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# Line Loadability improvement by using TCSC under Network Contingencies

Abstract—Stressed power system, either due to increased loading or due to severe contingencies, often leads to situation where system no longer remains in the secure operating region. Under these situations, it is primary objective of the operator to apply control action to bring the power system into the secure region. Any delay or availability of suitable control, the system may become unstable. FACTS devices can play very important role in power system security enhancement. The Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is one of the most effective Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices. It offers smooth and flexible control of the line impedance with much faster response compared to the traditional control devices. It may be used to enhance system performance by controlling the power flows in the network and to alleviate /eliminate the overloads on the transmission lines under network contingencies. The Newton-Raphson ac power flow method was used to perform the above studies. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested for IEEE-14 bus systems. Programming of the power flow studies is carried out by using MATLAB. Index Terms-FACTS, Newton-Raphson, Power Flow Control, TCSC, contingency. I. INTRODUCTION

The electric power flow problem is the most studied and documented problem in power engineering. Load flow calculation provide power flows and voltages for a specified power system subject to the regulating capability of generators, condensers, and tap changing under load transformers as well as specified net interchange between individual operating systems. This information is essential for the continuous evaluation of the current performance of a power system and for analyzing the effectiveness of alternative plans for system expansion to meet increased load demand. The power flow problem is formulated as a set of nonlinear equations. Many calculation methods have been proposed to solve this problem. Among them, NewtonRaphson method is a very successful method. For system conditions with large angles across lines( heavily loaded network) and with special control that strongly influence active and reactive power flows, Newton-Raphson method may be required [1],[2].

In present day power system. which offers smooth and flexible control of the branch impedance with much faster response compared to the traditional control devices. we concentrate on the enhancement of system static security against single contingencies via the use of TCSC. The thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) is one of the most promising components of FACTS [6].Therefore. there will be an increase in number of situations where power flow equations have either no real solution (unsolvable case) or solution with violating operating limits such as line limit (insecure case). . The effects of the TCSC utilization under single line contingency are explored in [7]. when the AC power flow calculation is needed in systems with FACTS devices. The basic requirement of power system is to meet the demand that varies continuously. The dispatchers are required to operate the system closer to its thermal limits and increase its transit capacity of power. The control of the power system can be obtained through the implementation of devices based on power electronic with high-speed response. in contingency analysis and planning applications. Since insecure cases often represent the most severe threats to secure system operation. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor is one such device. TCSC can be used effectively in maintaining system security in case of a contingency. The possibility of controlling power flow in an electric power system without generation rescheduling or topological changes can improve the performance considerably [5]. recently developed and called FACTS (Flexible Alternative Current Transmission System) [3]. In this paper. Few papers have dealt with the power system insecurity and possible control to bring the system back to secure state [4]. particularly. by eliminating or alleviating overloads along the selected network branches. Newton-Raphson method is a suitable power flow calculation method in the system with TCSC when high accuracy is required.

2 TCSC modeled as series-connected reactance According to Fig. The TCSC is incorporated into the load flow calculations by setting the total line reactance to = + The basic equation is.1. Fig. is the fundamental frequency line current and . Fig. Modeling of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) allows rapid and continuous changes of transmission line impedance. = +j = (I) Where (bold type indicates complex quantities).Basic Circuit for TCSC Fig.II. 2. is the fundamental frequency voltage across the TCSC module.2 shows the TCSC module connected in series with the transmission line. the TCSC is incorporated into the transmission line model by simply adding the variable reactance to the line reactance X.

The voltage theTCSC capacitor and (I) can be written as. the set of power flow equations are given by . this current source is equal to the sum of the currents flowing through the TCSC capacitor and inductor. TCSC power flow equations. TCSC is represented by its fundamental frequency impedance module. The fundamental TCSC equivalent reactance as a function of TCSC firing angle α [8]. = (2) (3) The admittance matrix of the TCSC module shown in Fig .is the TCSC impedance. = is equal to the voltage across If the external power network is represented by an idealized current source. The TCSC impedance can then be expressed as. are incorporated into an existing Newton-Raphson algorithm. with respect to firing angle. as seen from the TCSC terminals. is given as = -j + (2(π-α)+sin(2(π-α))) (π-α)(ϖ tan(ϖ(π-α)) -tan(π-α)) (1) Where = = .1 is [ ]=[ = = = = ][ = = ] (4) (5) (6) When TCSC is used to control power flow in the line k-m. = In this paper.

is the required power flow in the TCSC branch. Now by using the can be modified as where is the incremental change in TCSC reactance and p shows the iteration. 5. 4. the elements of additional row and column of the modified Jacobean can be written as: = | | cos ( | (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) = = | | sin ( | cos ( | = = | | sin ( | | | sin ( | = = = | sin ( | | (13) cos ( cos ( (14) (15) | | | | | | The mismatch vector = is the active power mismatch for the TCSC module. Buses . 3. The 14bus test system consists of five generator buses at buses 1.| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | [ ] | ] = [ ] [ | | | (7) where. 2. III. Numerical Results The effectiveness of the proposed method is carried out on IEEE 14-bus system.

