# 2.12.

Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements

An axisymmetric structure can be represented by a plane (X,Y) finite-element model. The use of an axisymmetric model greatly reduces the modeling and analysis time compared to that of an equivalent 3-D model. ANSYS recommends general axisymmetric elements SOLID272 and SOLID273 for such applications because they can accept any type of load and can support nonlinear analyses. However, you can also use a special class of axisymmetric elements called harmonic elements: PLANE25, SHELL61, PLANE75, PLANE78, FLUID81, and PLANE83. The harmonic elements allow a nonaxisymmetric load and support linear analyses. Axisymmetric elements are modeled on a 360° basis, so all input and output nodal heat flows, forces, moments, fluid flows, current flows, electric charges, magnetic fluxes, and magnetic current segments must be input in this manner. Similarly, input real constants representing volumes, convection areas, thermal capacitances, heat generations, spring constants, and damping coefficients must also be input in on a 360° basis. Unless otherwise stated, the model must be defined in the Z = 0.0 plane. The global Cartesian Y-axis is assumed to be the axis of symmetry. Further, the model is developed only in the +X quadrants. Hence, the radial direction is in the +X direction. The boundary conditions are described in terms of the structural elements. The forces (FX, FY, etc.) and displacements (UX, UY, etc.) for the structural elements are input and output in the nodal coordinate system. All nodes along the y-axis centerline (at x = 0.0) should have the radial displacements (UX if not rotated) specified as zero, unless a pinhole effect is desired. At least one value of UY should be specified or constrained to prevent rigid body motions. Torsion, while axisymmetric, is available only for a few element types. If an element type allows torsion, all UZ degrees of freedom should be set to 0.0 on the centerline, and one node with a positive X coordinate must also have a specified or constrained value of UZ. Pressures and temperatures may be applied directly. Acceleration, if any, is usually input only in the axial (Y) direction. Similarly, angular velocity, if any, is usually input only about the Y axis. For more information, see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads.

2.12.1. Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads