EMI in power supplies

Alfred Hesener Fairchild Semiconductor Europe

www.fairchildsemi.com

Agenda • • • • Introduction Different types of EMI and their characteristics Regulations and standards for EMI Measurement and sources of EMI • Conducted EMI • Radiated EMI • EMI as integral part of the design flow • Conclusion

Company Confidential

Page 2

www.fairchildsemi.com

Introduction EMI more and more complex • Increasing power density, faster switching, higher currents are causing g more EMI-related issues • Conducted / radiated EMI • Further changes complicating things • New semiconductor switches are faster • New topologies (e.g. Quasi-resonant) • How to achieve hi a “robust” “ b ” design? d i ? • Embed EMI into the design flow from the beginning • What is the goal? • Emit low EMI levels to meet regulations (don’t disturb other applications nearby) EMI compliance • Work properly (be self-compliant) Robustness
Company Confidential Page 3 www.fairchildsemi.com

Agenda • • • • Introduction Different types of EMI and their characteristics Regulations and standards for EMI Measurement and sources of EMI • Conducted EMI • Radiated EMI • EMI as integral part of the design flow • Conclusion

Company Confidential

Page 4

www.fairchildsemi.com

Different types of EMI and their characteristics Emitter “Reduce emission of source” Galvanic Coupling Capacitive Coupling Receiver Inductive Coupling Wave Coupling “Reduce transmission in the system” “Reduce sensitivity of receiver” Magnetic field Typically > 30MHz Large dI/dt Magnetic shield Page 5 Galvanic coupling of signals in the circuit Typically <30MHz Any noisy An nois signal in the system (RC) filtering Company Confidential Electric field Medium-high frequencies Large dV/dt Metal shield Radiated wave traveling in the system High frequencies Fast switching s itching Electromagnetic shield www.fairchildsemi.com .

fairchildsemi.com .Agenda • • • • Introduction Different types of EMI and their characteristics Regulations and standards for EMI Measurement and sources of EMI • Conducted EMI • Radiated EMI • EMI as integral part of the design flow • Conclusion Company Confidential Page 6 www.

t l involving i l i motion ti control t l CISPR15. EN55015 for lighting equipment CISPR22.fairchildsemi. li power tools. medical.4kHz 2 4kHz (e.g. not a power factor Page 7 www.g. class B = “industrial”) • • • • • • CISPR11.g. EN55013 for consumer applications CISPR14 EN55014 for CISPR14. EN55011 for industrial.com Company Confidential . f home h appliances. EN55022 for computing applications CISPR16. dealing with more specialized applications EN61000 specifies maximum harmonic currents.0kHz 2 0kHz (e (e.Regulations and standard for EMI EN550xx and EN61000 most important • Two main considerations: • Limit the amount of emission which a given application generates • Define minimum immunity levels a given application must tolerate EN550xx – the “EMI” norm (class A = “consumer”. EN55015 for frequencies <150kHz) EN61000 – the “PFC” norm (equipment classes see next page) • • • • • • • Noise current up to the 40th harmonic of the line frequency ( <= 2. (e g US)) EN61000-3-2 for applications < 16A EN61000-3-12 for applications with 16A…75A EN61000-4-7 defines the measurement and evaluation method EN61000 4 16 for common EN61000-4-16 common-mode mode disturbances up to 150kHz Many further standards exist. scientific applications CISPR13. EN55022 for frequencies >150kHz. g EU) / 2. EN55016 defines the measurement method • • • Many applications being tested against a “mix” of different norms (e.

relative to first harmonic Limit values relative per input power www. Television Page 8 Company Confidential . tools dimmers for incandescent lamps. tools Arc welding equipment Power > 75W Comment Limit values are defined as absolute values Limit values are defined as absolute values Limit values defined as relative values to first harmonic Limit values defined only for 3rd and 5th harmonic.Regulations and standard for EMI Equipment classes for EN61000 Class A Equipment 3phase equipment. lamps audio equipment.com B > 75W C Lighting > 25W C Lighting < 25W 75W 600W D Personal Computer. household appliances. tools. C or D Portable tools. Monitor.fairchildsemi. everything not B.

and current spikes in the input High dI/dt illustrates significant harmonic content Simulation below is 100W class A SMPS. and it may not help with CM noise at all Limit values for EN61000 class D Company Confidential Page 9 www.com . SMPS would require a (active) PFC • EN61000 considers harmonics to 2kHz/2. due to potentially high parasitic capacitance.fairchildsemi.The power factor Simulation results • • • Simulation shows input and bus cap voltage.4kHz – this would be a pretty large filter if realized with passive components • Attenuation of this filters’ components p for higher g frequencies q (conducted ( EMI) ) would be low.

fairchildsemi.com .Agenda • • • • Introduction Different types of EMI and their characteristics Regulations and standards for EMI Measurement and sources of EMI • Conducted EMI • Radiated EMI • EMI as integral part of the design flow • Conclusion Company Confidential Page 10 www.

