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MECE2640U: Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer LABORATORY 2 Instructor: Dr.

Kamiel Gabriel REPORT

Lab Instructor: Qi Shi Lab TA:

Date performed October 11, 2013

Report submitted by

Date submitted

Total pages


Sarah Anantharajan

October 25, 2013


# 1 2 3 4

First Name Ose Sarah

GROUP MEMBERS Last Name Signature Ihenyen Anantharajan

ID 100373909 100468607

Plagiarism and dishonesty will not be tolerated. Any group member(s) that has not signed this report will be given a grade of 0. This cover sheet must be fully completed.

Table of Contents

Page # 1. Abstract....3 2. Introduction............................................................................3 3. Theory.....................................................................4 4. Results and Discussion.......................................................................... 5 5. Conclusions ....................................................................7 6. References8 7. Nomenclature... ...9

In this laboratory experiment, a two-shaft gas turbine system to study the relationships and importance of several thermodynamic concepts and how they are applied to produce electrical energy.

2. INTRODUCTION The objective of this experiment was to study a few of the key aspects of the two-shaft turbine system and to show how it is applied to a thrust generator and an electricity generator. Measurements were taken to calculate the theoretical thermodynamic relationships and also the thermal efficiencies of important components. Gas turbines are typically used to generate electrical and mechanical energy for systems that need a high output-to-weight ratio such as, driving compressors and pumps, heavy vehicles and aircraft jet engines. Gas turbines usually operate in an open configuration though they can also operate in a closed configuration.

Figure 1: Basic Concept of Two-shaft Gas Turbine Electrical Generator

An open configuration is an engine which atmospheric air is constantly drawn into the compressor to be compressed to a high pressure temperature state. It then travels to the combustor to be mixed with fuel where combustion occurs that results in combustion products at an elevated temperature. The products expand through the turbine where pressure and temperature drop and during the expansion process the combustion products drive the compressor-turbine unit and they are discharged to surroundings. Part of the turbine work goes to power the compressor and the rest to generate electricity for other purposes. The working fluid of a closed configuration gas turbine receives energy from the heat transfer of an external source such as a gas-cooled nuclear reactor. The gas which excites the turbine travels through a heat exchanger to be cooled prior to re-entering the compressor.

3. THEORY The ideal engine (Brayton cycle) can be modeled according to the following series of processes. Process 1-2: Isentropic compression of ambient air from state 1 to the compressor pressure at state 2. Process 2-3: Heat addition from the combustor (state 3) as the fuel is mixed and ignited with the compressed air at constant pressure (isobaric heating). Process 3-4: Isentropic expansion at the turbine, cooling and pressure relief. Process 4-1: Constant-pressure heat rejection to the ambient air. A P-v diagram can be used to plot the ideal cyclic process of a gas turbine. To determine the performance of the system the thermal efficiency can be calculated along with the specific capacity to perform work.

Equipment Used: Gas generator: consists of a compressor, turbine, combustion chamber, and intake system with muffler Power turbine: with exhaust muffler and belt drive to the generator (it is also possible to fit a steel pipe with a thrust nozzle instead of the power turbine) Fuel system: consists of a main valve, rapid action stop valve, pressure regulator, control valve, and burner nozzle Ignition system: with ignition plug and ignition transformer Lubricating system: consists of a tank, oil pump, oil filter, pressure regulator, and thermostatically regulated oil cooler Generator: with converter, ballast resistors, and power indicator Starter system: with starting fan and change-over damper

Measuring instruments and controls: with temperature, flow rate, speed and pressure measuring points and associated displays. These also include the safety components, such as temperature and pressure limiters, oil pressure and oil temperature monitoring.

Figure 2: Systematic layout of the two-shaft gas turbine unit used

Schematic diagram of the two-shaft gas turbine unit

Table for calculation results Symbol Unit kg/s mc,A

Equation 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12

mc,G WTe W,Tered F m,th SFCT SFCje* T

g/s W W N kg/kWh kg/kWh -

Results 1 5.6515*1 0^-4 3.5686 -29.98 -30.42 -0.1190 -0.6524 1.040*10 ^-5

Results 2 5.6871*1 0^-4 3.5848 -58.37 -59.22 -0.0614 -1.2645 1.042*10 ^-5

Results 3 5.7079*10^ -4 3.5781 -93.54 -94.65 -0.0383 -2.0271 1.047*10^5

Results 4 5.7356*10^ -4 3.5832 -143.18 -145.04 -0.0250 -3.105 1.051*10^5


P2 qin qout wcomp, in wturb, out rbw wnet th th th

bara kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg -

Absolute pressure 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 19 20

769.98 616.10 25.18 176.07 0.143 150.89 0.19985 0.19597

777.90 620.67 26.20 183.43 0.143 157.23 0.20212 0.20212

765.03 619.96 25.26 170.33 0.148 145.07 0.18963 0.18963

754.23 619.86 27.04 161.41 0.168 134.37 0.17816 0.21677

5. CONCLUSIONS After examining the thermal efficiencies, we can see that there is fluctuation in values.Although we technically calculating the same value, the values would only be the same if the system was truly adiabatic, which it is not.The thermal efficiency lowers after the combustion chamber. This is because a lot of the heat that is intended to remain in the cycle and/or converted into work is lost. This is because the turbines and other components are not truly adiabatic and will lose heat to the surroundings.

1. Equipment for Engineering Education, Instruction and Operation Manuals, Gunt Hamburg, Germany 02/98. 2. Y. A. Cengel, R. H. Turner, 2005, Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences, 2nd edition, McGrawHill Companies, Inc.

Cp : Specific heat at constant-pressure (kJ/kgK) Fth,red : Reduced nozzle thrust force (N) h : Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) Hl : Lower calorific value of the fuel (kJ/kg) c,Am: Calculated air mass flow rate (kg/s) c,Gm: Calculated gas mass flow rate (g/s) 0P : Standard atmospheric pressure (bar) 1P : Ambient pressure (bar)

P : Gas pressure (= 2.0 bar) P : Gas nozzle pressure (bar) qin : Heat transfer to the working fluid (kJ/kg) qout : Heat transfer from the working fluid (kJ/kg) rbw : Back work ratio (-) 0T : Ambient air temperature (C) GT : Gas inlet temperature (C) 1T : Air inlet temperature (C) wcomp,in : Work input to the compressor (kJ/kg) wturb,out : Work output of the turbine (kJ/kg) wnet : Net work output (kJ/kg) elW: Electrical power output (W) TeW: Turbine effective power output (W) red,TeW: Reduced power output at sea level (W) 0 : Ambient air density (kg/m3) : Air ratio (-) th : Thermal efficiency (-)
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