The optimal location and the optimal setting of TCSC are obtained through programming code developed in MATLAB and the results are presented in the paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The generations in the two cases are standard values given by IEEE. We will calculate the results with respect to the two different load-generation patterns as following. all possible contingencies are considered. Table-1: Pattern 1 of the system BRANCHES FROM NODE TO NODE LINE FLOWS(MVA) [without TCSC] LINE FLOWS(MVA) [With TCSC] 7 5 33.7. In the study the power handling ability of a line is limited by its thermal loading limit. A. two typical load-generation patterns have been taken into account.11.9. This limit is used to check for any violation in the line limits. are considered in the study.12.7 .14 are load buses. The power flow solutions in each of these contingencies are computed in MATLAB. The important contingencies. Only the buses with different loads in two cases are listed in these tables. The system has got 20 transmission lines. which are actually causing problems to system security. The power flow solutions in each of these contingencies are computed by MATLAB software package. 14-bus system In this example system.8.72 25. which are referred as load-generation pattern. the mathematical model of TCSC is incorporated in matlab. Case –1: Load-generation Pattern -1 In this case.13. others which are not shown in these tables have standard identical loads.6.1 and load-generation pattern-2 as shown in Table-1 and Table-2 respectively.10. For the intended work.

Here the branch outages cause the violation in the line limits.e from bus and to-bus . the overloads are eliminated / alleviated.90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Without TCSC With TCSC 1--2 1--8 2--3 2--6 2--8 3--6 6--8 4--11 4--12 4--13 7--5 7--9 9--10 9--14 10--11 12--13 13--14 6--7 6--9 Fig.914.32 p. The results of apparent power flow (APF) with one TCSC in branches 7-5 for important single branch outages are presented in Table1 and Table2 respectively.6-7. Case 2: Load-generation Pattern -2 When load is increased 10% the results are obtained From Table2. So by placing TCSC in line 7-5 we can control the apparent power without crossing the line limits. The line 7-5 gets overloaded for almost all possible contingencies.13-14. In first case line 7-5 line is over loaded and the line limit of branch is 32 MVA .12-13.line flows of different lines are represented and on X-axis represent MVA and on Y-axis it represents branches. 2-8.u. With proper placement of TCSC. 2-6. The power flow through the studied set of branches with and without TCSC for the branch outages of 7-5 are also shown in Fig.the numbers 1-2. the overloads on transmission lines are eliminated with one TCSC placed in the branch 7-5.The objective of the approach is to alleviate the overloads on the transmission lines by minimizing the normalized value of power.6-9. For 7-5 branch outage. 2-3. In fig 1. 1-8. It is evident that the overloads on the transmission lines are completely eliminated in some cases. for the overloaded lines through proper placement and setting of the installed TCSC.6-8. 4-12. In these figures on X-axis.8-4 are branches. 4-13.2.9-10.1:with demand load In Table 1 all the rows in the first coloumn correspond to the branches i.10-11. 8--4 .4-11.7-5. It is observed that the line limit at transmission line 7-5 violates its specified maximum limit of 0. 3-6. 7-9.

The apparent power flows after optimal TCSC installation are shown in Table 4 and Fig.u.015 0. After optimal TCSC installation.24 .37 without TCSC 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 with TCSC Case 3:Single line Contingency TABLE-3 OPTIMAL LOCATION AND SETTING OF THE TCSC Optimal place of the TCSC Line Bus From-To 10 After TCSC installation in line 7. generator buses are within permissible limit and none of the lines violated their limits. 1--2 1--8 2--3 2--6 2--8 3--6 6--8 4--11 4--12 4--13 7--5 7--9 9--10 9--14 10--11 12--13 13--14 6--7 6--9 8--4 Fig3 Optimal compensation rate of the TCSC Line reactance after TCSC installation (p. respectively. 4. the reactance of the line decreased about 80% of its initial value.Table-2: Pattern 2 of the system BRANCH FROM NODE TO NODE LINE FLOWS(MVA) [without TCSC] LINE FLOWS(MVA) [With TCSC] 7 5 34.39 25.) 7-5 -0.

