# Lecture 21

8.251 Spring 2007

Lecture 21 - Topics
Wrap-up of Closed Strings

Wrapup of Closed Strings
String Coupling Constant
Dimensionless number that sets the strength of the interaction.

Example of coupling const ants:

1. Fine structure constant a = o Derives from interactions between charged particles, magnetic fields. Could imagine particles with e = 0.

& &.
+

) mc S d S e A,(,)dxp. Doesn't talk about inAction S = S dpx(- F ~teraction between charged particle and field (both are free).

2. Binding energy of an electron in a H atom. Ebinding 0( e4 since V r o \$ in Bohr atom.

0(

<

Similar effect in string theory unless gravitons interacting with matter, no gravity!

D-dim Newton's Constant: [G(D)]= L ~ (natural - ~ units). D = 10: [G(lO)] = L~ + G('O) = g2(a')4 where g is the string coupling constant.

, related to string length 1,: 1 : Planck length 1

= g21:

+ 1,

o gil,

Particle View:

Lecture 21 8. Not a constant. + jfor open strings (too complicated for this class) How do you fix g? \$(x) =dilation * a:'~i:+ 10) massless state. but a dynamical .251 Spring 2007 String View: Close string splits into 2 strings. g = e d X ) ) .Field sets value of coupling constant. really is g for closed strings. Same coupling constant g'd string interactions. So g changes with 4(x).

a). Takes a long time to develop all background. 2 3 - 3 2 BiBi (not summed) Example with matrices: =0 . Then B1B2 = -B2B1. Bl Bl = -B1B1 + Bl Bl = 0. ~ a') = x J(r'. B . In quantum theory. a) space. : (r. Superstrings Everyone uses superstrings more than superstrings. \$ . Classical. variables Bi: B .a ) .B] = 0. B commutator [A. ) (r'. a). Pauli exclusion principle: multiple fermions cannot occupy the same state.251 Spring 2007 value. A and B commute if and only if [A. . Let B1.B] = A B . X"(r. Commute X1(r. For operators A.B. B2 be classical anticommuting variables. things don't quite commute. But usually work with constant field. a The X's behave as boson fields in (7.-B. so will present intuitively-reasonable results from QFT.Lecture 21 8.Be A. anticommuting variables Define: \$ \$g (7.ar)X1(r. Set of anticomm. Same for all indices. (7. a ) : Classical variables.a ) .

. Creation operators have nonzero anticomm.. Action: S = S ~ o s o n i c + S~ermionic . All f +'s anticommute. s: spin.Lecture 21 8. Quantized a scalar field. f 2 ) = 0. This relates to the Pauli exclusion principle and Fermi statistics.251 Spring 2007 7172 = -7.271 YlYl #0#7 2 2 Quantum operators f f 2 { f l .f 2 ) = f l f 2 +f2fl Operators anticommute if and only if { f l . operators with annihilation operators.(aPk)+)"klfi) Electron Dirac Field p: momentum. Got particle state of nk particles (up1) + nl (up2) + n2).

= 1 7i- 1 J dTdo(ar:(a. A + (8.251 Spring 2007 Action for LC coordinates. Varying a\$:. Instead.A = .Lecture 21 8. Dirac equation usually written as \$iyd\$ Usually. What Dirac would have written for a fermion in 2D on the worldsheet. but we can a fermion in spacetime. 6\$. A) A. Tells you pretty much everything about dynamics of LC variables. A = d. (AA) - (8.' as. A) A = 8 .&A2 but here the A's (\$Ls) are anticommuting so A2 = 0. Ad.+aa)\$:+aa:(a-aa)\$2)+.27iJ I a=r 2 ) a=O . Ad. (AA) . Ad.

1 w: (77 a*) = +w: (7' a*) I Choose sign to be positive since action doesn't care.251 Spring 2007 Satisfies BC without too much violence. antiperiodic if choose negative sign. T] since \$ : (r.0) 9 fermion field is periodic if choose positive sign. Suppose choose periodic (Rammond sector) Suppose choose antiperiodic (Neveu-Schawrz sector) . but then can't change sign of field.0) = \$ : (r. We have two choices: Continuous field over [-T.Lecture 21 8.