Blocking the noise coming from the grid Company Confidential Page 11 www.Defined impedance for noise voltage measurement .fairchildsemi.com .Measurement and sources of EMI Conducted EMI test setup Line Impedance Stabilizer Network (“LISN”): .

. 150kHz 90 .... 0.. 80 32mV .Measurement and sources of EMI Conducted EMI limits Vertical: Amplitude in dbuV Horizontal: Frequency in MHz Solid blue line: EN55011/22 limits for average Solid red line: EN55022 limits for quasipeak Red spectrum line: quasipeak measurement values Black spectrum line: average measurement values Frequency Limit (dbuV) Limit (V) Comment 9kHz ...2mV log (frequency) 56 630uV EN55022 B.63mV . 5MHz 46 200uV EN55022 B.. 500kHz EN55022 B. linearly falling 66 .... B Quasi-peak. 0. Average Frequency range 9kHz .. Average. linearly falling with 56 .... 56 2mV .. Quasi-peak 5MHz .. Average 60 1mV EN55022 B.5MHz ....com .... 46 0. 30MHz 30MHz . Quasi-peak 0.fairchildsemi.... Quasi peak. 150kHz 150kHz . 1GHz Bandwidth (-6dB) 200 Hz 9 kHz 120kHz Company Confidential Page 12 www..63mV with log (frequency) 150kHz . 10mV EN55011 Quasipeak EN55022 B. 50kHz 110 316mV EN55011 Quasipeak 50kHz . 30MHz 50 316uV EN55022 B..

com .fairchildsemi. two different noise voltages will appear at nodes L and N • Separate into differential (“DM”) and common mode (“CM”) noise • Different filtering required for both noise types! Differential mode noise appears out of phase at the nodes • Noise current flows in a loop between L and N ( (“1”) 1 ) Common mode noise appears in phase at both nodes • Noise current flows via ground and back through the lines (“2”) L DM noise current 1 N • • 2 CM noise current Ground Parasitic Coupling Company Confidential Page 13 www.Conducted EMI Differential and common mode noise • In most cases.

fairchildsemi. will increase at high g frequencies q EMI is primarily a result from parasitic elements in the circuit Company Confidential Page 14 www. . at the main switching frequency • This current flow causes a noise voltage to appear at the input • Typical values are ESRmax = 1. ESLtyp = 20nH • Impedance p minimum is ESR.Measurement and sources of EMI Conducted EMI as result of switching • The main switching action will cause a current flow into / out of the bulk cap.com .9Ω.

fairchildsemi.com .Conducted EMI Different filter types Filter type Balanced Unbalanced Pi filter 18 db / oct 60 db / dec T filter 18 db / oct 60 db / dec L filter filt 12 db / oct 40 db / dec (Calculation of component values is explained later) Company Confidential Page 15 www.

com .fairchildsemi.Conducted EMI Common mode vs differential mode • For common mode noise. the line to line capacitors do not help • Only y the inductors contribute (but ( typically yp y they y are too small) ) • Introduce a common mode choke • Designed for (large) leakage inductance to provide DM filter function Choke (with leakage inductance) Line to line cap Example of a 200W power supply input stage with a two-stage CM choke Company Confidential Page 16 www.

.10dB (but fcut > 10* fLine) Company Confidential Page 17 www.com .fairchildsemi..Conducted EMI Calculation of the filter components Design impedance Input data Line frequency Minimal RMS voltage Maximum RMS load current Lowest switching frequency fLine Vmin Imax fswmin Attenuation Calculate the component values Filter topology Determine required attenuation level p per frequency q y from simulation or measurement Determine suitable filter topology and cutoff frequency so attenuation goals are met with a margin g g of 6.

ESL. test a prototype. capacitive coupling • Most simulators allow to set parasitics for all passive components • Using a behavioural model for the noise (current) source is a good approximation • Simulation for function and robustness: Very complex – better to design accordingly. capacitive coupling (to ground) • Attenuation: Core frequency response.Conducted EMI Simulation and results • Simulation for compliance: Noise generation and filter attenuation are mostly y determined by yp parasitic elements in the circuit • Noise generation: Leakage inductance. ESR. implement fixes in final circuit Company Confidential Page 18 www.fairchildsemi.com .

