Introduction to Virtualization

Module 2

© 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

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Course Introduction
Introduction to Virtualization Creating Virtual Machines VMware vCenter Server Configuring and Managing Virtual Networks Configuring and Managing vSphere Storage Virtual Machine Management

Data Protection Access and Authentication Control Resource Management and Monitoring High Availability and Fault Tolerance Host Scalability Patch Management Installing VMware vSphere Components

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage – Revision A

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© 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Importance

VMware vSphere® software suite is based on many components with which a vSphere administrator should be familiar. This module describes the basic concept of virtualization and introduces VMware vSphere® ESXi™ and the virtual machine. This module discusses the fundamental vSphere components and how vSphere can be used in your datacenter.

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage – Revision A

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© 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Module Lessons

Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3:

Introduction to Virtualization vSphere User Interfaces Overview of ESXi

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage – Revision A

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© 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Lesson 1: Introduction to Virtualization

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage – Revision A

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© 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

All rights reserved .  Define a virtual machine.  Describe how the vSphere interacts with CPUs. networks. memory. Configure. you should be able to do the following:  Compare and contrast physical and virtual architectures.  Describe how vSphere fits into the cloud. and disks.  Describe the benefits of using virtual machines.  Describe ESXi architecture. VMware vSphere: Install.Learner Objectives After this lesson. Manage – Revision A 2-6 © 2012 VMware Inc.

Configure. Manage – Revision A .Different vSphere Editions vSphere Standard vSphere Enterprise* vSphere Enterprise Plus* vSphere Install Configure Manage vSphere Optimize and Scale 2-7 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved * Includes previous tier features VMware vSphere: Install.

Configure. All rights reserved . Manage – Revision A 2-8 © 2012 VMware Inc.Physical Infrastructure applications operating system physical host Ethernet Fibre Channel iSCSI storage NFS storage Network Fibre Channel storage VMware vSphere: Install.

All rights reserved . Manage – Revision A 2-9 © 2012 VMware Inc.Virtual Infrastructure virtual machines hypervisor ESXi host Ethernet Fibre Channel iSCSI storage NFS storage network Fibre Channel storage VMware vSphere: Install. Configure.

Configure. All rights reserved .Physical and Virtual Architecture physical architecture virtual architecture application operating system x86 architecture vSphere x86 architecture VMware vSphere: Install. Manage – Revision A 2-10 © 2012 VMware Inc.

Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-11 © 2012 VMware Inc.vSphere and the Software Defined Datacenter The Software Defined Datacenter Virtual Datacenter 1 Virtual Datacenter 2 Datacenter Services Datacenter Services vSphere Pooled Networking and Security Pooled Storage Pooled Computing Automation VMware vSphere: Install. All rights reserved .

All rights reserved . Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-12 © 2012 VMware Inc.Why Use Virtual Machines? Physical machine Difficult to relocate: Virtual machine Easy to relocate:     Moves require downtime Specific to physical Hardware     Encapsulated into files Independent of physical hardware Difficult to manage: Requires physical maintenance Hardware failures cause downtime Easy to manage: Isolated from other virtual machines Insulated from hardware changes Hardware has limitations:   Hardware changes limit application support Servers are physically individual Provides the ability to support legacy applications Allows servers to be consolidated VMware vSphere: Install.

Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-13 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved .Resource Sharing vSphere x86 architecture VMware vSphere: Install.

Manage – Revision A 2-14 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved . Configure.CPU Virtualization physical architecture virtual architecture application operating system vSphere x86 architecture x86 architecture VMware vSphere: Install.

Physical and Virtualized Host Memory Usage physical architecture virtual architecture application 1GB 2GB 8GB operating system x86 architecture vSphere x86 architecture VMware vSphere: Install. Manage – Revision A 2-15 © 2012 VMware Inc. Configure. All rights reserved .

All rights reserved .Physical and Virtual Networking physical architecture virtual architecture application operating system x86 architecture vSphere virtual switch x86 architecture VMware vSphere: Install. Manage – Revision A 2-16 © 2012 VMware Inc. Configure.

UFS VMFS VMware vSphere: Install. ext3. All rights reserved . Manage – Revision A 2-17 © 2012 VMware Inc.Physical File Systems and VMware vSphere VMFS physical architecture virtual architecture application operating system vSphere vSphere x86 architecture x86 architecture x86 architecture NTFS. Configure.

