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Self-Organizing Networks
By Magdalena Nohrborg SON solutions can be divided into three categories: Self-Configuration, SelfOptimisation and Self-Healing. The SON architecture can be a centralized, distributed or a hybrid solution.

This is the dynamic plug-and-play configuration of newly deployed eNBs. The eNB will by itself configure the Physical Cell Identity, transmission frequency and power, leading to faster cell planning and rollout. The interfaces S1 and X2 are dynamically configured, as well as the IP address and connection to IP backhaul. To reduce manual work ANR (Automatic neighbour relations) is used. ANR configures the neighbouring list in newly deployed eNBs and is optimizing the list configuration during operation. Dynamic configuration includes the configuration of the Layer 1 identifier, Physical cell identity (PCI) and Cell global ID (CGID). There are 504 different PCIs available in LTE, the PCI mapping shall fulfill the collision free condition as well as the confusion free. The PCI can be assigned either in a centralized or distributed way. When centralised assignment is used the OAM system will have a complete knowledge and control of the PCIs. When the distributed solution is used the OAM system assigns a list of possible PCIs to the newly deployed eNB, but the adoption of the PCI is in control of the eNB. The newly deployed eNB will request a report, sent either by User Equipment (UEs) over the air interface or by other eNBs over the X2 interface, including already in-use PCIs, see figure 1. - The eNB will randomly select its PCI from the remaining values.


will be used to compare and weigh the different technologies radio capacities against each other. so that the handover settings remain coherent in both. In Release 9 the focus is on errors causing Radio link failure (RLF) due to too late or early handover. UE supported reporting of CGID A network operator can put a cell on a ANR black list. or handover to an incorrect cell. In case of inter-RAT the load reporting RAN Information Management (RIM) protocol will be used to transfer the information via the core between the base stations of different radio technologies. expressed in dB. which have spare resources. to block certain handover candidates. A cell capacity class value. SELF-OPTIMISATION Functions for self-optimisation are mainly included in Release 9. Mobility robustness optimization (MRO) is a solution for automatic detection and correction of errors in the mobility configuration. The mapping between the PCI and CGID parameters can be done by using information from the OAM or reported by UEs decoding the target cell CGID on the broadcast channel in the target cell. It includes optimisation of coverage. The capability of decoding CGID is an optional UE feature. to avoid a quick return of the UE. hardware load. MLB can also be used between different Radio Technologies. The periodicity of the reporting can be requested in the range of 1 to 10 s. 3GPP has also specified LTE Inter-Frequency and Inter-RAT (Radio Access Technology) ANR. 8/14/2013 . but it may be necessary to amend parameters so that the User Equipment (UE) does not return to the congested cell. The Radio resource status reports are separated in Up Link and Down Link reports. capacity. PCI reporting ANR is used to minimize the work required for configuration in newly deployed eNBs as well as to optimize configuration during operation. Before a handover can be executed the source eNB requires the neighbouring information: PCI and CGID of the target eNB. Correct and up-to-date neighbouring lists will increase the number of successful handovers and minimize the number of dropped calls. including the total allocation guaranteed and non-guaranteed bit rate traffic. The PCI is included in every normal measurement report. handover and interference. The amendment must take place in both cells. the percentage of allocated Physical Resource Block (PRB) and the percentage of PRBs available for load balancing. The eNBs need to estimate how much the cell border needs to be shifted. set by the OAM-system. S1 transport network load and Radio resource status. The functions described above are mainly included in Release 8. MLB includes load reporting between eNBs to exchange information about load level and available capacity. The report can contain. Figure 2. for example from indoor to outdoor cells. Mobility load balancing (MLB) is a function where cells suffering congestion can transfer load to other cells.Page 2 of 4 Figure 1. see figure 2. A handover due to load balancing is carried out as a regular handover.

