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Abstract—Stressed power system, either due to increased loading or due to severe contingencies, often leads to situation where system no longer remains in the secure operating region. Under these situations, it is primary objective of the operator to apply control action to bring the power system into the secure region. Any delay or availability of suitable control, the system may become unstable. FACTS devices can play very important role in power system security enhancement. The Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is one of the most effective Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices. It offers smooth and flexible control of the line impedance with much faster response compared to the traditional control devices. It may be used to enhance system performance by controlling the power flows in the network and to alleviate /eliminate the overloads on the transmission lines under network contingencies. The Newton-Raphson ac power flow method was used to perform the above studies. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested for IEEE-14 bus systems. Programming of the power flow studies is carried out by using MATLAB. Index Terms-FACTS, Newton-Raphson, Power Flow Control, TCSC, contingency. I. INTRODUCTION

The electric power flow problem is the most studied and documented problem in power engineering. Load flow calculation provide power flows and voltages for a specified power system subject to the regulating capability of generators, condensers, and tap changing under load transformers as well as specified net interchange between individual operating systems. This information is essential for the continuous evaluation of the current performance of a power system and for analyzing the effectiveness of alternative plans for system expansion to meet increased load demand. The power flow problem is formulated as a set of nonlinear equations. Many calculation methods have been proposed to solve this problem. Among them, NewtonRaphson method is a very successful method. For system conditions with large angles across lines( heavily loaded network) and with special control that strongly influence active and reactive power flows, Newton-Raphson method may be required [1],[2].

The thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) is one of the most promising components of FACTS [6]. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor is one such device. TCSC can be used effectively in maintaining system security in case of a contingency. In this paper.Therefore. The effects of the TCSC utilization under single line contingency are explored in [7]. Since insecure cases often represent the most severe threats to secure system operation. when the AC power flow calculation is needed in systems with FACTS devices. The basic requirement of power system is to meet the demand that varies continuously. In present day power system. particularly. we concentrate on the enhancement of system static security against single contingencies via the use of TCSC. . Newton-Raphson method is a suitable power flow calculation method in the system with TCSC when high accuracy is required. The possibility of controlling power flow in an electric power system without generation rescheduling or topological changes can improve the performance considerably [5]. which offers smooth and flexible control of the branch impedance with much faster response compared to the traditional control devices. in contingency analysis and planning applications. The control of the power system can be obtained through the implementation of devices based on power electronic with high-speed response. there will be an increase in number of situations where power flow equations have either no real solution (unsolvable case) or solution with violating operating limits such as line limit (insecure case). Few papers have dealt with the power system insecurity and possible control to bring the system back to secure state [4]. by eliminating or alleviating overloads along the selected network branches. The dispatchers are required to operate the system closer to its thermal limits and increase its transit capacity of power. recently developed and called FACTS (Flexible Alternative Current Transmission System) [3].

is the fundamental frequency line current and . 2. The TCSC is incorporated into the load flow calculations by setting the total line reactance to = + The basic equation is. Fig.II. Modeling of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) allows rapid and continuous changes of transmission line impedance. = +j = (I) Where (bold type indicates complex quantities).Basic Circuit for TCSC Fig.2 shows the TCSC module connected in series with the transmission line. the TCSC is incorporated into the transmission line model by simply adding the variable reactance to the line reactance X. is the fundamental frequency voltage across the TCSC module.2 TCSC modeled as series-connected reactance According to Fig. Fig.1.

The TCSC impedance can then be expressed as. as seen from the TCSC terminals. with respect to firing angle. = is equal to the voltage across If the external power network is represented by an idealized current source. = In this paper. The voltage theTCSC capacitor and (I) can be written as. is given as = -j + (2(π-α)+sin(2(π-α))) (π-α)(ϖ tan(ϖ(π-α)) -tan(π-α)) (1) Where = = . are incorporated into an existing Newton-Raphson algorithm.is the TCSC impedance. TCSC power flow equations. = (2) (3) The admittance matrix of the TCSC module shown in Fig . this current source is equal to the sum of the currents flowing through the TCSC capacitor and inductor. TCSC is represented by its fundamental frequency impedance module. The fundamental TCSC equivalent reactance as a function of TCSC firing angle α [8]. the set of power flow equations are given by .1 is [ ]=[ = = = = ][ = = ] (4) (5) (6) When TCSC is used to control power flow in the line k-m.