All rights reserved . Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-18 © 2012 VMware Inc.Encapsulation VM 1 VM 2 VM 3 Datastore (VMware vSphere® VMFS or NFS) VMware vSphere: Install.

All rights reserved . Configure.File-System Layouts Windows C: D: E: vmfs VMFS / volumes Linux/UNIX Local / SAN VM 1 VM 2 etc usr opt VM 3 VM 4 VMware vSphere: Install. Manage – Revision A 2-19 © 2012 VMware Inc.

Third-party providers can host public or private clouds. Configure. public. or hybrid cloud to fit your business needs. All rights reserved . VMware® clouds empower you to run your virtual machines in a private. Your virtual machines run in this virtual infrastructure. VMware vCloud Director™ enables you to create a cloud. Manage – Revision A 2-20 © 2012 VMware Inc.How vSphere Fits into Cloud Computing      Installing vSphere 5 creates a virtual infrastructure. private cloud hybrid cloud public cloud VMware vSphere: Install.

within the enterprise. IT capabilities are provided as a service. Manage – Revision A 2-21 Self-service provisioning Elasticity of resources Rapid and simplified provisioning Secured multitenancy Improved use of IT resources Better control of IT budgets © 2012 VMware Inc. over an intranet. All rights reserved .What Is a Private Cloud?   Individual departments or internal corporate organizations (divisions) are able to deploy and manage IT infrastructure through virtual systems as needed. Configure. and behind the firewall. Internet Advantages enterprise private cloud       Gizmo division Widget division Human Resources Sales VMware vSphere: Install.

Advantages  Public clouds have all of the advantages of a private cloud: cloud service provider • • • • Customer management of IT Rapid and flexible deployments Efficient and cost-effective deployments Secure IT assets  Customer companies no longer have IT as an ongoing overhead expense. Manage – Revision A 2-22 © 2012 VMware Inc. Configure. All rights reserved . company A company company B C VMware vSphere: Install. IT resources are provided as a service over the Internet. A public cloud is similar to a utility or an Internet service provider.What Is a Public Cloud?    A cloud service provider hosts general IT operations for multiple businesses.

2-23 © 2012 VMware Inc. Companies can reap additional cost savings by moving to an externally accessible cloud. Configure. Companies first move applications and data to their private cloud.What Is a Hybrid Cloud? Hybrid Cloud App Loads App Loads Bridge App Loads Management vSphere Management vSphere Private Clouds Public Clouds     Some cloud-based assets are accessible internally over an intranet. Applications are transitioned by using software that meets open standards. Manage – Revision A . Some cloud-based assets are accessible externally over the Internet. All rights reserved  VMware vSphere: Install.

Review of Learner Objectives You should be able to do the following:  Compare and contrast physical and virtual architectures. Configure. and disks.  Define a virtual machine. All rights reserved . networks.  Describe how vSphere fits into the cloud. VMware vSphere: Install.  Describe the benefits of using virtual machines.  Describe ESXi architecture. memory. Manage – Revision A 2-24 © 2012 VMware Inc.  Describe how the vSphere interacts with CPUs.

Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-25 © 2012 VMware Inc.Lesson 2: vSphere User Interfaces VMware vSphere: Install. All rights reserved .

Learner Objectives After this lesson. you should be able to do the following:  Download and install the VMware vSphere® Client™.  View or configure ESXi settings:   • • • Processor and memory configuration ESXi system logs Licensed features Use the VMware vSphere® Web Client. Configure. Manage ESXi from the command prompt.  Use the vSphere Client remotely connect to an ESXi host. Manage – Revision A 2-26 © 2012 VMware Inc. VMware vSphere: Install. All rights reserved .

Manage – Revision A 2-27 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved . Configure.User Interfaces vSphere Client vCenter Server ESXi host your desktop Web Client VMware vSphere: Install.

VMware vSphere: Install.   Use the VMware Infrastructure™ Management Installer. • Internet access is required.Downloading vSphere Client vSphere Client is an interface used to connect remotely to VMware® vCenter Server™ or an ESXi host from a Windows system. To download the vSphere Client: Point to the vCenter Server or ESXi host. Download the client from the vCenter Server system or an ESXi host. All rights reserved . Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-28 © 2012 VMware Inc. Download the vSphere Client to a supported Windows system.

VMware vSphere: Install. enter the following:  Host name or IP address of ESXi host or vCenter Server  User name  Password for that user (Optional) Use your Windows session credentials. All rights reserved .Using the vSphere Client On the vSphere Client login screen. Manage – Revision A 2-29 © 2012 VMware Inc. Configure.

