounds

Electricity Is Not a Stranger .

Electrochemical methods Electrodeposition Electrocoagulation High efficiency Electroflotation Electrooxidation Electrodisinfection Electroreduction  Easy operation Compact facilities .

Electrodeposition for heavy metal recovery Mn+ + ne M + - ne Mn+ M .

Electrocoagulation • Generating coagulant electrically Al – 3e  Al 3+ Fe – 2e  Fe 2+ • Sludge floated by hydrogen gas 2H2O + 2e  H2 + 2OH- .

Applications of Electrocoagulation • • Suspended solids Oil & grease Facilities Required • • • Al or Fe plates as electrodes DC power supply Pumping facility .

Electrocoagulation units + - + - (a) Horizontal flow (b) Vertical flow .

06 0.200 5 -10 5 .2 0.4 0.40 40 – 80 100 .1 – 0.800 10 – 20 40 .15 – 0.3 – 0.2 1-2 1 – 1.80 .01 – 0.3 0.1 0.02 – 0.04 – 0. mg 0.80 40 .5 .04 – 0.200 100 – 200 80 .60 30 .025 0.15 – 0.10 10 .20 Purification Al3+.03 0.1 0.5 2-5 0.2 – 0.The aluminum demand and power consumption for removing pollutants from water Pollutant Unit quantity Preliminary purification Al3+. Wh/m3 20 .006 – 0. Wh/m3 5 .04 E.40 20 .2 E. mg Turbidity Colour Silicates Irons Oxygen Algae Bacteria 1 mg 1 unit 1 mg/SiO2 1 mg Fe 1 mg O2 1000 1000 0.

4e  O2 + 4H+ 2H2O + 2e  H2 + 2OH• Gas bubbles attaching to flocs • Floating to top of water surface .Electroflotation • Generating gas bubbles electrically 2H2O .

30 30 .5 99 – 99.40 3-5 60 .05 – 0. % IC 10 .150 1 OC 30 .5 EF 1 .4 85 . m3/m3 water Chemical conditioning Treatment time.60 0.80 85 .06 OC + F 30 .1 99 – 99.95 50 – 100 Settling .95 IF 0.20 0. W/m3 Air consumption.120 7 .02 – 0.50 DAF 50 . m Specific electricity consumption.5 – 2 100 .95 90 . % SS removal efficiency. minutes Sludge volume as % of treated water Oil removal efficiency.90 IC + F 100 .3 – 0.100 50 .40 0.10 50 – 70 90 .Economic parameters in treating oily effluents Treatment type Bubble size.

IrO2 with Ta2O5. mesh. plates) PbO2 Graphite DSA (TiO2-RuO2.Challenges in O2 Evolution Anodes Economical Stable Active O2 Evolution Anodes Pt (wire. ZrO2 or CeO2) DSA (Ti/IrO2-Sb2O5-SnO2 ) .

Ag2+ Direct oxidation OH radicals for complete mineralization .Electrooxidation Indirect electrooxidation Cl2 formation H2O2 generation O3 generation mediator.

50 1.23 .01 1.(peroxodisulfate) MnO2/MnO42.77 1.Formation Potential of Typical Chemical Reactants Oxidants H2O/ •OH (hydroxyl radical) O2/O3 (ozone) SO42-/S2O82.(permanganate ion) H2O/H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) Cl-/ClO2(chlorine dioxide) Ag+/Ag2+ (silver (II) ion) Cl-/Cl2 (chlorine) Cr3+/Cr2O72.57 1.77 1.36 1.07 2.23 1.(dichromate) H2O/O2 (oxygen) Formation potential 2.80 2.

Basic Requirements of Electrodes • Good activity • High stability • Low cost .

3 0. V 1.1 – 0.Potential of Oxygen Evolution of Anodes Anode Pt IrO2 Graphite PbO2 SnO2 Pb-Sn Ebonex (Ti4O7) Si/BDD Ti/BDD Value.1 1.9 1.3 2.8 Over-potential.7 1.0 1.3 –1.5 0.3 1.6 . V 0.5 2.7 1.6 1.7 0.4 0.2 2.7 – 2.5 – 1.6 1.9 2.

SnO2: unstable. expensive .Analysis of Available Electrodes • Graphite: • Pt. effective. easy to make • B-diamond (BDD). IrO2: • PbO2. ineffective. cheap too expensive. ineffective unstable.

mg/L Ti/Sb2O5-SnO2 800 600 400 Ti/BDD 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Charge loading. Ah/L .Oxidation of acetic acid 1200 1000 Residual COD.

Ah/L Charge loading. mg/L Residual COD.Oxidation of phenol 1400 1400 1200 1200 Residual COD. mg/L 1000 1000 800 800 600 600 400 400 200 200 0 00 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 4 5 6 7 Charge loading. Ah/L 8 8 9 9 10 10 Ti/BDD Ti/BDD Ti/Sb2O5-SnO2 Ti/Sb2O5-SnO2 .

Oxidation of orange II 1400 1200 1000 COD. Ah/L . mg/L 800 600 400 Ti/BDD Ti/Sb2O5-SnO2 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Charge loading.

500 mg/l phenol at 100 A/m2. . 30 oC.Reproducibility comparison.

2e  Cl2 2H2O + 2e  H2 + 2OH(anode) (cathode) • Generating OH radicals electrically (similar to electrooxidation) .Electrodisinfection • Generating chlorine electrically 2Cl..

Log-kill of bacteriophage MS2 versus time at different currents at salt content 1% NaCl by mass .

05 and 0.15 A .Comparison between the log-kill of bacteriophage MS2 in the EC and PC systems at currents of 0.

2e  Fe2+ (anode) .Electroreduction • Direct reduction on the surface of cathode Mn+ + ne  M • (cathode) Mediated reduction by H2 generated 2H2O + 2e  H2 + 2OH(cathode) • Mediated reduction by Fe2+ generated Fe .

compressed air draft tube Fe plate influent solution EF2 EF1 EC effluent solution Anode(oxidation) : Mediated reduction: Cathode(reduction) : Co-precipitation : Fe ⇔ Fe2+ 2e− Cr6+ + 3Fe2+ ⇔ Cr3+ + 3Fe3+ 2H2O + 2e− ⇔ H2 + 2OH− Cr3+ + 3OH− ⇔ Cr(OH)3 Fe3+ + 3OH− ⇔ Fe(OH)3 Fe2+ + 2OH− ⇔ Fe(OH)2 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) .

CONCLUSIONS • Electrodeposition established • Electrocoagulation works • Electrocoagulation & electroflotation works better • BDD is an excellent anode for electrooxidation • Electrodisinfection outperforms pump chlorine system • Electroreduction is finding more application .

Johnston Ralston Mr.Acknowledgements Professor Po Lock Yue Professor Ping Gao Professor Chii Shang Dr. DAG are appreciated . RGC. Xueming Chen Mr. Feng Shen Mr. Liang Guo Miss Qian Fang Mr. Jiaqi Zheng Financial Supports from ECF. Yuan Tian Dr.

Thank you for your attention .