Conducted EMI Example values for parasitics Inductor Parallel capacitance e.com Capacitor Transformer CM choke Company Confidential .g.g. 300uH for 10mH P Parasitic i i capacitance i e. g 50pF p for 1mH Series resistance e.g.9 Ohm for 100uF Series inductance e.fairchildsemi.g. g 1.g. 20nH for 100uF Leakage inductance e. Leakage inductance e. 100pF for 10mH Page 19 www. 10uH for 200uH (prim) Parasitic capacitance e g 50pF for EF25 e.g.g.

fairchildsemi.05A 100kHz LISN Input voltage 230V / 50Hz CM filter Parasitic coupling DM filter (T type) Page 20 Company Confidential www.Conducted EMI Simulation circuit example Bus cap Load ±0.com .

com .Conducted EMI Simulation results without filter EN55022 limits (quasi-peak) with filter EN55022 limits (quasi-peak) Company Confidential Page 21 www.fairchildsemi.

com .fairchildsemi.Agenda • • • • Introduction Different types of EMI and their characteristics Regulations and standards for EMI Measurement and sources of EMI • Conducted EMI • Radiated EMI • EMI as integral part of the design flow • Conclusion Company Confidential Page 22 www.

Di t area and d orientation i t ti of f the th disturbing magnetic loops • Magnetic absorption between the loops • Current risetime • Impedance of the receiver Page 23 www.com Company Confidential .fairchildsemi.Radiated EMI What generates it? • Magnetic EMI is caused by changing currents: Current (di/dt) • Vnoise = RM RS + RM *M* dI dt RS Vnoise + Vmeas RM • Coupling factor M depends on: • Distance.

fairchildsemi. h l not parallel. ll l • The current loop areas should be made as small as possible • Increase the distance between the emitting current loop and the loop picking p g up p the noise (energy ( gy transfer proportional p p to power p of 3) ) • Magnetic shielding Make the signal processing nodes in the system as low-impedance as possible • Current-based C b d signal i l transfer f • Add additional resistors to Ground at sensitive • Differential signaling “Reduce emission of source” • “Reduce transmission in the system system” • “Reduce sensitivity of receiver” Company Confidential Page 24 www.com .Radiated EMI Main contributions to radiated EMI • Avoid high dI/dt – move to softer (slower switching) or zero-current switching • Analyze the current flows at normal behavior of the circuit. circuit and check which elements will only see current flow in one part of the cycle – these elements are very likely to be in a current loop with high dI/dt Reduce the coupling factor M between the magnetic loops • Orientation Oi i of f the h current loops l should h ld be b orthogonal.

com .Radiated EMI How to measure radiated EMI Company Confidential Page 25 www.fairchildsemi.

then zoom in • Take (static) pictures of the critical field signals to determine q y and quality q y factor ( (this can be used to identify y the frequency elements of the resonant tanks) Company Confidential Page 26 www.fairchildsemi.Radiated EMI How to identify “hot spots” • Use a two-channel scope • Connect a (HV) probe to the main switching signal • Connect the H-field probe to a probe amplifier (if necessary) and to the second channel (proper termination required) • Use the main switching signal as a trigger signal • “Wander” around the PCB to identify areas of large emission.com .

com .Transformers radiating magnetic fields High leakage inductance == leakage field P core h Pot has the h smallest ll field fi ld (not ( surprising) ii ) ER core – better b than h E core (tighter ( i h winding) i di ) Toroid T id with ith exposed d core emits more than it should Company Confidential Better B tt to t move air i gap to t center leg (may increase AC losses) Page 27 E core – stronger field due to leakage inductance www.fairchildsemi.

.various issues (incomplete list….Radiated EMI .com .fairchildsemi.) • • • • • • • • • • Leakage inductance fields External field of air gaps Diode reverse recovery M i l losing Materials l i their h i damping d i Caps becoming inductive Inductors becoming capacitive (secondary ( y side) ) chokes picking p g up p magnetic noise Ringing between parallel caps Ringing between parallel rectifiers Transformer shield ringing Company Confidential Page 28 www.

fairchildsemi.com .Example 1: 70W QR flyback supply 18MHz peak from transformer Company Confidential Page 29 www.

fairchildsemi.com .Example 1: 70W QR flyback supply Two different diodes in the snubber Yellow: Drain voltage of main MOSFET Blue: Magnetic field at snubber • Fast snubber diode gives faster rise / fall times and lower losses • Slow diode with much larger Qrr shows significant magnetic EMI • Impact can not be seen in the node voltage – need to investigate magnetic field to find out Company Confidential Page 30 www.