Manage – Revision A 2-30 © 2012 VMware Inc.vSphere Client: Configuration Tab VMware vSphere: Install. All rights reserved . Configure.

Manage – Revision A 2-31 © 2012 VMware Inc.Viewing Processor and Memory Configuration VMware vSphere: Install. Configure. All rights reserved .

VMware vSphere: Install.Viewing ESXi System Logs Use vSphere Client to view logs. All rights reserved . Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-32 © 2012 VMware Inc. Export system logs to an archive file:  Send to VMware Support.

Viewing Licensed Features Before purchasing licenses. Configure. All rights reserved . Manage – Revision A 2-33 © 2012 VMware Inc. you can install ESXi in evaluation mode:  Intended for demonstration and evaluation purposes  Allows software to be completely operational immediately after installation  Does not require any licensing configuration  Provides full functionality for 60 days VMware vSphere: Install.

Manage – Revision A 2-34 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved . Configure.vSphere Web Client Installer located on ISO image Install locally to vCenter Server or to remote systems  Remote installations are recommended when possible https://<FQDN or IP Address> :9443/vsphere-client/ Install Client Integration plug-in for console access vSphere Web Client is included with vCenter Server Appliance VMware vSphere: Install.

All rights reserved VMware vCenter Server in either single or Linked mode operation VMware vSphere: Install. Configure.vSphere Web Client Architecture vSphere Web Client runs within a browser Application Server that provides a scalable backend The Inventory Service obtains optimized data live from the core vCenter Server process 2-35 © 2012 VMware Inc. Manage – Revision A .

Manage – Revision A . All rights reserved VMware vSphere: Install. and others 2-36 © 2012 VMware Inc. NetApp. Third party plug-ins:  EMC. HP. Dell. Configure.vSphere Web Client Plug-in Packages Plug-ins are now server based:      Re-created in FLEX HTML plug-ins (temporary workaround) VMware plug-ins: VMware vSphere® Update Manager™ VMware® vCenter™ Site Recovery Manager™ (SRM) VMware vShield Manager™ All VMware solutions will integrate as they are updated.

Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-37 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved .vSphere Web Client: Object Navigator  Breaks the traditional hierarchy view of an object: • • Objects linked and displayed by relationships The Home screen retains its original appearance     Allows an administrator to view objects by solutions Enables administrators to jump to crucial elements faster through relationships and object search Reduces client clutter and repetitive information by simplifying display of objects Displayed objects are all that is communicated between server and browser VMware vSphere: Install.

Manage – Revision A 2-38 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved . Configure.Managing ESXi from the Command Prompt To perform management tasks from a remote command prompt. use:  VMware vSphere® Command-Line Interface (vCLI): •  • • Set of commands run from a remote Linux or Windows system and executed on an ESXi host Packaged as an application Platform for running a variety of toolkits: VMware vSphere® Management Assistant (vMA):  • - vCLI VMware vSphere® SDK for Perl VMware vSphere® API Packaged as a virtual appliance based on Linux Automation tool for administering a vSphere environment Distributed as a snap-in to Windows PowerShell VMware vSphere® PowerCLI: • • VMware vSphere: Install.

VMware vSphere: Install. you will install student desktop components.Lab 1 In this lab. 1. 2. All rights reserved . Configure. Access your student desktop system. Install the vSphere Client. Manage – Revision A 2-39 © 2012 VMware Inc.

VMware vSphere: Install.Review of Learner Objectives You should be able to do the following:  Download and install the VMware vSphere® Client™. All rights reserved .  Use the vSphere Client remotely connect to an ESXi host.  View or configure ESXi settings:   • • • Processor and memory configuration ESXi system logs Licensed Features Use the VMware vSphere® Web Client. Manage ESXi from the command prompt. Manage – Revision A 2-40 © 2012 VMware Inc. Configure.

Configure. All rights reserved . Manage – Revision A 2-41 © 2012 VMware Inc.Lesson 3: Overview of ESXi VMware vSphere: Install.