56 without TCSC with TCSC 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Fig 4:with single contingency In case3 the transmission line 4-13 is removed and the the load flows is represented in table4.02 28.TABLE-4 LINE FLOWS(MVA) [without TCSC] BRANCHES FROM NODE TO NODE LINE FLOWS(MVA) [With TCSC] 7 5 35. . In fig4 the y-axis represents the MVA values and the x-axis represents branches of transmission lines. There is one line outage observed in 7-5 branch and by setting TCSC parameters the load flows are controlled. The load is transferred to other lines without violating their line limits. IV. CONCLUSION Simulation studies using MATLAB programming code on IEEE 14-bus test system are presented in this paper. We can observe that in some lines the load is increased and in some it decreases after placing TCSC. The Simulation results confirm that the optimal location of TCSC to eliminate / alleviate the line overloads effectively is in line 7-5 for 14-bus System under network contingencies.

[5]G. Meikandasivam and D. E.S. Perez. 2008. 1.Ravikumar . [13] S.C. IEEE Trans on Power System. [7] Y.9.S . and H. April 1994." Understanding FACTS concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission systems". Vijayakumar.Hingorani and L. It is possible to place TCSC in specific transmission lines to improve the system performance. IEEE transactions on power delivery. Part-C. Vara Prasad.This paper has presented a Newton-Raphson load flow method to solve power flow problems in power system with thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC). No. “A Thyristor controlled Series Compensator Model for the power flow solution of practical power network. V. IEE Press 2000.” 2013 IEEE 7th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO2013). “Optimal Allocation of FACTS Controllers for Critical Loading Margin Enhancement. Singh. A. p992-1000. [6]E. The IEEE 14 bus system has been used to demonstrate the proposed method over a wide range of power flow variations in the transmission system. It has also been observed that the proposed algorithm is also suitable for large systems with better range of power control. pp. pp.Vo1. 15.D. I I .” IEE Proc. “Optimal Location of Multiple TCSCs for Congestion Management. Characteristics and rating considerations of thyristor controlled series compensation. V.Jegatheesan. Singh and S. Feb 2000. [12] Shivashankar. Acha E.: “A Newton-Type Algorithm for the Control of Power Flow in Electrical Power Networks”: IEEE transactions on Power Systems.S.4.”IEEE 2001 [11] J. pp. With help of the proposed method.” 2013 International Conference on Circuits. “Sensitivity Factor based Improvement Studies Incorporating Facts Devices Under Line Outage Contingency. “Enhancement of Power System Performance using TCSC. Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT -2013] [14]Vijayakumar krishna samy.” IEEE Trans.Shanmukha Sundar.Fuerte-Esquivel. No.” Power System Technology and IEEE Power India Conference. 6. no.” International Conference on Power. “Assessment and control of the impact oi’FACTS devices on power system performance”. 12.62.”IEEE International Conference on Power. Langkawi.” International Conference on Power.Nagaraja. Larsen et al. Power Systems 17.N. vol. Lu and A. 324-329. “Implementing TCSC Device in Kalpakam-Khammam Line for Power Flow Enhancement.” Location of FACTS Devices for Enhancing Power Systems’ Security. pp. Power System. R . [8] C.” IEEE Trans.. 4.Gyugyi. Chandra Sekhar. This method is capable of solving power networks very reliably. 142. Nov. “Optimal Location of TCSC in Transmission Lines using Contingency Severity Index and Performance Index Methods for Single Contingency using PSO. “Static security enhancement via optimal utilization of thyristor controlled series capacitors.M. “Review of Load-flow Calculation Methods”. “Corrective action planning to achieve a feasible optimuni power flow solution. Vol. Abur. IEEE Proceedings. Energy and Control (ICPEC) 2013 [10] S. 1931-1936. November 1995. REFERENCES [1] Stott B. [2] Fuerte C. Energy and Control (ICPEC) 2013. Galiana et al. 3-4 June. No. 1996. Vol.Venkataramu and M. K. Srivastava. July 1974. pp. Energy and Control (ICPEC) 2013.R. November 1997 [3] N.1474-1480. 916 -929. [15] K.N. POWERCON 2008. Acha and H. vol. . N0. Malaysia. 576 -582. 2002. [9] P. [4] S.2. Vol.