com Company Confidential . .fairchildsemi. well damped. indicating that this is imposed p by y the power p MOSFET ( (in this case.Example 2: 300W CCM PFC board Strong EMI event at turn-off Yellow: Drain voltage of MOSFET Blue: Magnetic field At MOSFET At Diode Inside inductor • • • Medium EMI spike at the MOSFET. MOSFET high frequency ( (~40MHz) 40MHz) indicates ringing between Coss (780pF) and the parasitic inductance of the PCB and package (20nH). after which the inductor ringing takes over Smaller EMI spike at the (SiC) diode shows ringing at similar frequency. the equivalent q charge g of the diode is 100x smaller so the contribution is too) Long ringing tail of the inductor shows the energy flowing between the inductor and its parasitic capacitance g( (distributed air gap) g p) and the tail lasts for 800ns ( (high g Q) • Field is strong • Ringing frequency is ~9MHz. parasitic cap ~20pF (estimated) effective inductance is reduced by 40x at this frequency! (core material) Page 31 www.

fairchildsemi.com .Example 3: 400W interleaved PFC PCB layout Company Confidential Page 32 www.

fairchildsemi.Example 3: 400W interleaved PFC Main difference between two boards “Prototype” Prototype Company Confidential Page 33 “Production” Production www.com 10dB difference in magnetic field peak intensity .

7uH leakage • Not visible in the node voltage 100 /di 100ns/div Red: Magnetic field at leakage ind.7MHz • 70pF and 0.fairchildsemi. Pink: Phase node voltage g Company Confidential Page 34 www.com . most at leakage inductor (gapped core) which itself has small leakage • Well-damped Well damped transformer resonance at 22.Example 4: 200W LLC power supply Turn-off of main LLC stage • Small EMI fields around the converter.

com .fairchildsemi.Agenda • • • • Introduction Different types of EMI and their characteristics Regulations and standards for EMI Measurement and sources of EMI • Conducted EMI • Radiated EMI • EMI as integral part of the design flow • Conclusion Company Confidential Page 35 www.

fairchildsemi.EMI as part of the design flow Design steps Write the specification Select the topology Calculate the components • Consider impedance of EMI filter • Make circuit nodes low impedance (esp. control loop) • Avoid high di/dt and dv/dt • EN550xx • EN61000 • Time for EMI testing • Space for EMI filter Topologies with low EMI PFC Company Confidential Page 36 www.com .

com . so the coupling and radiated EMI can be tested • Minimize high-current loop area • Minimize node area with high dv/dt • Leave some space at the input to put a EMI filter Test the prototype p yp • After checking the function.fairchildsemi. simulate again • Put realistic values for parasitic elements • Use an impedance analyzer t measure typical to t i l components and put these in Company Confidential Build a prototype p yp • Try to be close to final arrangement of compo components.EMI as part of the design flow Design steps Simulate the design g • Simulate with a LISN model (but without filter) to predict noise • Use behavioural model for the load to save simulation time • Chose filter topology for needed attenuation levels. perform pre pre-compliance compliance EMI testing to see the “real” conducted noise • Check CM noise on a grounded metal plate (worst case) • Perform first radiated EMI tests to identify critical spots in the circuit • Compare with simulation results and calibrate the models d l Page 37 www.

g the noise “signature” g change p perform p pre-compliance p of conducted DM and CM testing especially and high as well as radiated EMI and low line conditions • (Alternate source) compoover full load range nents used in production • Try out different passive may have different paracomponents (including sitics.com .fairchildsemi. so the EMI behaviour different vendors) may change – need to add • Build several prototypes appropriate margins and check if the noise results are repeatable Company Confidential Page 38 www.EMI as part of the design flow Design steps Add the EMI filter • Build the EMI filter into the p prototype yp and perform p full functional test again • Check if EMI filter impedance and possible resonances create any issues • Perform pre-compliance testing again to see if the measured attenuation matches calculation Design the final version Test the final version • Final implementation will • After full functional testing.

fairchildsemi.com .Agenda • • • • Introduction Different types of EMI and their characteristics Regulations and standards for EMI Measurement and sources of EMI • Conducted EMI • Radiated EMI • EMI as integral part of the design flow • Conclusion Company Confidential Page 39 www.

2008 Page 40 www. Les McCormack. Bryan Flynn: An investigation into the EMC emissions from switched mode power supplies and similar switched electronic load controllers operating at various loading conditions (IEEE Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility. McGraw-Hill. John Dawson. David Cullen. and prepare g cycle y the p problem is detected. Nov 2000) Christophe Basso: Switch-Mode Power Supplies SPICE Simulations and Practical Designs“. b k PSR S References: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Didier Bozec.fairchildsemi.com) Jonathan Harper: Electromagnetic compatibility design for power supplies (Fairchild Semiconductor power seminar series 2004/2005) Richard Lee Ozenbaugh: EMI filter design (CRC.com Company Confidential . August 2004) Bruce Carsten: Application note for H-field probe (http://bcarsten. C QR Q fl flyback.Conclusion • There is no silver bullet! • Switching currents and voltages will generate EMI • Assess implications early in the design cycle. the more • The later in the design expensive it is to fix • Use topologies and control ICs that create less noise to begin with • LLC. Santa Clara CA.

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