 View ESXi settings:  • • • • • Processor and memory configuration Licensing NTP client DNS and routing Security profile Identify user account best practices.Learner Objectives After this lesson.  Use the vSphere Client to access an ESXi host. All rights reserved . Manage – Revision A 2-42 © 2012 VMware Inc. Configure. you should be able to do the following:  Describe ESXi architecture. VMware vSphere: Install.

or directly into memory VMware vSphere: Install. USB devices. SD cards.VMware ESXi ESXi:  Is available for purchase with vSphere 5 or a free version can be downloaded  Has high-security   • • • Memory hardening Kernel module integrity Trusted platform module Has a small disk footprint Can be installed on hard disks. All rights reserved . Configure. SAN LUNs. Manage – Revision A 2-43 © 2012 VMware Inc.

Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-44 © 2012 VMware Inc.ESXi Architecture VMware vSphere: Install. All rights reserved .

VMware vSphere: Install. All rights reserved .Configuring ESXi The direct console user interface (DCUI) is similar to the BIOS of a computer with a keyboard-only user interface. Manage – Revision A 2-45 © 2012 VMware Inc. Configure.

Configuring ESXi: root Access The DCUI allows an administrator to do the following:  Set a root password (complex passwords only). Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-46 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved .  Enable or disable lockdown mode: • Limits host management to vCenter Server and user root access to DCUI only VMware vSphere: Install.

default gateway)  DNS servers VMware vSphere: Install. Configure.Configuring ESXi: Management Network The DCUI allows you to modify network settings:  Host name  IP configuration (IP address. subnet mask. All rights reserved . Manage – Revision A 2-47 © 2012 VMware Inc.

 View support information. when required. Configure. VMware vSphere: Install. All rights reserved .  Enable troubleshooting services. Manage – Revision A 2-48 © 2012 VMware Inc.Configuring ESXi: Other Settings The DCUI allows an administrator to do the following:  Configure keyboard layout.  View system logs.

ESXi as an NTP Client Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a client-server protocol used to synchronize a computer’s clock to a time reference. Manage – Revision A 2-49 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved . VMware vSphere: Install. NTP is important: NTP server NTP server NTP server    For accurate performance graphs For accurate time stamps in log messages So that virtual machines have a source to synchronize with An ESXi host can be configured as an NTP client. Configure.  It can synchronize time with an NTP server on the Internet or your corporate NTP server. NTP client ESXi host NTP client uses UDP over port 123 to communicate with NTP server.

All rights reserved . Configure. Manage – Revision A 2-50 © 2012 VMware Inc.Network Settings: DNS and Routing The DNS and Routing link enables you to change these settings:  Host name and domain  DNS server addresses and search domains  Default VMkernel gateway VMware vSphere: Install.

 Unless configured otherwise. DCUI or NTP server VMware vSphere: Install. Manage – Revision A 2-51 © 2012 VMware Inc. All rights reserved . daemons will start and stop with the ESXi host: • For example.  Local clients are prevented from accessing services on remote hosts. Configure.Remote Access Settings: Security Profile On ESXi hosts:  Remote clients are prevented from accessing services on the host.

 Ideally.  Use the vSphere Client to manage the ESXi host. All rights reserved . Configure. use vCenter Server – and thus vCenter Server user accounts – to manage hosts. VMware vSphere: Install.ESXi User Account Best Practices You should implement the following user account best practices:  Strictly control root privileges to the ESXi host. Manage – Revision A 2-52 © 2012 VMware Inc.

Configure an ESXi host to use the directory services. VMware vSphere: Install. View the host hardware configuration. Manage – Revision A 2-53 © 2012 VMware Inc. 1. 5. you will configure an ESXi host. 4. Configure the DNS and routing information for an ESXi host.Lab 2 In this lab. Connect to an ESXi host with the vSphere Client. Configure an ESXi host as an NTP client. All rights reserved . Configure. 3. 2.

Manage – Revision A 2-54 © 2012 VMware Inc.  Use the vSphere Client to access an ESXi host.  View ESXi settings:  • • • • • Processor and memory configuration Licensing NTP client DNS and routing Security profile Identify user account best practices. Configure.Review of Learner Objectives You should be able to do the following:  Describe ESXi architecture. VMware vSphere: Install. All rights reserved .

Virtual machines are hardware independent.Key Points        Using virtual machines solves many datacenter problems. memory. ESXi runs directly on the host. and networking for virtual machine use. Questions? VMware vSphere: Install. Virtual machine files are encapsulated into a folder and placed on a datastore. A virtual machine is a set of files that are easy to transfer and back up. storage. Manage – Revision A 2-55 © 2012 VMware Inc. Virtual machines share the physical resources of the ESXi host on which they reside. Configure. vSphere abstracts CPU. All rights reserved .