see figure 4. root sequence. But PRACH configuration parameters can also be distributed amongst eNBs. and the number of contention resolution failure are in the statistics. The power consumption in a base station is not only related to load. This can be done with a wake-up call to the sleeping cell. but since it was triggered too early the connection will drop almost immediately due to too poor radio conditions in the target cell B. the signal strength in the target cell is too weak. The cells that remain on. but received by the target cell. in the legal operator license there are still requirements on coverage. can wake up a suspended cell when traffic load increase. 8/14/2013 . But. a number of functions requires power even if there are no users to serve. high speed flag and PRACH frequency offset. like seasonal variations. The UE will use the PCID and RNTI from the target cell B and the source cell A will then consider this as a Radio Link Failure due to too late handover and send an indication to the target cell B. to the source cell A. SELF-HEALING Features for automatic detection and removal of failures and automatic adjustment of parameters are mainly specified in Release 10. see figure 3. Hence when the RRC HO command from the serving cell is transmitted the signal strength is too weak to reach the UE. containing PCID and C-RNTI belonging to the source cell. causing interference. cell A. and the connection is lost almost immediately It is a bit more complicated to detect a too early handover. Coverage and Capacity Optimization enables automatic correction of capacity problems depending on slowly changing environment. Late Handover. since this cell is the strongest one. The number of preambles sent until successful RACH completion. But the target cell B will now recognize the parameters in the indication. The UE will then try to re-establish the connection. The UE has successfully been handed over from source cell A to target cell B. The UE can be polled by the eNB for RACH statistics after connection. the UE does not receive the RRC Handover command. due to weak signal In case of late handover. the handover procedure in the source cell is initialized too late. which will now take place in the original source cell.Page 3 of 4 Figure 3. RACH optimisation aims to minimise the number of attempts on the RACH channel. if a cell is switched off. as given to a mobile that had just completed a handover to cell B from cell A now indicating failure. The target cell B will send back a report about too early Handover to adjust Handover parameters. Handover too early. the coverage must be maintained at all times! The suspension of the cell may occur when the last user leaves the cell. The target eNB will then inform the source cell about RLF to adjust Handover parameters. all incoming handovers during this period of time will then be rejected. In order to save energy some cells can be switched off when capacity is not needed. The UE attempts a connection re-establishment. providing coverage. connection is lost. now located in the target cell. since the UE is moving faster than the Handover (HO) parameter settings allow. Figure 4. like zero correlation configuration.

Radio Network Temporary Identifier. MRO . RAN and SA TSG #61 meetings . RIM .Page 4 of 4 Minimization of drive tests (MDT). PRB .500 Telecommunication management.Radio Access Network. PT .Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier. PCID .Sofia. RNTI .Porto. CGID . Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR) management.From 26 to 30 August CT.From 3 to 11 September About Releases Release 12 Release 11 Release 10 Release 9 Release 8 Release 7 Release 6 Release 5 Release 4 Release 1999 8/14/2013 . RAT .. Overall description stage 2 3GPP TS 36.Physical Cell Identity. administration and maintenance.Mobility Load Balancing.RAN Information Management . ACRONYMS ANR . OAM . BG .Radio Access Technology. Concepts and requirements 3GPP TS 32. eNB evolved Node B.511 Telecommunication Management. PRACH .Cell Global Id.Automatic Neighbour Relations. RRC Radio Resource Control See Also: 3GPP TS 32.300 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN). A great advantage is that UEs can retrieve and report parameters from indoor environments.Physical cell identities. RAN ..Random Access Channel. PCI .here Full Meeting Calendar GERAN TSG #59 . Self-Configuring and Self-Optimizing Network (SON) Use Cases and Solutions The latest Overview of the SON work in various 3GPP Releases in kept .Physical Resource Block.902 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN). RLF . MLB . RACH .Radio Link Failure. Concepts and Requirements 3GPP TS 36. Self-Organizing Networks (SON). C-RNTI .Operation. is enabling normal UEs to provide the same type of information as those collected in drive test.Physical Random Access Channel.Mobility Robustness Optimization.