5. Now by using the can be modified as where is the incremental change in TCSC reactance and p shows the iteration. Numerical Results The effectiveness of the proposed method is carried out on IEEE 14-bus system. III. The 14bus test system consists of five generator buses at buses 1. is the required power flow in the TCSC branch. Buses . 4.| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | [ ] | ] = [ ] [ | | | (7) where. 3. 2. the elements of additional row and column of the modified Jacobean can be written as: = | | cos ( | (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) = = | | sin ( | cos ( | = = | | sin ( | | | sin ( | = = = | sin ( | | (13) cos ( cos ( (14) (15) | | | | | | The mismatch vector = is the active power mismatch for the TCSC module.

two typical load-generation patterns have been taken into account.7. For the intended work. Table-1: Pattern 1 of the system BRANCHES FROM NODE TO NODE LINE FLOWS(MVA) [without TCSC] LINE FLOWS(MVA) [With TCSC] 7 5 33. The power flow solutions in each of these contingencies are computed in MATLAB. 14-bus system In this example system.72 25.14 are load buses. This limit is used to check for any violation in the line limits. The power flow solutions in each of these contingencies are computed by MATLAB software package. Only the buses with different loads in two cases are listed in these tables.10. The important contingencies. the mathematical model of TCSC is incorporated in matlab.13. The system has got 20 transmission lines.9. which are actually causing problems to system security.1 and load-generation pattern-2 as shown in Table-1 and Table-2 respectively. are considered in the study.6. A. Case –1: Load-generation Pattern -1 In this case.7 . which are referred as load-generation pattern. The optimal location and the optimal setting of TCSC are obtained through programming code developed in MATLAB and the results are presented in the paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. others which are not shown in these tables have standard identical loads. all possible contingencies are considered.12. In the study the power handling ability of a line is limited by its thermal loading limit.8. The generations in the two cases are standard values given by IEEE. We will calculate the results with respect to the two different load-generation patterns as following.11.

e from bus and to-bus . In these figures on X-axis. 7-9.8-4 are branches. 8--4 . Case 2: Load-generation Pattern -2 When load is increased 10% the results are obtained From Table2.10-11. 3-6. 2-3.1:with demand load In Table 1 all the rows in the first coloumn correspond to the branches i. 1-8. the overloads are eliminated / alleviated.914. 2-8. For 7-5 branch outage. The results of apparent power flow (APF) with one TCSC in branches 7-5 for important single branch outages are presented in Table1 and Table2 respectively.2. 4-12. It is observed that the line limit at transmission line 7-5 violates its specified maximum limit of 0. for the overloaded lines through proper placement and setting of the installed TCSC. the overloads on transmission lines are eliminated with one TCSC placed in the branch 7-5. In first case line 7-5 line is over loaded and the line limit of branch is 32 MVA .9-10. 2-6. So by placing TCSC in line 7-5 we can control the apparent power without crossing the line limits.line flows of different lines are represented and on X-axis represent MVA and on Y-axis it represents branches.4-11. 4-13.12-13. The power flow through the studied set of branches with and without TCSC for the branch outages of 7-5 are also shown in Fig. It is evident that the overloads on the transmission lines are completely eliminated in some cases.90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Without TCSC With TCSC 1--2 1--8 2--3 2--6 2--8 3--6 6--8 4--11 4--12 4--13 7--5 7--9 9--10 9--14 10--11 12--13 13--14 6--7 6--9 Fig.32 p.6-9.The objective of the approach is to alleviate the overloads on the transmission lines by minimizing the normalized value of power.7-5.the numbers 1-2. Here the branch outages cause the violation in the line limits.6-7. With proper placement of TCSC.6-8. In fig 1.u.13-14. The line 7-5 gets overloaded for almost all possible contingencies.

the reactance of the line decreased about 80% of its initial value. 4. respectively.37 without TCSC 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 with TCSC Case 3:Single line Contingency TABLE-3 OPTIMAL LOCATION AND SETTING OF THE TCSC Optimal place of the TCSC Line Bus From-To 10 After TCSC installation in line 7.u. generator buses are within permissible limit and none of the lines violated their limits.Table-2: Pattern 2 of the system BRANCH FROM NODE TO NODE LINE FLOWS(MVA) [without TCSC] LINE FLOWS(MVA) [With TCSC] 7 5 34. The apparent power flows after optimal TCSC installation are shown in Table 4 and Fig.) 7-5 -0.24 .39 25. 1--2 1--8 2--3 2--6 2--8 3--6 6--8 4--11 4--12 4--13 7--5 7--9 9--10 9--14 10--11 12--13 13--14 6--7 6--9 8--4 Fig3 Optimal compensation rate of the TCSC Line reactance after TCSC installation (p.015 0. After optimal TCSC installation.

56 without TCSC with TCSC 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Fig 4:with single contingency In case3 the transmission line 4-13 is removed and the the load flows is represented in table4. IV.TABLE-4 LINE FLOWS(MVA) [without TCSC] BRANCHES FROM NODE TO NODE LINE FLOWS(MVA) [With TCSC] 7 5 35. . There is one line outage observed in 7-5 branch and by setting TCSC parameters the load flows are controlled. In fig4 the y-axis represents the MVA values and the x-axis represents branches of transmission lines. CONCLUSION Simulation studies using MATLAB programming code on IEEE 14-bus test system are presented in this paper. We can observe that in some lines the load is increased and in some it decreases after placing TCSC. The Simulation results confirm that the optimal location of TCSC to eliminate / alleviate the line overloads effectively is in line 7-5 for 14-bus System under network contingencies.02 28. The load is transferred to other lines without violating their line limits.

[12] Shivashankar. [5]G. pp. Perez. “Optimal Location of TCSC in Transmission Lines using Contingency Severity Index and Performance Index Methods for Single Contingency using PSO. “A Thyristor controlled Series Compensator Model for the power flow solution of practical power network.C. IEEE Proceedings. 1. 324-329.: “A Newton-Type Algorithm for the Control of Power Flow in Electrical Power Networks”: IEEE transactions on Power Systems.D. Nov. April 1994.S. N0.. 2002. no. November 1997 [3] N. V. “Assessment and control of the impact oi’FACTS devices on power system performance”. .S .Venkataramu and M. 12. and H." Understanding FACTS concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission systems". Chandra Sekhar. pp.” International Conference on Power.Hingorani and L. Vol. It is possible to place TCSC in specific transmission lines to improve the system performance. Vol. Langkawi. Energy and Control (ICPEC) 2013. [15] K.Ravikumar . No. Acha and H. Vijayakumar.9. “Optimal Allocation of FACTS Controllers for Critical Loading Margin Enhancement.” 2013 International Conference on Circuits. Feb 2000.4.2.Shanmukha Sundar. Characteristics and rating considerations of thyristor controlled series compensation. pp. No.” IEE Proc. Part-C.Fuerte-Esquivel. Singh and S. 3-4 June. Malaysia.”IEEE 2001 [11] J. [2] Fuerte C. vol. Larsen et al. IEE Press 2000. 2008. “Enhancement of Power System Performance using TCSC.This paper has presented a Newton-Raphson load flow method to solve power flow problems in power system with thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC). REFERENCES [1] Stott B. Lu and A. Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT -2013] [14]Vijayakumar krishna samy. 576 -582. vol. A. “Optimal Location of Multiple TCSCs for Congestion Management. “Static security enhancement via optimal utilization of thyristor controlled series capacitors.” International Conference on Power. Energy and Control (ICPEC) 2013 [10] S. Energy and Control (ICPEC) 2013. Galiana et al.” IEEE Trans. POWERCON 2008. With help of the proposed method.Nagaraja. Power Systems 17.” Location of FACTS Devices for Enhancing Power Systems’ Security. IEEE transactions on power delivery. 1996. Meikandasivam and D. [7] Y. I I . pp. Power System. 4. Acha E. Srivastava. 916 -929.N. K. November 1995. Abur.Vo1.N. [9] P.Gyugyi.S. “Sensitivity Factor based Improvement Studies Incorporating Facts Devices Under Line Outage Contingency. “Implementing TCSC Device in Kalpakam-Khammam Line for Power Flow Enhancement. It has also been observed that the proposed algorithm is also suitable for large systems with better range of power control.”IEEE International Conference on Power. “Review of Load-flow Calculation Methods”. [13] S.R. The IEEE 14 bus system has been used to demonstrate the proposed method over a wide range of power flow variations in the transmission system. July 1974. [4] S. [6]E. Vol. No.” IEEE Trans. Vara Prasad. IEEE Trans on Power System. 142. Singh.M. [8] C. p992-1000. “Corrective action planning to achieve a feasible optimuni power flow solution. 1931-1936.1474-1480. 15. E.62. pp. R .” Power System Technology and IEEE Power India Conference. 6.Jegatheesan.” 2013 IEEE 7th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO2013). V. This method is capable of solving power networks very reliably.

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